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GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License is a free-software license published by the Free Software Foundation. The license allows developers and companies to use and integrate a software component released under the LGPL into their own software without being required by the terms of a strong copyleft license to release the source code of their own components. However, any developer who modifies an LGPL-covered component is required to make their modified version available under the same LGPL license. For proprietary software, code under the LGPL is used in the form of a shared library, so that there is a clear separation between the proprietary and LGPL components; the LGPL is used for software libraries, although it is used by some stand-alone applications. The LGPL was developed as a compromise between the strong copyleft of the GNU General Public License and more permissive licenses such as the BSD licenses and the MIT License; the word "Lesser" in the title shows that the LGPL does not guarantee the end user's complete freedom in the use of software.

The license was called the GNU Library General Public License and was first published in 1991, adopted the version number 2 for parity with GPL version 2. The LGPL was revised in minor ways in the 2.1 point release, published in 1999, when it was renamed the GNU Lesser General Public License to reflect the FSF's position that not all libraries should use it. Version 3 of the LGPL was published in 2007 as a list of additional permissions applied to GPL version 3. In addition to the term "work based on the Program" of GPL, LGPL version 2 introduced two additional clarification terms "work based on the library" and a "work that uses the library". LGPL version 3 dropped these terms; the main difference between the GPL and the LGPL is that the latter allows the work to be linked with a non-GPLed program, regardless of whether it is free software or proprietary software. The non-GPLed program can be distributed under any terms if it is not a derivative work. If it is a derivative work the program's terms must allow for "modification for the customer's own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications."

Whether a work that uses an LGPL program is a derivative work or not is a legal issue. A standalone executable that dynamically links to a library through, or similar medium is accepted as not being a derivative work as defined by the LGPL. It would fall under the definition of a "work that uses the Library". Paragraph 5 of the LGPL version 2.1 states: A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a "work that uses the Library". Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, therefore falls outside the scope of this License. If it is a "work that uses the library" it must be possible for the software to be linked with a newer version of the LGPL-covered program; the most used method for doing so is to use "a suitable shared library mechanism for linking". Alternatively, a statically linked library is allowed if either source code or linkable object files are provided.

One feature of the LGPL is the permission to relicense under the GPL any piece of software, received under the LGPL. This feature allows for direct reuse of LGPLed code in GPLed applications. Version 3 of the LGPL is not inherently compatible with version 2 of the GPL. However, works using the latter that have given permission to use a version of the GPL are compatible: a work released under the GPLv2 "or any version" may be combined with code from a LGPL version 3 library, with the combined work as a whole falling under the terms of the GPLv3; the former name "GNU Library General Public License" gave some the impression that the FSF recommended software libraries use the LGPL and that programs use the GPL. In February 1999, GNU Project leader Richard Stallman wrote the essay Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library explaining that the LGPL had not been deprecated, but that one should not use the LGPL for all libraries: Which license is best for a given library is a matter of strategy...

Using the ordinary GPL for a library gives free software developers an advantage over proprietary developers: a library that they can use, while proprietary developers cannot use it... When a free library's features are available for proprietary software through other alternative libraries... the library cannot give free software any particular advantage, so it is better to use the Lesser GPL for that library. Stallman and the FSF sometimes advocate licenses less restrictive than the LGPL as a matter of strategy. A prominent example was Stallman's endorsement of the use of a BSD-style license by the Vorbis project for use in its libraries; the license uses terminology, intended for applications written in the C programming language or its family. Franz Inc. published its own preamble to the license to clarify terminology in the Lisp context. LGPL with this preamble is sometimes referred as LLGPL. In addition, Ada has a special feature, which may prompt the use of GNAT Modified General Public License: it allows code to link against or instantiate GMGPL-covered units without the code itself becoming covered by the GPL.

C++ templates and header-only libraries have the same problem as Ada generics. Version 3 of the LGPL addresses such cases in section 3. Some


A frisket is any material that protects areas of a work from unintended change. On a sheet-fed letterpress printing machine, a frisket is a sheet of oiled paper that covers the space between the type or cuts and the edge of the paper, to be printed; when the press operator uses a brayer to coat the surface of the type with ink, the ink brayer will coat the furniture and slugs between the columns and around the type. To keep this ink from touching the target sheet, the frisket covers the area, not desired to print; the frisket is set in a frame hinged to the tympan that holds the paper in place. A new frisket has to be cut for form. In airbrushing, a frisket is a plastic sheet with an adhesive backing used to mask off specific areas of an image so that only the exposed area is covered with paint; the frisket is vital to airbrushing, because it allows the artist to control excess paint spray, create special effects, achieve extreme precision, control edge attributes and to expedite the airbrushing process.

