click links in text for more info

GNU Bison

GNU Bison known as Bison, is a parser generator, part of the GNU Project. Bison reads a specification of a context-free language, warns about any parsing ambiguities, generates a parser which reads sequences of tokens and decides whether the sequence conforms to the syntax specified by the grammar; the generated parsers are portable: they do not require any specific compilers. Bison by default generates LALR parsers but it can generate canonical LR, IELR and GLR parsers. In POSIX mode, Bison is compatible with Yacc, but has several extensions over this earlier program, including: location tracking, rich syntax error messages in the generated parsers, reentrant parsers, pull parsers, support for named references, several types of reports on the generated parser, support for several programming languages, etc. Flex, an automatic lexical analyser, is used with Bison, to tokenise input data and provide Bison with tokens. Bison was written by Robert Corbett in 1985. In 1989, Robert Corbett released another parser generator named Berkeley Yacc.

Bison was made Yacc-compatible by Richard Stallman. Bison is free software and is available under the GNU General Public License, with an exception allowing its generated code to be used without triggering the copyleft requirements of the licence; the following example shows how to use Bison and flex to write a simple calculator program and a program for creating an abstract syntax tree. The next two files provide implementation of the syntax tree functions; the tokens needed by the Bison parser will be generated using flex. The names of the tokens are neutral: "TOKEN_PLUS" and "TOKEN_STAR", not "TOKEN_ADD" and "TOKEN_MULTIPLY". For instance if we were to support the unary "+", it would be wrong to name this "+" "TOKEN_ADD". In a language such as C, "int *ptr" denotes the definition of a pointer, not a product: it would be wrong to name this "*" "TOKEN_MULTIPLY". Since the tokens are provided by flex we must provide the means to communicate between the parser and the lexer; the data type used for communication, YYSTYPE, is set using Bison %union declaration.

Since in this sample we use the reentrant version of both flex and yacc we are forced to provide parameters for the yylex function, when called from yyparse. This is done through % parse-param declarations; the code needed to obtain the syntax tree using the parser generated by Bison and the scanner generated by flex is the following. A simple makefile to build the project is the following. Reentrancy is a feature, added to Bison and does not exist in Yacc. Bison generates a parser, not reentrant. In order to achieve reentrancy the declaration %define api.pure must be used. More details on Bison reentrancy can be found in the Bison manual. Bison can only generate code for C++ and Java. For using the Bison generated parser from other languages a language binding tool such as SWIG can be used; because Bison generates source code that in turn gets added to the source code of other software projects, it raises some simple but interesting copyright questions. The code generated by Bison includes significant amounts of code from the Bison project itself.

The Bison package is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License but an exception has been added so that the GPL does not apply to output. Earlier releases of Bison stipulated that parts of its output were licensed under the GPL, due to the inclusion of the yyparse function from the original source code in the output. Free software projects that use Bison may have a choice of whether to distribute the source code which their project feeds into Bison, or the resulting C code made output by Bison. Both are sufficient for a recipient to be able to compile the project source code. However, distributing only the input carries the minor inconvenience that the recipients must have a compatible copy of Bison installed so that they can generate the necessary C code when compiling the project, and distributing only the C code in output, creates the problem of making it difficult for the recipients to modify the parser since this code was written neither by a human nor for humans - its purpose is to be fed directly into a C compiler.

These problems can be avoided by distributing the generated code. Most people will compile using the generated code, no different from any other software package, but anyone who wants to modify the parser component can modify the input files first and re-generate the generated files before compiling. Projects distributing both do not have the generated files in their revision control systems; the files are only generated. Some licenses, such as the GPL, require that the source code be in "the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it". GPL'd projects using. Of course, they can include the generated files; because Bison was written as a replacement for Yacc, is compatible, the code from a lot of projects using Bison could be fed into Yacc. This makes it difficult to determine. In many cases, the "use" of Bison could be trivially replaced by the equivalent use of Yacc or one of its other derivatives. Bison does have features not found in Yacc, so some projects can be said to "use" Bison, since Yacc would not suffice.

