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GNU Free Documentation License

The GNU Free Documentation License is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project. It is similar to the GNU General Public License, giving readers the rights to copy and modify a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities, the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient; the GFDL was designed for manuals, other reference and instructional materials, documentation which accompanies GNU software. However, it can be used for any text-based work, regardless of subject matter. For example, the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia uses the GFDL for all of its text; the GFDL was released in draft form for feedback in September 1999. After revisions, version 1.1 was issued in March 2000, version 1.2 in November 2002, version 1.3 in November 2008. The current state of the license is version 1.3. The first discussion draft of the GNU Free Documentation License version 2 was released on September 26, 2006, along with a draft of the new GNU Simpler Free Documentation License.

On December 1, 2007, Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales announced that a long period of discussion and negotiation between and amongst the Free Software Foundation, Creative Commons, the Wikimedia Foundation and others had produced a proposal supported by both the FSF and Creative Commons to modify the Free Documentation License in such a fashion as to allow the possibility for the Wikimedia Foundation to migrate the projects to the similar Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license. These changes were implemented on version 1.3 of the license, which includes a new provision allowing certain materials released under the license to be used under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license also. Material licensed under the current version of the license can be used for any purpose, as long as the use meets certain conditions. All previous authors of the work must be attributed. All changes to the work must be logged. All derivative works must be licensed under the same license; the full text of the license, unmodified invariant sections as defined by the author if any, any other added warranty disclaimers and copyright notices from previous versions must be maintained.

Technical measures such as DRM may not be used to control or obstruct distribution or editing of the document. The license explicitly separates any kind of "Document" from "Secondary Sections", which may not be integrated with the Document, but exist as front-matter materials or appendices. Secondary sections can contain information regarding the author's or publisher's relationship to the subject matter, but not any subject matter itself. While the Document itself is wholly editable, is covered by a license equivalent to the GNU General Public License, some of the secondary sections have various restrictions designed to deal with proper attribution to previous authors; the authors of prior versions have to be acknowledged and certain "invariant sections" specified by the original author and dealing with his or her relationship to the subject matter may not be changed. If the material is modified, its title has to be changed; the license has provisions for the handling of front-cover and back-cover texts of books, as well as for "History", "Acknowledgements", "Dedications" and "Endorsements" sections.

These features were added in part to make the license more financially attractive to commercial publishers of software documentation, some of whom were consulted during the drafting of the GFDL. "Endorsements" sections are intended to be used in official standard documents, where distribution of modified versions should only be permitted if they are not labeled as that standard any more. The GFDL requires the ability to "copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially" and therefore is incompatible with material that excludes commercial re-use; as mentioned above, the GFDL was designed with commercial publishers in mind, as Stallman explained:The GFDL is meant as a way to enlist commercial publishers in funding free documentation without surrendering any vital liberty. The'cover text' feature, certain other aspects of the license that deal with covers, title page and endorsements, are included to make the license appealing to commercial publishers for books whose authors are paid.

Material that restricts commercial re-use is incompatible with the license and cannot be incorporated into the work. However, incorporating such restricted material may be fair use under United States copyright law and does not need to be licensed to fall within the GFDL if such fair use is covered by all potential subsequent uses. One example of such liberal and commercial fair use is parody. Although the two licenses work on similar copyleft principles, the GFDL is not compatible with the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license. However, at the request of the Wikimedia Foundation, version 1.3 added a time-limited section allowing specific types of websites using the GFDL to additionally offer their work under the CC BY-SA license. These exemptions allow a GFDL-based collaborative project with multiple authors to transition to the CC BY-SA 3.0 license, without first obtaining the permission of every author, if the work satisfies several

