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GNU Debugger

The GNU Debugger is a portable debugger that runs on many Unix-like systems and works for many programming languages, including Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Free Pascal, Fortran, Go, others. GDB was first written by Richard Stallman in 1986 as part of his GNU system, after his GNU Emacs was "reasonably stable". GDB is free software released under the GNU General Public License, it was modeled after the DBX debugger. From 1990 to 1993 it was maintained by John Gilmore. Now it is maintained by the GDB Steering Committee, appointed by the Free Software Foundation. GDB offers extensive facilities for altering the execution of computer programs; the user can monitor and modify the values of programs' internal variables, call functions independently of the program's normal behavior. GDB target processors include: Alpha, ARM, AVR, H8/300, Altera Nios/Nios II, System/370, System 390, X86 and its 64-bit extension X86-64, IA-64 "Itanium", Motorola 68000, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SuperH, SPARC, VAX. Lesser-known target processors supported in the standard release have included A29K, ARC, ETRAX CRIS, D10V, D30V, FR-30, FR-V, Intel i960, 68HC11, Motorola 88000, MCORE, MN10200, MN10300, NS32K, Stormy16, Z8000.

GDB has compiled-in simulators for lesser-known target processors such like M32R or V850. GDB is still developed; as of version 7.0 new features include support for Python scripting and as of version 7.8 GNU Guile scripting as well. Since version 7.0, support for "reversible debugging" — allowing a debugging session to step backward, much like rewinding a crashed program to see what happened — is available. GDB offers a "remote" mode used when debugging embedded systems. Remote operation is when GDB runs on one machine and the program being debugged runs on another. GDB can communicate to the remote "stub" that understands GDB protocol through a serial device or TCP/IP. A stub program can be created by linking to the appropriate stub files provided with GDB, which implement the target side of the communication protocol. Alternatively, gdbserver can be used to remotely debug the program without needing to change it in any way; the same mode is used by KGDB for debugging a running Linux kernel on the source level with gdb.

With KGDB, kernel developers can debug a kernel in much the same way as they debug application programs. It makes it possible to place breakpoints in kernel code, step through the code, observe variables. On architectures where hardware debugging registers are available, watchpoints can be set which trigger breakpoints when specified memory addresses are executed or accessed. KGDB requires an additional machine, connected to the machine to be debugged using a serial cable or Ethernet. On FreeBSD, it is possible to debug using Firewire direct memory access; the debugger does not contain its own graphical user interface, defaults to a command-line interface. Several front-ends have been built for it, such as UltraGDB, Data Display Debugger, Nemiver, KDbg, the Xcode debugger, GDBtk/Insight, HP Wildebeest Debugger GUI. IDEs such as Codelite, Code::Blocks, Dev-C++, Geany, GNAT Programming Studio, KDevelop, Qt Creator, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, Visual Studio can interface with GDB. GNU Emacs has a "GUD mode" and tools for VIM exist.

These offer facilities similar to debuggers found in IDEs. Some other debugging tools have been designed to work with GDB, such as memory leak detectors. Consider the following source-code written in C: Using the GCC compiler on Linux, the code above must be compiled using the -g flag in order to include appropriate debug information on the binary generated, thus making it possible to inspect it using GDB. Assuming that the file containing the code above is named example.c, the command for the compilation could be: And the binary can now be run: Since the example code, when executed, generates a segmentation fault, GDB can be used to inspect the problem. The problem is present in line 8, occurs when calling the function strlen. Depending on the implementation of strlen, the output can be different, e.g.: To fix the problem, the variable a must contain a valid string. Here is a fixed version of the code: Recompiling and running the executable again inside GDB now gives a correct result: GDB prints the output of printf in the screen, informs the user that the program exited normally.