A frisket differs from other masks in that it is a single sheet that covers the entire work, parts of which are removed by cutting into the sheet. Friskets are available in glossy finishes; some friskets are solvent-proof, manufactured for use with solvent-reduced and -based Urethanes. The frisket is fixed to the painting surface and the appropriate shapes are cut out of the material using a razor or scalpel; the cut piece is lifted, the exposed area painted, the process repeated using the cut pieces to mask their matching finished areas. When all painting is finished, the resulting work contains precise shapes with no overspray. In Watercolouring, frisket sometimes called masking fluid, is a removable liquid masking fluid based on latex and ammonia available in various colours to make its presence more obvious, applied to the surface in order to mask off the areas that are not to be coloured by a given application of paint. Frisket is used when the unmasked areas are desired to be the same colour and a rapid wash is being applied, or for negative painting effects.

Watercolouring frisket is applied using a brush, allowed to dry, the watercolour paints are applied and allowed to dry. Once the paper is dry, the frisket can be removed by gentle rubbing with a natural crepe rubber pickup - the same as those used for removal of rubber cement, it is important that the paper be dry before removing the frisket as the friction can otherwise damage the paper if still damp. A subsequent application of frisket can be applied to mask other areas - those with the intention of applying a different colour or to darken some areas whilst not affecting others - and removed with the natural rubber pickup; this process can be repeated several times without damaging artist grade watercolour papers, so long as the paper is dry after each application of watercolours. Some lesser grades of paper used for practice and academic purposes, may be more prone to damage after repeated masking and painting cycles however. Although watercolour frisket can be removed by rubbing with the fingers, doing so has the disadvantage of transferring skin oils which can discolour the artwork, or otherwise affect subsequent applications of watercolours or other mediums such as chalk, etc

William G. McGowan

William G. McGowan was an American entrepreneur, founder and chairman of MCI Communications, he played an important role in the breakup of AT&T while growing MCI into a US$9.5 billion in revenue entity that controlled 16% of the American domestic and international long distance market. McGowan was born in Ashley, the third of five children. Bill was active in Ashley Boy Scouts and his Troop which included his friends, Tim Klinges, Manus Cooney, Dave Cooney and George Frees, was one of the first group of Boy Scouts to go to Camp St. Andrews before it opened publicly in Tunkhannock, PA. Bill's brother, Monsignor Andrew J. McGowan ran Camp St. Andrews. After graduating from Hanover High School Bill joined the US Army and served as a medic for two and a half years. After an honorary discharge from the military he attended King's College and received a degree in business and chemical engineering, he attended Harvard Business School, graduating in 1954. After graduation from Harvard, McGowan began operating a consulting firm that specialized in rescuing troubled companies in the garment district of New York City.

After a year of operation, his consulting agency branched out into venture capital. In the role of venture capitalist, McGowan dealt with firms developing ultrasonic cleaning technology and electro-mechanical devices. In 1968, McGowan was contacted by MCI due to his expertise in raising venture capital. Based on this contact, he made a US$50,000 investment in the fledgling business and was made chairman of Microwave Communications of America, a predecessor to MCI Communications. In his role as chairman, McGowan raised capital for the growing company and set up fifteen of the seventeen regional carriers that would form the basis of MCI's initial communications network. In 1971, he executed a reorganization of Microwave Communications of America and its seventeen subsidiaries to form MCI Communications. In his role at MCI, McGowan established a reputation as a hard worker by working fifteen-hour days, he was a three-pack-a-day smoker and drank over twenty cups of coffee each day until his first heart attack.

As leader of MCI, he labored for several years to gain the financing and regulator approvals required to begin full operations. Following the filing of MCI's 1974 lawsuit against AT&T, McGowan began cooperation with the U. S. Department of Justice which led to a 1982 agreement leading to the divestiture of AT&T and the opening of the long distance telephone market within the United States. McGowan married Sue Ling Gin, a Chicago entrepreneur, in a private ceremony in Virginia Beach on July 5, 1984, they decided to keep their marriage secret for a year as Sue Ling wanted credit for success in her own right and not as the wife of McGowan. On December 21, 1986 McGowan experienced a heart attack, his medical problems resulted in his receiving a heart transplant on April 25, 1987. McGowan returned to his duties as MCI chairman after a six-month recovery, where he remained until his death on June 8, 1992 from another heart attack. McGowan's philanthropy continues on in many forms, he established what is now the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center due to his heart condition.

Just before his death, he established the William G. McGowan School of Business at King's College. Shortly after his death, the William G. McGowan Charitable Fund was founded in his name. DePaul University in Chicago has two science and research buildings named for the McGowan family including McGowan and his late brother, a Catholic priest, his charitable fund provides tuition assistance and financial aid grants for selected students. The Rochester Institute of Technology created the Center for Telecommunications and the McGowan Student Commons located in the new College Applied Science and Technology building; the National Archives in Washington D. C. established the William G. McGowan theater in his honor. McGowan was inducted into the Junior Achievement U. S. Business Hall of Fame in 1992. McGowan has a fellowship foundation for second year MBA students; the foundation will pay for the second year tuition at a top business school. "MCI Chairman Recuperating". New York Times. 8 May 1987. Pp. D16.