AN/UPN-1

The AN/UPN-1 was a radar Pathfinder radio beacon used by the United States Army Air Forces and Airborne forces during World War II. Radar beacon AN/UPN-1, sometimes known as BUPS, is an ultra-portable radio beacon for ground, paratroop or shipboard use having a range of 35 to 50 miles; the set is capable of being interrogated by airborne radars operating on beacon function and replying with a coded signal permitting the beacon to be located in range and azimuth. It is capable of transmitting five different codes, it transmits on 3256 Mc. and receives on 3333 Mc. peak power output is 50 Watts. RT-72 Transponder assembly CY-220 case MX-242 harness CY-221 chest CY-222 battery case PP-116 Rectifier battery charger MX-253 harness AS-172 antenna assembly AS-171 antenna assembly CX-237 cord CG-92 cord AB-49 antenna support CY-225 case List of military electronics of the United States American airborne landings in Normandy Signal Corps Radio Rebecca/Eureka transponding radar TM 11-227 Signal Communication Directory.

Dated 10 April 1944 TM 11-487 Electrical Communication systems Equipment. Dated 2 October 1944 Graphic Survey of Radio and Radar Equipment Used by the Army Airforce. Section 3 Radio Navigation Equipment Dated May 1945 https://web.archive.org/web/20110605015722/http://www.tpub.com/content/radar/TM-11-487C-1/TM-11-487C-10581.htm

LeShop.ch

LeShop.ch is the Swiss market leader among online supermarkets and a subsidiary of the Migros Genossenschafts-Bund, the largest retailer in Switzerland. The online supermarket distributes 12,500 products via its Internet platform, of which around 50% are Migros Migrosproducts, the remaining products are branded goods including frozen food and alcohol. With its partner, the Swiss Post, LeShop.ch delivers home purchases and offers free deliveries to over 100 so-called PickMup pick-up locations. The company is headquartered in Ecublens with two logistics centers in Bremgarten. In 2016, the company employed 311 people. Since 1 January 2006, LeShop.ch has been a subsidiary of the Federation of Migros Cooperatives. October 1997: LeShop SA was founded by young entrepreneurs Alain Nicod, Jesús Martín García, Rémi Walbaum, Christian Wanner, it went online in April 1998 as Switzerland's first online supermarket, offering more than 1,500 dry grocery products and teaming up with the Swiss Post for home deliveries throughout the country.

In June 2000, subsidiaries were founded in Argentina. Both these were closed down again at a date. August 2001: Switzerland's first e-commerce logistics centre and executed by LeShop.ch started operating in Bremgarten, Aargau. An exclusive partnership deal with ExpressPost ensured the timely delivery of orders. December 2002: The Bon appétit Group, a majority shareholder of LeShop SA since October 2002, decided to refocus on its core business and announced the closure of LeShop.ch at the end of that month. January 2003: LeShop.ch was saved when investment group ShoppingNet Holding SA together with the company's management acquired the LeShop.ch from the Bon appétit Group. September 2003: Official announcement of the strategic partnership with Migros without the financial participation by the Federation of Migros Cooperatives. January 2004: When Migros closed down its own migros-shop.ch website, LeShop.ch took over the Migros product range as well as its customers. In April 2006, LeShop.ch ended the first quarter of 2006 with the company's first operating profit.

The Federation of Migros Cooperatives acquired an 80% share in LeShop SA, launching an investment programme for future development. In October 2006, the second LeShop.ch logistics centre was inaugurated by the Trade Minister and Swiss Federal Councillor Doris Leuthard in Ecublens. The company's headquarters were transferred to Ecublens, Vaud. After ten years’ trading, LeShop.ch exceeded the turnover benchmark of CHF 100 million in November 2008. In June 2009, LeShop.ch introduced the home delivery of frozen foods and developed a reusable cool box containing dry ice. An iPhone app was launched in January 2010. Cooperation with discount supermarket chain Denner, another subsidiary of Migros, began in August 2011, allowing customers to buy a range of popular Denner wines at LeShop.ch In December 2011, LeShop.ch broke becoming one of the world's first profitable pure players in the online grocery business. In July 2012, a special iPad app was launched. By April 2013, one in every three orders was being placed via iPad or iPhone, showing that mobile internet had established itself as a strong growth factor.