The following list is of projects which are known to "use" Bison in the looser sense, that they use free software development tools and distribute code, intended to be fed into Bison or a Bi

Sakhalin–Hokkaido Tunnel

The Sakhalin–Hokkaido Tunnel is a proposed connection to link the Russian island of Sakhalin with the Japanese island of Hokkaido. Cost estimates by Russia in the year 2000 put the project to span the 45-kilometre strait at $50 billion. On 16 January 2009, the Russian Vice-Minister of Transport, Andrei Nedossekov, confirmed that proposals are now under consideration in regards to the Sakhalin–Hokkaido Tunnel, his decision to invite Japanese companies to bid to become consortium members of a wide array of Russian rail infrastructure work the Sakhalin Tunnel to the Russian mainland could be taken as a nod towards future rail cooperation between Russia and Japan. The tunnel would span 40–45 km between Sakhalin's Cape Crillon to Hokkaido's Cape Sōya. In comparison, the completed 53.85 km Seikan Tunnel links the Japanese islands of Honshu and Hokkaido. A further tunnel or bridge in the north of Sakhalin to the Russian mainland would have to be created. A proposal for the Sakhalin Tunnel, has been announced by the Russian Government.

Once on the Russian mainland, the rail link could connect to the rest of the Russian rail network, allowing for gauge changes. Running south, from Hokkaido, the line would connect with the Seikan Tunnel between Hokkaido and Honshu the longest undersea tunnel in the world; this would allow connections to the rest of the Japanese rail network. The project could be seen as an alternative to the Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel, as Russia is under way with planning and construction of many of the necessary linkages on the Russian side, whilst the tunnel itself would be shorter than that between Japan and Korea; as well as the great cost and engineering difficulty, there may be political problems in regards to the Kuril Islands dispute between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government's initial reaction has been positive towards the idea. Russian officials again raised the idea of a bridge or tunnel to connect Sakhalin with Hokkaido in 2013; when combined with a potential bridge between Sakhalin and the Russian mainland, if built, it would be one of the final fixed links needed for a continuous rail corridor between Europe and Japan.

The project has come up in discussions between officials from Russia and Japan. During Russian President Vladimir Putin’s first term in office, the Kremlin intensified its outreach to Japan, the world’s third biggest economy. Russia‘s plan was to build a 28-mile bridge between the two countries that could link Moscow to Tokyo by land and rail. Putin reignited speculation about the long-rumored project in 2017, when he announced that a land link between Russia and Japan would have “planetary” significance. In July 2018, Russia’s president Vladimir Putin commissioned an analysis of a proposal to build a bridge to Sakhalin Island. Putin said that the project is important for Sakhalin residents and would be a major factor in encouraging people to remain in the region, it would boost the development of Khabarovsk Territory. He said that he has instructed the government to analyse this matter its economic aspects; the railways on the Russian mainland use the 1,520 mm Russian gauge, while the Sakhalin Railway was by 2019 converted from the original Japanese 1,067 mm gauge to the Russian gauge.

Japanese railways use 1,435 mm standard gauge. It is unclear. Here are the current proposed figures: Breaks of gauge: in Wakkanai area, Hokkaido, 1,520 mm /1,435 mm. Sakhalin–Hokkaido Tunnel Track gauge: 1,520 mm Loading gauge: 4.1 m wide and 6.15 m tall Electrification: 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead lines Hokkaido network: Track gauge: 1,435 mm Loading gauge: Japanese Shinkansen Trans Global Highway List of bridge–tunnels

Heraclea Lucania

Heraclea Heracleia or Herakleia, was an ancient city of Magna Graecia. It was situated on the Gulf of Taranto between the rivers Siris; the ruins of the city are located in the modern comune of Policoro in the Province of Matera, Italy. It was a Greek colony, but founded at a period later than most of the other Greek cities in this part of Italy; the territory in which it was established had belonged to the Ionic colony of Siris, after the fall of that city seems to have become the subject of contention between the neighboring states. The Athenians had a claim upon the territory of Siris, it was in virtue of this that their colonists the Thurians immediately after their establishment in Italy, advanced similar pretensions; these were, resisted by the Tarentines. The few remaining inhabitants of Siris were added to the new colonists, it would appear that the settlement was first established on the ancient site of Siris itself, but was subsequently transferred from thence, an ancient, but new city founded about 24 stadia from the former, nearer the river Aciris, to which the name of Heraclea was given.

Siris did not cease to exist, but lapsed into the subordinate condition of the port or emporium of Heraclea. The foundation of the new city is placed by Diodorus in 432 BCE, fourteen years after the settlement of Thurii. Diodorus, as well as Livy, calls it a colony of Tarentum. Antiochus is the only writer who mentions the share taken by the Thurians in its original foundation. Pliny erroneously regards Heraclea as identical with Siris; the new colony appears to have risen to power and prosperity, protected by the fostering care of the Tarentines, who were at one time engaged in war with the Messapians for its defence. It was owing to the predominant influence of Tarentum that Heraclea was selected as the place of meeting of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, but beyond the general fact that it enjoyed great wealth and prosperity, advantages which it doubtless owed to the noted fertility of its territory, we have scarcely any information concerning the history of Heraclea until we reach a period when it was beginning to decline.