Binary File Descriptor library dbx DDD, a GUI for GDB and other debuggers gdbserver Official website UltraGDB: Visual C/C++ Debugging with GDB on Windows and Linux KGDB: Linux Kernel Source Level Debugger The website for "MyGDB: GDB Frontend" in the Korean language A Visual Studio plugin for debugging with GDB Comparison of GDB front-ends, 2013 Using Eclipse as a Front-End to the GDB Debugger Richard M. Stallman, Roland Pesch, Stan Shebs, et al. Debugging with GDB ISBN 978-0-9831592-3-0 GDB Internals RMS's gdb Tutorial


Austrofusus is a genus of medium-sized sea snails or whelks, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Buccinidae, the true whelks. Two extant species Austrofusus glans and A. chathamensis are endemic to New Zealand waters, but most species are extinct and there is an abundant fossil record within the country. Austrofusus glans is not related to other extant New Zealand buccinid whelks, is instead related to the Northern Hemisphere genus Colus. Species within the genus Austrofusus include: Species brought into synonymy † Austrofusus propenodosa Bartrum, 1919: synonym of † Zelandiella propenodosa Powell A. W. B. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1 Bartrum, J. A. and A. W. B. Powell. "Mollusca from Kaawa Creek beds, west coast, south of Waikato River." Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. Vol. 59. 1928

Results of the 2013 Jordanian general election

Early parliamentary elections were held in Jordan on 23 January 2013. All 150 seats in the House of Representatives were up for election. Voter turnout was reported to be 56.6%. Of the 150 available seats, 15 seats were reserved for women, 9 for Christians, 9 for Bedouins, 3 for Chechen or Circassian candidates. A further 27 seats were chosen on the national level, rather than on a constituency basis; the final results of the elections were available on 28 January 2013. More than 90 of the 150 chosen Representatives were new to the House of Representatives, it was reported that a total of 37 Representatives can be seen as Islamist or critical of the government. Ajloun Governorate First District Second District Amman Governorate First District Second District Third District Fourth District Fifth District Sixth District Seventh District Aqaba Governorate First District Balqa Governorate First District Second District Third District Fourth District Irbid Governorate First District Second District Third District Fourth District Fifth District Sixth District Seventh District Eighth District Ninth District Jerash Governorate First District Karak Governorate First District Second District Third District Fourth District Fifth District Sixth District Ma'an Governorate First District Second District Third District Madaba Governorate First District Second District Mafraq Governorate First District Tafilah Governorate First District Second District Zarqa Governorate First District Second District Third District Fourth District Northern Badia Central Badia Southern Badia Women's Quota National List 2013 Jordanian general election Jordanian parliamentary election results, 2007 Bank, André.

"Parliamentary Elections in Jordan, January 23, 2013". Electoral Studies. 34: 376–379. Doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2013.08.012

Rewired State

Rewired State was an organisation which ran a series of hack days for programmers and designers, focused on improving access to UK government open data and encouraging innovation in government services. Rewired State was founded by James Darling, Emma Mulqueeny, Richard Pope in 2008; the first event, National Hack the Government Day, was held on March 7, 2009 at the Guardian offices in King's Cross, London. Over 80 people attended producing over 30 hacks. Judges at Rewired State events included Dr Sue Black. Sponsors included the Government Digital Service, mySociety, Nesta. National Hack the Government Day ran annually until 2015. Between 2011 and 2013, Rewired State ran a series of Parliament Hack events in association with the UK Parliament, with the aim to build new apps using parliamentary data. Rewired State formed a sister organisation, Young Rewired State, to bring young developers together to solve real world problems. Young Rewired State ran its own series of Festival of Code hack days between 2009 and 2015.