The first LeShop.ch DRIVE was opened in October 2012. The concept of on-location stocking with orders possible up to two hours before the collection of the goods was an innovation in the Swiss market. In 2013, Dominique Locher succeeds Christian Wanner as CEO. Under his leadership, the first PickMup pick-up locations will open in 2015. LeShop.ch has plans to open a second DRIVE location in Staufen, Aargau, in the second half of 2014. LeShop.ch ended 2013 with uninterrupted growth and a 6% or CHF9 million increase in turnover to CHF 158.1. LeShop.ch increased sales by CHF 7 million to CHF 165 million in 2014. According to media reports, the opening of a second pilot DRIVE site, located in Staufen, Canton of Aargau in September 2014, got off to a good start. For the first time, the online supermarket is now available for the whole central region of German-speaking Switzerland. Since 2014, about 300 eco-friendly Alnatura products can be ordered on LeShop.ch – the only Swiss supplier of this collection.

The trial launch of the pilot RAIL project with Swiss Federal Railways SBB was completed in 2014. The findings and experiences will be incorporated into the project's further development; these innovations led to positive business results in 2014. LeShop.ch continued to grow, with online sales of groceries reaching CHF 165 million. This is CHF 7 4.4 % more than the previous year. "The online business is growing at an above-average rate". In 2015, sales at the online supermarket grew by 6,6% to a total of CHF 176 million; the number of employees grew to 308. The same year LeShop.ch began a pilot scheme involving eleven "PickMup collection points", allowing online customers to collect their pre-packed groceries the day after placing their orders. Income statement figures have so far not been published. In early 2017, LeShop will introduce in-car delivery together with Swiss Post. Customers can use this service to have their purchases delivered directly to the trunk of their Volvo. At the end of September 2013, co-founder Christian Wanner handed over his responsibilities as CEO to Dominique Locher, Sales and Marketing Director since 2000.

Former Director of Finances and Human Resources, Sacha Herrmann, was appointed Chief Operating Officer and continues to support the Board in his new function. Christian Wanner remains on as a member of the Board of Directors. Urs Schumacher took over the management of LeShop.ch as CEO on August 1, 2017, replacing Dominique Locher. COO Sacha Herrmann left

Edding

Edding AG is a German company manufacturing writing and marking tools such as felt-tip pens and permanent markers. The company's products are immensely popular in Europe, leading to the brand name "Edding" being used as a generic name for permanent markers. Edding AG was founded in 1960 in Hamburg by Volker Detlef Ledermann. At that time they started with a start-up capital of just 500 Deutsche Mark. In 1965 they established the group brand planMASTER and started to sell products for planning and visual communication. By the end of 1970 100 million edding felt- and fibre-tipped pens had been sold across the world. Eight years the Group presented its first paint marker with an opaque, suitable on darker surfaces. Shares have been traded on the stock exchange since 1986. In the same year, Edding Vertrieb GmbH was founded as a distribution and logistics centre for the German market, it is still based in Wunstorf near Hannover to this day. In 1992 edding founded V. D. Ledermann & Co. GmbH in Bautzen. Since 2005 the company is headed by the son of the co-founder.

In 2008, edding introduces its EcoLine range of products. This series includes permanent markers and board markers with at least 90% of the total plastic used being made from recycled material. Edding sells paint markers of different line color; these are made in Japan. Graffiti writers use "Edding" for tagging. Legamaster is the visual communication division of edding AG, the leading manufacturer of high-quality marking and writing instruments. Legamaster has been adapting its range to the latest communication technology trends and developments for more than 50 years. 1995: Because of his eminently commitment for environment, co-founder Volker Detlef Ledermann was presented by the B. A. U. M. Award. 2000 - 2010: Edding 3000 and Edding 2000 permanent markers voted best marker in the world by Global Consumer Index. 2007: The University of St. Gallen in Switzerland lists edding AG as one of the top 100 employers among Germans small and medium businesses sector. 2008: Deloitte awarded edding AG by "Axia Award 2008" for its excellent strategic orientation.

