click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

GNU Hurd

GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU. It has been under development since 1990 by the GNU Project of the Free Software Foundation, designed as a replacement for the Unix kernel, released as free software under the GNU General Public License. While the Linux kernel soon proved to be a viable solution, development of GNU Hurd continued, albeit at a slow pace. GNU Hurd consists of a set of protocols and server processes; the Hurd aims to surpass the Unix kernel in functionality and stability, while remaining compatible with it. The GNU Project chose the multiserver microkernel for the operating system, due to perceived advantages over the traditional Unix monolithic kernel architecture, a view, advocated by some developers in the 1980s. In December 1991 the primary architect of the Hurd described the name as a mutually recursive acronym: It's time explain the meaning of "Hurd". "Hurd" stands for "Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons". And "Hird" stands for "Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth".

We have here, to my knowledge, the first software to be named by a pair of mutually recursive acronyms. As both hurd and hird are homophones of the English word herd, the full name GNU Hurd is a play on the words herd of gnus, reflecting how the kernel works; the logo is called the Hurd boxes and it reflects on architecture. The logo is a graph where nodes represent the Hurd kernel's servers and directed edges are IPC messages. Richard Stallman founded the GNU Project in September 1983 with an aim to create a free GNU operating system; the components required for kernel development were written: editors, shell and all the others. By 1989, the GNU GPL came into being and the only major component missing was the kernel. Development on the Hurd began in 1990 after an abandoned kernel attempt in 1986, based on the research TRIX operating system developed by Professor Steve Ward and his group at MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science. According to Thomas Bushnell, the initial Hurd architect, their early plan was to adapt the 4.4BSD-Lite kernel and, in hindsight, "It is now obvious to me that this would have succeeded splendidly and the world would be a different place today".

In 1987 Richard Stallman proposed using the Mach microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University. Work on this was delayed for three years due to uncertainty over whether CMU would release the Mach code under a suitable license. With the release of the Linux kernel in 1991, the primary user of GNU's userland components soon became operating systems based on the Linux kernel, prompting the coining of the term GNU/Linux. Development of the Hurd has proceeded slowly. Despite an optimistic announcement by Stallman in 2002 predicting a release of GNU/Hurd that year, the Hurd is still not considered suitable for production environments. Development in general has not met expectations, there are still a significant number of bugs and missing features; this has resulted in a poorer product. In 2010, after twenty years under development, Stallman said that he was "not optimistic about the GNU Hurd, it makes some progress, but to be superior it would require solving a lot of deep problems", but added that "finishing it is not crucial" for the GNU system because a free kernel existed, completing Hurd would not address the main remaining problem for a free operating system: device support.

The Debian project, among others, have worked on the Hurd project to produce binary distributions of Hurd-based GNU operating systems for IBM PC compatible systems. After years of stagnation, development picked up again in 2015 and 2016, with four releases during these two years. On August 20, 2015, amid the Google Summer of Code, it was announced that GNU Guix had been ported to GNU Hurd. Unlike most Unix-like kernels, the Hurd uses a server–client architecture, built on a microkernel, responsible for providing the most basic kernel services – coordinating access to the hardware: the CPU, RAM, other various input/output devices for sound, mass storage, etc. In theory the microkernel design would allow for all device drivers to be built as servers working in user space, but today most drivers of this kind are still contained in the GNU Mach kernel space. According to Hurd developers, the main advantage of microkernel-based design is the ability to extend the system: developing a new module would not require in depth knowledge of the rest of the kernel, a bug in one module would not crash the entire system.