Rewired State ran a number of other government data hack days including Rewired State: Culture, Middle East Hack, Follow the Data, Carbon and Energy Hack Weekend. National Hack the Government Day and other events ran annually until the last event in 2015. Between 2015 and 2016, Rewired State was run as a consultancy business by Emma Mulqueeny; the company was dissolved in 2018

Trent Bridge (bridge)

Trent Bridge is an iron and stone road bridge across the River Trent in Nottingham, England. It is the principal river crossing for entrance to the city from the south, although the upstream Clifton Bridge is both larger and busier; the first bridge is thought to have been constructed on the site in 920. A second bridge, started in 1156 had more than 20 stone arches and a chapel dedicated to St. James at one end, it was maintained by a religious organisation. On 21 February 1551 the responsibility for repair passed to Nottingham Corporation, through a Royal Charter which created the Bridge Estate, it was known as Heath-beth bridge, or Heck-beck bridge. This bridge was damaged by floods several times, the northern half was washed away in 1683; the repaired bridge had fifteen arches across the river and flood areas, giving openings covering 347 ft in a total length of 538 ft. Although it was repaired, the foundations had become unsafe and a project to replace it was started in the 1860s; the bridge was designed by Marriott Ogle Tarbotton.

Construction was completed in 1871 by Derbyshire iron maker, Andrew Handyside. The general contractor was Woodiwiss of Derby, it was completed for a cost of £30,000. There were three main cast iron arch spans each 100 feet braced by wrought iron girders; the width between the parapets was 40 feet. It is a Grade II listed building; the carving on the bridge was executed by Ingle of Leeds. The new Trent Bridge formed part of a series of works along the banks of the river to improve flood defences by the construction of stepped, stone embankments. Between 1924 and 1926 the bridge was widened to 80 ft by the Cleveland Engineering Company; the Bridge Estate was created by a Royal Charter of King Edward VI on 21 February 1551 with Nottingham Corporation as Trustee. The objective was to provide funds to repair the Bridge. In 1882 the funds exceed the requirement of the objective, three new objectives were agreed: Provide for the efficient maintenance and repair of Trent Bridge and the approaches to it. To set up a contingency fund for the possible construction of such new bridge or bridges over the River Trent as may be found necessary or desirable.

The residue of such income is to be applied as the Trustee thinks best for the improvement of the City of Nottingham and the public benefit of its inhabitants. In 1945 the Bridge Estate was registered as Charity 220716 with the Charity Commissioners. On the northern abutment of the bridge, the high water marks reached by floods since 1852 have been carved into the stonework; this practice was started during the period when the Hethbeth bridge still existed, those earlier marks were transferred onto the new bridge. To enable a comparison to be made with the peak levels, a graduated series of heights in feet above sea level has been added; the highest flood mark is for the October 1875 flood, but the larger 1795 Candlemas flood, has been attributed with a height at the bridge of 24.55 metres. Normal water level, controlled by Holmes Sluices some 4 kilometres downstream, is 20.7 metres. The bridge is one of Nottingham's most famous landmarks and sits at the heart of Nottingham's sporting district.

The bridge lends its name to the nearby Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club Trent Bridge stadium, one of England's biggest and most famous cricket grounds. Nottingham Forest FC's City Ground stadium and Notts County FC's Meadow Lane stadium are nearby; the bridge has been used in as the backdrop for the regional BBC East Midlands Today and ITV Central News. The Riverbank public house overlooks the bridge in its former tollhouse. In December 2002, the Nottingham Princess river cruise boat crashed into the central column of the bridge when it lost control in strong currents. List of crossings of the River Trent

1961–62 Women's European Cup (handball)

The 1961–62 Women's Handball European Champions Cup was the second edition of the premier international competition for women's handball clubs. Like the inaugural edition, eight teams took part in the championship, which took place from November 1961 to 1 April 1962. Out of the eight founding members the Soviet Union didn't take part in the competition, while Romania was represented by national champion Rapid Bucharest and defending champion Ştiinţa Bucharest. Both teams were confronted in the quarter-finals, in the first match between two teams from the same country. Sparta Prague won the competition by beating ORK Belgrade in the final; this remains the only edition won by a club from former Czechoslovakia and the last appearance of a Czech team in a final