List of German companies List of pen types and companies Edding website

Dick Guindon

Richard "Dick" Gordon Guindon is an American cartoonist best known for his gag panel, Guindon. Guindon's cartoons have appeared in the Minneapolis Tribune, The Realist, the Detroit Free Press. During the late 1950s, Guindon attended the University of Minnesota, where he drew cartoons for The Minnesota Daily, as recalled by Stan Gotlieb: In the campus newspaper, The Minnesota Daily, a young, brash and immensely talented cartoonist named Dick Guindon put out social commentary in a Jules Feiffer vein but with more bite. I had first met Guindon; some friends took me to a storefront in east Saint Paul, owned by Dick's mother, where he had painted the walls black, put candles in old bottles, installed a hi-fi and a toaster oven for heating frozen pizza. There, in the Jazz Lab, we were introduced to Dave Brubeck, Chet Baker, Thelonious Monk and other greats of jazz through their LP recordings. Guindon's most ubiquitous cartoon character was a student he called Huggermugger, who went around with bushy hair and a long beard, wearing a lab coat, held together by a giant safety pin.

Huggermugger was an enemy of pretention. I remember one panel where Huggermugger was peacefully eating a bowl of soup in one of the student cafeterias. An undergraduate woman in bohemian attire sits down next to him, tells him, for the next two panels, how glad she is that he is there. In the final panel, her face showing great dismay, she turns to him and says, "Did you just spit in my soup?" Living in New York City during the early 1960s, Guindon began contributing to The Nation, Playboy and Down Beat. He drew cartoons for Paul Krassner's The Realist and was associated with Krassner's class at the Free School. Guindon's best known work from the 1960s was published in The Realist, which included adult-themed references to politics and current events of the time. Leaving New York, Guindon returned to Minnesota. St. Paul Magazine said in its "Encyclopedia Minnesotica" that Guindon is "Minnesota's greatest satirist"."In 1981, Guindon moved from Minnesota to work in Michigan for the Detroit Free Press, which issued a 1984 datebook, Guindon's Detroit.

In May 1984, he made an appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. He had a three-month art exhibition, "Richard Guindon, 1981-1984" at the Flint Institute of Arts from March 10 to May 26, 1985; that same year, he took an extended vacation, continuing to draw his cartoons while driving around Europe. Guindon began his self-titled cartoon series for the Minneapolis Tribune in 1974. At first it appeared three to four times per week became a daily in 1978 when it was picked up by the Los Angeles Times Syndicate. In 1981, the syndication was moved to Field Newspaper Syndicate, in 1984 to News America Syndicate; the syndication of the panel appears to have ended in 1985, but the cartoon may have survived as a feature of the Detroit Free Press until perhaps 1987. When he returned to the United States, he moved to Traverse City, Michigan in March 1986, the following August he set up his studio in the Masonic Hall building in downtown Traverse City with a third-floor view of Grand Traverse Bay.

Eight months the historic four-story building was destroyed by fire. "I've lost 30-some years of work," said Guindon. "It's funny. It hasn't hit me yet. I think tomorrow is going to be a grim day" More than 5,000 cartoons and sketches burned in the April 1987 fire, but a few weeks Guindon learned that Irv Letofsky, Sunday editor of the Los Angeles Times "Calendar" section, had saved a copy of every Guindon cartoon syndicated over a decade. In 1988, Guindon broke out of the single-panel mold and began a multi-panel comic strip, The Carp Chronicles, commenting, "Nothing works out in Carp City. I don't know why. They're nice people. It's not a pretty story, but it has to be told." Guindon now lives in Northern Michigan in the village of Suttons Bay. Guindon announced his retirement in 2005. Guindon's cartoons have been collected in several books: Guindon, Cartoons by Guindon, The World According to Carp, Together Again Michigan So Far The Realist Archive Project The Richard Guindon official site, archived from the original on 11 May 2018.