Hurd provides a concept of translators, a framework of modules used to extend a file system functionality. From early on, the Hurd was developed to use GNU Mach as the microkernel; this was a technical decision made by Richard Stallman, who thought it would speed up the work by saving a large part of it. He has admitted. Other Unix-like systems working on the Mach microkernel include OSF/1, MkLinux. MacOS and NeXTSTEP use hybrid kernels based on Mach. From 2004 onward, various efforts were launched to port the Hurd to more modern microkernels; the L4 microkernel was the original choice in 2004. During 2005, Hurd developer Neal Walfield finished the initial memory management framework for the L4/Hurd port, Marcus Brinkmann ported essential parts of glibc. Since 2005, Brinkmann and Walfield started

Roxbury Memorial High School

Roxbury Memorial High School is a defunct four-year public high school serving students in ninth through twelfth grades. Founded as Roxbury High School, the school was situated at 26 Townsend Street, in the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, United States from 1926 until its closure in 1960. Roxbury High School was established in 1852, in what was the independent City of Roxbury, Massachusetts on Kenilworth Street. In 1854, Roxbury High School for Girls opened, in 1861, both schools were united into a single co-educational school; the City of Roxbury was annexed by the City of Boston in 1868, the administration of Roxbury High School was assumed by Boston Public Schools. In order to "abolish coeducation and the elective system in all high schools", in 1911 the school committee voted to make the Roxbury High School exclusive to girls. In 1926, the school moved from its second home on Warren and Montrose Streets to a new building on Townsend Street and became known as the Memorial High School. Prior to being erected, the Townsend Street building had been named as such in 1925 by members of the Boston School Committee "in commemoration of the Boston schoolmen who lost their lives during the World War".

The school building was built in two phases, a girls' portion completed with classes started for the 1926-27 school year, a boys' half completed with classes started in September, 1928. The two halves were treated as separate institutions, Memorial High School for Boys and Memorial High School for Girls, both with its own headmasters and set of teachers; the school was the first in the City of Boston to feature a swimming pool. Prior to the 1929 school year, the name of the school was changed to the Roxbury Memorial High School; the Warren Branch of the Boston Public Library moved to the building in 1926 and was renamed the Memorial Branch. In December 1970, the branch relocated to the corner of Warren and Crawford Streets and dubbed the Grove Hall Branch of the BPL; the school closed in 1960. The building was occupied by Boston Technical High School from 1960 to 1987, since 1991 by Boston Latin Academy. BOYS Robert B. Masterson Paul B. Crudden† GIRLS Myrtle C. Dickson. First woman headmaster appointed in Boston Public Schools.

Winifred H. Nash † Headmaster for both Boys and Girls schools, 1957 - 1960. Sheldon Adelson, business magnate and philanthropist Eddie Pellagrini, Major League Baseball infielder and baseball coach at Boston College; the G-Clefs, doo-wop\R&B vocal group Jack Landrón, popular folksinger and actor

Chartered Institute for Archaeologists

The Chartered Institute for Archaeologists is a professional organisation for archaeologists working in the United Kingdom and overseas. It was founded in 1982 to represent the profession and has over 3500 members drawn from all areas of the archaeological community. Membership is by election following a satisfactory demonstration of archaeological experience and competence and an undertaking to abide by the Institute's Code of conduct; the CIfA's aims are to advance the practice of archaeology and allied disciplines by promoting professional standards and ethics for conserving, managing and promoting enjoyment of the heritage. The institute is based at the Power Steele Building, Wessex Hall, on the Whiteknights Campus of the University of Reading; the idea of establishing an institute for archaeologists came about in 1973 when the Council for British Archaeology set up a working party on Professionalism in Archaeology. This was due to a rapid increase in the number of employed archaeologists and the need for a body to be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of professional standards in archaeology.

In 1979 an Association for the Promotion of the Institute of Field Archaeologists was established. This group determined that the objectives of the proposed Institute of Field Archaeologists should include ‘the definition and maintenance of appropriate standards of a. Training and education in field archaeology b. Responsible and ethical conduct in the execution and supervision of work c. Conservation of the archaeological heritage’ In May 1980 APIFA published a draft Code of conduct; the first chair and Member No 1 was Professor Peter Addyman and other notable early members were Mick Aston, Philip Barker and Francis Pryor. Recognising that archaeologists work in all aspects of the historic environment, in 2008 members voted in favour of adopting a trading name of the Institute for Archaeologists along with a rebrand to reflect this. At the 2013 AGM, members agreed that a formal petition for Royal Charter should be made to the Privy Council and on 9 December 2014 the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists was launched marking a significant step for the archaeological profession and bringing it in step with other chartered institutes.