We cannot doubt that it took part with the Tarentines in their wars against the Messapians and Lucanians, it appears to have fallen into a state of dependence upon that city, though without ceasing to be, in name at least, an independent state. Hence, when Alexander, king of Epirus, invited to Italy by the Tarentines, subsequently became hostile to that people, he avenged himself by taking Heraclea, and, as mentioned, transferred to the Thurians the general assemblies, held there. During the war of Pyrrhus with the Romans, Heraclea was the scene of the first conflict between the two powers, the consul Laevinus being defeated by the Epirot king in a battle fought between the city of Heraclea and the river Siris, 280 BCE. Heraclea was at this time in alliance with the Tarentines and Lucanians against Rome. Heraclea preserved this privileged condition throughout the period of the Roman Republic. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BCE. We have no account of the part taken by Heraclea in the Social War.

Cicero speaks of it, in his defence of the poet Aulus Licinius Archias, as still a flourishing and important town, it appears to have been one of the few Greek cities in the south of Italy that still preserved their consideration under the Roman dominion. Its name is unaccountably omitted by the 2nd century AD geographer Ptolemy, it was still a place of some importance under the empire. The time and circumstances of its final extinction are wholly unknown, but the site is now desolate, the whole neighbouring district, once celebrated as one of the most fertile in Italy, was by the mid-19th century wholly uninhabited; the position of the ancient city may be identified.

National Museum of Photography "Marubi"

The National Museum of Photography "Marubi" or Marubi Museum is a national museum located in the northern city of Shkodër dedicated to Albanian photography and photographers. The museum hosts a vast collection of 500,294 photographs of the Marubi's dynasty legacy from 1856 to 1989, including negatives, historical pictures and photographic objects and cameras belonging to three generations of photographers, it begins back to 1856 when the first images were taken from Pietro Marubi in Albania, to the photographs from his apprentices Mati and Kel Kodheli, passing to Gegë Marubi's latest photos. The museum includes negatives from other Albanian photographers such as Shan Pici, Dedë Jakova and Pjetër Rraboshta; the museum is dedicated to the collection of Marubi Dynasty photographs, whose origins began with the arrival of the young Italian Pietro Marubi in the city of Shkodër in 1856. Pietro opened the first photography studio in Albania and the first photo captured in the country, being the pioneer of Albanian photography for the years to come.

The studio was called Dritëshkronja and the building has an outside sign stylized FOTO MARUBBI. His legacy, but the passion and profession of the photographer, passed on to his apprentice Mikel Kodheli, who after Pietro's death changed his name to Kel Marubi in honor to his master and mentor. Kel became the legitimate inheritor of the studio, he enriched the photograph library with best-known figures of the time such as Gjergj Fishta, Ernest Koliqi, Shote Galica, Ded Gjo Luli, Bajram Curri, Fan Noli, Ahmet Zogu and others, as well as with photos from common people with characteristic national costumes, pictures from town and country life and other aspects of Albania of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries. After Kel, the studio passed on to his son, Gegë Marubi, the last of the dynasty. After the Communist Party came to power, on the abolishment of all private property, everything passed to the state; the negatives of his predecessors, but his own photographs passed into state ownership and many of them were donated to the General Directorate of Archives.

In 1949 the studio became state ownership and his profession as a photographer was put to the service of the Communist State. Many of the pre-regime photos in which prominent people of the Albanian state were photographed were manipulated to serve communist propaganda; the best example is the photos taken by Kel Marubi in occasion of the burial ceremony of the remains of the patriots Çerçiz Topulli and Mustafa Qulli in 1936, in which the personalities who had come out to the balcony of the Municipality of Shkodër to deliver speeches were all erased, showing only the Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha delivering a speech. After Gega's death in 1984, most part of the collection of photos, but the negatives, objects he worked with, the cameras used by him and his predecessors were stored in the General Directory of Archives, but after the fall of communism, another collection of photos and negatives stored by his family was discovered. Pictures that were forbidden during communism, such as those featuring nudism or others that did not fit into the communist ideology of the time, were preserved secretly by him and after his death by the family.

Due to the vast number of photographs and negatives collected over the years by the General Directorate of Archives and the different periods of time that belonged to these photos, there was a need to build a proper building that would serve for their storage, restoration, at the end their exposition to the public. In 2011 the Municipality of Shkodër became the initiator in its proposal to purchase a new building that would serve as the Marubi Museum. In December of the same year, the Albanian Government allocated a 55,000,000 ALL fund to purchase the building from the Kaçulini Family. Although the owners were offered higher amounts to buy the building, they agreed to negotiate with the Municipality of Shkodër to sell it to the Ministry of Culture to carry out a project for the Marubi Museum; the building itself is a historic two-storey building designed by Kolë Idromeno, a famous Albanian painter, sculptor and architect born in Shkodër, a contemporary and great friend of the Marubi's. The building is located on the central boulevard of the city, but at that time the building was in a degraded status as a structure.