The Education of a Comics Artist: Visual Narrative in Cartoons, Graphic Novels, Beyond by Michael Patrick Dooley and Steven Heller

The Bleakening

"The Bleakening" is a 2017 two-part Christmas episode of the eighth season of the American animated television series Bob's Burgers. The first part is the sixth episode of the season and the 135th overall and was directed by Brian Loschiavo and written by Steven Davis; the second part is the season's seventh episode and the 136th overall and was directed by Chris Song and written by Kelvin Yu. Guest voices are Gary Cole as Sergeant Bosco, Pamela Adlon as Olsen Benner, Adam Driver as Art the artist, Sam Seder as Harold, Jay Johnston as Jimmy Pesto, David Herman as both Marshmallow and Trev, Jack McBrayer as Marbles, John Early as Dalton Crespin, Todrick Hall as Miss Triple X-Mas, Andy Kindler as Mort, Matt Berninger as a singer, it first aired on Fox on December 10, 2017. In this episode, the Belcher family tries to find the thief of the top of their Christmas tree. Linda Belcher has a dream about a Christmas party and decides to throw one in the family restaurant together with her husband Bob.

When she hears that the town's gay nightclub has been closed for legal reasons, she cuts off the top of the family's Christmas tree, puts the ornaments her children have made on it, places it as a little tree in the restaurant for the party. During the party, Teddy tells the kids about a creature named the Bleaken, said to steal the Christmas presents from bad children and take them to his lair. After Linda notices that her tree top was stolen, she calls the police; when Sergeant Bosco tells them that a lot of Christmas decorations have been stolen and he has no lead and Bob interrogate all the guests but cannot figure out who did it. Their daughter Louise believes that the Bleaken is the thief, so she and her siblings Tina and Gene try to track it down. At the police station, they find a map of the town with the crime scenes of the thief marked on it. Louise takes a photo of the map with Tina's emergency cell phone, she finds a pattern on the photo and triangulates the place she thinks is the Bleaken's lair.

After Christmas Eve dinner, the kids sneak out of the apartment to go to the Bleaken's lair, which turns out to be an abandoned warehouse in a sketchy part of town. Tina, regretting sneaking out and scared by the warehouse's creepy atmosphere, calls their parents, pretending it was an accidental butt-dial, gives them the kids' location. Outside of the warehouse, they find an ornament Gene made and some black feathers in the snow, as well as large footprints, they find a hidden go downstairs, where they reach a dead end. Bob and Linda arrive and the family decides to look for the thief together. Louise and Bob lift up the staircase to investigate strange noises they hear coming from behind it and find another staircase hidden underneath. Despite Bob's reluctance, the family decides to go downstairs and for a brief moment they see a creature which looks like the Bleaken. Behind a door, they discover a Christmas rave and all the stolen decorations, including the tree top. Linda confronts the ravers, bashing them for stealing other people's Christmas decorations and her Christmas spirit.

The ravers, after a performance by Miss Triple X-Mas, tell her that it is the replacement location for the closed nightclub and they do not have a permission for it, the reason for the hidden door and staircase. Linda tells the guests that she called the police and that she now regrets it, Art the artist confesses that he stole all the decorations for the rave; when the police arrive, Bob borrows a Bleaken costume from the man the kids had thought to be the monster earlier and lures the officers away so that the rave is not shut down. He hides with Teddy in an inflatable Santa Claus where Teddy has been waiting all night to try and apprehend the thief; the next morning, the tree top is reattached to the family's Christmas tree and Linda's Christmas spirit returns full force. Brianna Wellen of the A. V. Club gave the episode an "A" and wrote that it "highlights a lot of the similarities between Linda and Louise. Both are somewhat selfish, stopping at nothing to get what they're looking for. In this case, the goal is the same if the journey is different.

Linda goes about finding her stoken tree and ornaments like a standard detective, searching for clues and interviewing suspects, all while keeping clever quips going. Louise embarks on a dark adventure, in total search and destroy mode." She wrote that "the Belchers find themselves in a dangerous and frightening situation. There is no reason that Bob and Linda should let the kids continue on in a dark warehouse inhabited by a mystical anti-Santa. In fact, once they realize that the warehouse is just a location for a secret Christmas rave, there’s even less reason for three middle-schoolers to stick around, but it’s having the cheesy Christmas special family moments in those settings that takes the sap out of the moment and makes the Belcher feel more like a real family and all." The Bleakening on IMDb