CIfA is responsible for the production and maintenance of a Code of conduct along with a variety of Standards and Guidance documents and policy statements and practice guides. It promotes the value of professional ethics and provides a number of online resources As well as lobbying and making representations to national and local government and other agencies on behalf of its members, it champions professionalism in archaeology. CIfA's overall goal is for clients to engage only accredited professionals with the necessary skills to carry out archaeological services and to support this is organises conferences and training initiatives, accredits courses, provides online Continuing Professional Development facilities, has a wide range of specialist and area networks, its publications include a regular magazine The Archaeologist, a Yearbook and Directory. Members receive a reduction on The Historic Environment, a journal published by Maney Publishing. CIfA offers three professionally accredited grades: Practitioner accreditation is open to those who have undertaken skilled tasks within the historic environment sector under the guidance of others.

Accredited members may be professional or amateur archaeologists and are permitted to use the relevant post nominal abbreviation after their names. All accredited members have full voting rights within the Institute. CIfA accreditation is recognised by the Construction Skills Certification Scheme to qualify for a CSCS card. Affiliate and student memberships are available. Student membership is open to students in full or part-time at under- or post-graduate level, where archaeology is studied in equal or greater weight to another subject. Student membership is retained for up to 12 months after graduation after which it is automatically transferred to Affiliate membership. Affiliate membership is open to those who have an active interest in archaeology but do not yet qualify for a accreditation. In 1996 CIfA launched a Register of Archaeological Organisations which provides a quality assurance scheme for archaeological organisations. Like with individual accreditation, in return for registration, the scheme requires organisations to comply with the Code of conduct and to work in accordance with defined policies and procedures, current best practice.

Low pay and poor job security in archaeology have been a major problem throughout the Institute’s history and there is a misunderstanding about CIfAs role, as a professional association in addressing this as opposed to a trade union or trade association. The Institute has a vital role to play in improving and maintaining standards of archaeological work, in enhancing the status of archaeologists, it believes that inadequate pay and conditions undermines the work it does in these areas and is keen to ensure that the issue of pay is proactively addressed by the whole sector. As a result CIfA has a published policy statement on pay and pushed to establish an Industry Group to discuss relevant iss

80 South Street

80 South Street is a residential skyscraper proposed for construction in New York City. The building was planned for construction in Lower Manhattan, designed by renowned Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. However, the project was cancelled on April 2008 in the wake of a declining real estate market. A new design of the building is without the spire, decreasing the tower to 826 feet, was planned to finish in 2016. China Oceanwide Holdings Limited acquired 80 South Street in March 2016, with plans to create a 113-story tower; as of June 2019, the site is for sale. The design of the building consisted of 12 four-story cubes stacked on top of one another, cantilevered off a central concrete column standing above an 8-story base; the slender concrete core would contain fire stairs and risers for plumbing and power. The base was intended to hold a cultural space, such as a museum; the lowest two cubes would hold offices, while the upper 10 cubes were planned to serve as individual residences. Each private cube would consist of about 10,336 square feet of area, as well as an outdoor garden.

The residences each had a cost starting at US$29 million, with the top cube costing US$59 million, making them some of the most expensive condominiums in New York City. However, in 2014, he started a new design of 80 south street to propose for construction in New York City; the building had a planned roof height of 826 feet, the central core was planned to extend as a spire to 1,123 feet. The tower was conceived as the 3rd-tallest building in New York City; the design for 80 South Street was first released to the public in 2003. Santiago Calatrava has stated that he took the idea for the building from a sculpture he created in 1985. 80 South Street received approval for construction from the City of New York in February 2005. Although 80 South Street had been approved by the city, the project was cancelled in April 2008; the building did not sell any of its 10 multimillion-dollar residential cubes. S. real estate market as a factor in its cancellation. The existing building, including the side door entrance on Fletcher Street, was used as the set for API headquarters in the short-lived AMC series RUBICON, filmed in 2010.