In January 2014, with the initiation of the Albanian Development Fund and with the initiative of the Ministry of Culture, a competition was organized for the restoration of the building and the Dutch company Casanova + Hernandez Architects was selected as the winner. The project presented preserved the basic historical character of the building, blending it with modernity, aimed to promote a rich dialogue between tradition and modernity, preserving its spatial and structural qualities are preserved without any volume transformation or new interior partitions. Work expected completion was December of the following year; the Marubi Museum exhibits as a permanent collection of photos taken by the Marubi Dynasty, but photos that have been identified as photos of Lekë Voci, Lazër Kodheli, Hilmi Mustafa, three Marubi's students who, with their objectives, photographed Albania's transition during the communist era. In the permanent collection are as well included contemporary photographers, such as Shan Pici, Dedë Jakova and Pjetër Rraboshta.

There are a total of 500,294 photographs and negatives that were collected during the years 1856 to 1989, with over 150,000 belonging to the Marubi Dynasty. L

Cell-penetrating peptide

Cell-penetrating peptides are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake/uptake of various molecular equipment. The "cargo" is associated with the peptides either through chemical linkage via covalent bonds or through non-covalent interactions; the function of the CPPs are to deliver the cargo into cells, a process that occurs through endocytosis with the cargo delivered to delivery vectors for use in research and medicine. Current use is limited by a lack of cell specificity in CPP-mediated cargo delivery and insufficient understanding of the modes of their uptake, why other delivery mechanisms have been developed like CellSqueeze and electroporation. CPPs have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids such as lysine or arginine or has sequences that contain an alternating pattern of polar/charged amino acids and non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids; these two types of structures are referred to as amphipathic, respectively.

A third class of CPPs are the hydrophobic peptides, containing only apolar residues, with low net charge or have hydrophobic amino acid groups that are crucial for cellular uptake. The first CPP was discovered independently by two laboratories in 1988, when it was found that the trans-activating transcriptional activator from human immunodeficiency virus 1 could be efficiently taken up from the surrounding media by numerous cell types in culture. Since the number of known CPPs has expanded and small molecule synthetic analogues with more effective protein transduction properties have been generated. A recent discovery found that Papillomaviridae such as the Human Papillomavirus use CPPs to penetrate the intracellular membrane in order to trigger retrograde trafficking of the viral unit to the nucleus. Cell-penetrating peptides are of different sizes, amino acid sequences, charges but all CPPs have one distinct characteristic, the ability to translocate the plasma membrane and facilitate the delivery of various molecular cargoes to the cytoplasm or an organelle.

There has been no real consensus as to the mechanism of CPP translocation, but the theories of CPP translocation can be classified into three main entry mechanisms: direct penetration in the membrane, endocytosis-mediated entry, translocation through the formation of a transitory structure. CPP transduction is an area of ongoing research. Cell-penetrating peptides are able to transport different types of cargo molecules across plasma membrane, they have numerous applications in medicine as drug delivery agents in the treatment of different diseases including cancer and virus inhibitors, as well as contrast agents for cell labeling. Examples of the latter include acting as a carrier for MRI contrast agents, or quantum dots; the majority of early research suggested that the translocation of polycationic CPPs across biological membranes occurred via an energy-independent cellular process. It was believed that translocation could progress at 4oC and most involved a direct electrostatic interaction with negatively charged phospholipids.

Researchers proposed several models in attempts to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of this energy-independent process. Although CPPs promote direct effects on the biophysical properties of pure membrane systems, the identification of fixation artifacts when using fluorescent labeled probe CPPs caused a reevaluation of CPP-import mechanisms; these studies promoted endocytosis as the translocation pathway. An example of direct penetration has been proposed for TAT; the first step in this proposed model is an interaction with the unfolded fusion protein and the membrane through electrostatic interactions, which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. After internalization, the fusion protein refolds due the chaperone system; this mechanism was not agreed upon, other mechanisms involving clathrin-dependent endocytosis have been suggested. Many more detailed methods of CPP uptake have been proposed including transient pore formation; this mechanism involves strong interactions between cell-penetrating peptides and the phosphate groups on both sides of the lipid bilayer, the insertion of positively charged arginine side-chains that nucleate the formation of a transient pore, followed by the translocation of cell-penetrating peptides by diffusing on the pore surface.

This mechanism explains how key ingredients, such as the cooperation among the peptides, the large positive charge, the guanidinium groups, contribute to the uptake. The proposed mechanism illustrates the importance of membrane fluctuations. Indeed, mechanisms that involve large fluctuations of the membrane structure, such as transient pores and the insertion of charged amino acid side-chains, may be common and central to the functions of many membrane protein functions. Endocytosis is the second mechanism liable for cellular internalization. Endocytosis is the process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell. During this process cells absorb material from the outside of the cell by imbibing it with their cell membrane; the classification of cellular localization using fluorescence or by endocytosis inhibitors is the basis of most examination. However, the procedure used during preparation of these samples creates questionable information regarding endocytosis.

Moreover, studies show that cellular entry of penetratin by endocytosis is an energy-dependent process. This process is initiated by polyarginines interacting with heparan sulphates that promote endocytosis. Research has


The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality known as the Jacobin Club or the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes. Founded in 1789 by anti-royalist deputies from Brittany, the club grew into a nationwide republican movement, with a membership estimated at a half million or more; the Jacobin Club was heterogeneous and included both prominent parliamentary factions of the early 1790s, the Mountain and the Girondins. In 1792–1793 the Girondins were more prominent in leading France, the period when France declared war on Austria and on Prussia, overthrew the monarchy and set up the Republic. In May 1793 the leaders of the Mountain faction led by Maximilien Robespierre succeeded in sidelining the Girondin faction and controlled the government until July 1794.

Their time in government featured high levels of political violence, for this reason the period of the Jacobin/Mountain government is identified as the Reign of Terror. In October 1793, 21 prominent Girondins were guillotined; the Mountain-dominated government executed 17,000 opponents nationwide, purportedly to suppress the Vendée insurrection and the Federalist revolts and to prevent any other insurrections. In July 1794 the National Convention pushed the administration of Robespierre and his allies out of power and had Robespierre and 21 associates executed. In November 1794 the Jacobin Club closed. Today, the terms "Jacobin" and "Jacobinism" are used in a variety of senses. In Britain, where the term "Jacobin" has been linked to the Mountain, it is sometimes used as a pejorative for radical left-wing revolutionary politics when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression. In France, "Jacobin" now indicates a supporter of a centralized republican state and of strong central government powers and/or supporters of extensive government intervention to transform society.

It is used in other related senses, indicating proponents of a state education system which promotes and inculcates civic values and proponents of a strong nation-state capable of resisting any undesirable foreign interference. When the Estates General of 1789 in France was convened in May–June 1789 at the Palace of Versailles, the club, originated as the Club Breton, was composed of a group of Breton representatives attending those Estates General, they soon were joined by deputies from other regions throughout France. Among early members were the dominating comte de Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, the duc d'Aiguillon, La Revellière-Lépeaux. At this time, meetings occurred in secret, few traces remain concerning what took place or where the meetings were convened. By the March on Versailles in October 1789, the club, still composed of deputies, reverted to being a provincial caucus for National Constituent Assembly deputies from Brittany.

As of October 1789, the group rented for its meetings the refectory of the monastery of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Honoré, adjacent to the seat of the Assembly. The name Jacobins, given in France to the Dominicans, was first applied to the club in ridicule by its enemies; the club was re-founded in November 1789, after an address from the London Revolution Society congratulating the French on "conquering their liberty" led National Assembly deputies to found their own Société de la Révolution. Once in Paris, the club soon extended its membership to others besides deputies. All citizens were allowed to enter, foreigners were welcomed: the English writer Arthur Young joined the club in this manner on 18 January 1790. Jacobin Club meetings soon became a place for radical and rousing oratory that pushed for republicanism, widespread education, universal suffrage, separation of church and state, other reforms. On 8 February 1790, the society became formally constituted on this broader basis by the adoption of the rules drawn up by Barnave, which were issued with the signature of the duc d'Aiguillon, the president.

The club's objectives were defined as such: To discuss in advance questions to be decided by the National Assembly. To work for the establishment and strengthening of the constitution in accordance with the spirit of the preamble. To correspond with other societies of the same kind which should be formed in the realm. At the same time the rules of order of election were settled, the constitution of the club determined. There was to be a president, elected every month, four secretaries, a treasurer, committees elected to superintend elections and presentations, the correspondence, the administration of the club. Any member who by word or action showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and the rights of man was to be expelled. By the 7th article the club decided to admit as associates similar societies in other parts of France and to maintain with them a regular correspondence. By 10 August 1790 there were one hundred and fifty-two affiliated clubs.