City Tech Tower 80 South Street Project Website Entry on Skyscraperpage.com Entry on Emporis

Birth tusk

Birth tusks are wands for apotropaic magic from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. They are most made of hippopotamus ivory, are inscribed and decorated with a series of figures. Most of these tusks were found in burials at Thebes, Abydos and at other places, but a few examples were found at settlements, such as Wah-Sut or Avaris, but in Ugarit and Megiddo; some of the birth tusks bear short inscriptions and these always relate to the protection of high-status women and children. The tusks are decorated on both sides, they show a series of figures, most of them deities connected with child birth. The hippopotamus goddess Ipi is common. No two tusks are decorated with an identical selection of figures. There are a few depictions of birth tusks in art; these are always shown in the hands of nurses, confirming the impression that they were used in birth rituals, protecting mother and child. The decorated birth tusks seem to all belong to the late Middle Kingdom up to the Second Intermediate Period; the latest datable example belongs to the Second Intermediate Period king Senebkay and was found in a tomb of that period at Abydos

Young rider classification

Young rider classification is a cycling jersey competition in multi-day stage race events, such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and many others, which awards the current leader by overall time for riders below the age of twenty-five years depending on the race rules. Recipients are known as the Best young rider. In stage racing, the fastest overall time of all riders below the age limit is awarded the cycling jersey the jersey color is white, in the same fashion the fastest time of all riders is awarded in the general classification. If the best young rider is the leader of the general classification, points classification or mountains classification the rider wears the most prestigious jersey and the next young rider in the classification not holding a more prestigious jersey will wear the young rider jersey. Article 2.6.018 of the UCI regulations on road cycling states: "On the basis of the classifications, only 4 leader’s jerseys of the race can be issued in events of the UCI WorldTour and continental circuits of classes HC and 1 for the men elite and under 23, a maximum of 6 jerseys in other events.

Only the leader's jersey for the individual general classification by time is compulsory. The leader of each classification, except the team classification, shall be required to wear the corresponding distinctive jersey. If a rider is leading more than one classification, the order of priority of the distinctive jerseys shall be as follows: 1. General classification by time. General classification by points. General climber's classification. Others. In this situation, the organiser may require another rider next on the relevant classification to wear a jersey, not being worn by the leader of that classification. However, if this rider must wear his world or national champion's jersey, or the leader's jersey of a UCI cup, series or classification, he shall wear that jersey. In the situation where the leader of a classification does not take the start of a stage, the virtual leader of the relevant classification is allowed to wear the related distinctive jersey, subject to the consent of both the organiser and the president of the commissaires’ panel.

The riders of the team leading the team classification shall be required to wear the corresponding distinctive bib number if required by the organiser. The presentation of a team leader jersey is prohibited both in the race. No leaders’ jersey of the race or distinctive sign can be worn by a rider during the first day of a stage race. Wearing a leader’s jersey or distinctive sign is prohibited in the case referred to in article 1.3.055 bis, point 5." Until 2016, the young rider classification existed only in two of the three Grand Tours, the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia. The Vuelta a España introduced an award for the best young rider in its 2017 edition. However, in the 2017 and 2018 editions, the awardee did not wear a white jersey, but a red number bib instead; the white jersey was awarded at the Vuelta for the first time in the 2019 edition as the organizers had decided to eliminate the combination classification. The Tour/Giro double has been achieved by two riders: Andy Schleck - 1 Giro white jersey, 3 Tour white jerseys Nairo Quintana - 1 Giro white jersey, 2 Tour white jerseys The Giro/Vuelta double has been achieved by one rider: Miguel Ángel López - 2 Giro white jerseys, 1 Vuelta red number bib 4: Andy Schleck - Luxembourg Giro d'Italia Tour de France 3: Miguel Ángel López - Colombia Giro d'Italia Vuelta a España 3: Nairo Quintana - Colombia Giro d'Italia Tour de France 3: Jan Ullrich - Germany Tour de France 2: Marco Pantani - Italy Tour de France 2: Vladimir Poulnikov - Soviet Union Giro d'Italia 2: Pavel Tonkov - Russia Giro d'Italia 2: Bob Jungels - Luxembourg Giro d'Italia