Lohr, Steve. "William McGowan Is Dead at 64. New York Times. Pp. A1, D28. Cantelon, Philip L.. The History of MCI: 1968-1988, The Early Years. Dallas: Heritage Press. LCC HE8864. M375C36 1993


Hamsaladeevi is a village in diviseema, Koduru Mandal, Krishna District of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. In the regional language it translated as "Swans Island". In this place Krishna River converges into the Bay of Bengal; the Krishna River meets the Bay of Bengal outside the village of Hamsaladeevi. There is an old Venugopalaswamy temple at Hamsaladeevi; the temple is one of the 108 Vishnu temples. It was constructed during the rule of Chola kings; the place where krishna river meets the sea is known as Sagara Sangamam. Avanigadda is nearest city, it is 20 kilometres from Machilipatnam. The place where the River Krishna meets the Bay of Bengal at Hamsaladeevi is known as "Sagara Sangamam". Here at Sagara Sangamam we can see three colours of water, it is a must visit place in Hamsaladeevi

Irlen syndrome

Irlen syndrome referred to as scotopic sensitivity syndrome or Meares-Irlen syndrome rarely as asfedia, also as visual stress, is a proposed disorder of vision. In 1980 New Zealand teacher Olive Meares described the visual distortions some individuals reported when reading from white paper. In 1983, American psychologist Helen Irlen wrote a paper about the use of coloured overlays aiding the reading abilities of some people. Similar symptoms were separately described by Irlen -- each unaware of the other's work. Irlen, the first to systematically define the condition, named her findings "scotopic sensitivity", though in the discussions and debates over the following years some referred to it as Meares-Irlen syndrome, it remains controversial whether non-Irlen-certified Meares-Irlen syndrome and the original Irlen syndrome are the same condition. Irlen syndrome, for example, seems to include a broader array of symptoms, including severe variants of the core condition. Basic testing for scotopic sensitivity was tried by optometrists and orthoptists in UK hospitals, by optometrists and opticians in private practice employing a technique that used the Intuitive Colorimeter, developed under Medical Research Council license.

An alternative approach to correct Irlen syndrome was tried by Orthoscopics franchise in the UK, with wide colour coverage and tints manufactured by Hoyato match. Other commercial organisations have produced sets of therapeutic tints, although most have not received scientific evaluation; the disorders have been studied in several institutions, including the Psychology Department at Essex University, the former Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge University in England, in the case of Meares-Irlen syndrome, Visual Unit at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland. As of 2012 the Visual Stress Unit offered non-commercial diagnostic and therapeutic services to individuals, provided advice to the Scottish National Health Service. In Australia, Irlen syndrome was researched by Paul Whiting at the University of Sydney. Whiting set up the first Irlen Dyslexia Centre in Australia, which operated in the Children's Centre at Sydney University for more than 15 years. Irlen syndrome was studied in Australia by Greg Robinson at the University of Newcastle.

He was director of the Special Education Centre at the School of Education. In the US, peer-reviewed literature on the topic suggests that much is unknown about the cause of these disorders, ranging from the 2011 study in a journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, "Irlen Colored Overlays Do not Alleviate Reading Difficulties" and the 2012 study in the journal Brain Topography, "A Functional Neuroimaging Case Study of Meares–Irlen Syndrome"; the first, purely in relation to Meares-Irlen syndrome, finds that there is no evidence for one of the fundamental claims of therapeutic benefit. The second, which focused on Irlen syndrome, found compelling evidence of unique brain function linked to the syndrome; the College of Optometrists has specified guidelines for optometrists who use the colorimeter system. A society for coloured lens prescribers has been established to provide a list of eye-care practitioners with expertise in the provision of coloured lenses for the treatment of visual stress.

The Irlen Method uses coloured tinted lenses in the form of glass or contact lenses. The method is intended to eliminate perceptual processing errors. Skepticism relating to scotopic sensitivity syndrome's exact pathology has evolved on several fronts: Whether it exists as a distinct, predictably identifiable disease with a reasonable pathophysiological mechanism, or whether a range of symptoms from other conditions are being placed under this convenient heading. A 2009 report by the American Academy of Pediatrics does not believe that there is conclusive scientific evidence for the use of coloured lenses although it acknowledges anecdotal evidence to the contrary; when discussing its scientific basis, the AAP mentions that "he method used to select the lens or filter color has been variable, the color selection has shown considerable variability, the test-retest consistency has been poor". The association of scotopic sensitivity syndrome and dyslexia has been challenged by many authors in the optometric and ophthalmologic communities.

Furthermore, many special education departments at universities challenge the validity of coloured lenses as an effective treatment for the condition as outlined by the Macquarie University Special Education Centre. In a joint statement, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and American Association of Certified Orthoptists repudiated the use of lenses, stating that there was no scientific evidence supporting their use; the expense of such treatment may divert resources from evidence-based treatment. Critics claim that the symptoms of those with Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome are related to known visual perceptual and neurological disorders. According to a statement released by the American Optometric Association in 2004: There is evidence that the underlying symptoms associated with Meares Irlen Syndrome, are related to identifiable vision anomalies, e.g. accommodative and ocular motor d

Angelic Runes

Angelic Runes, is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Makoto Tateno. The individual chapters were collected into three bound volumes, which were published by Shodensha between April 20, 2007 and May 25, 2009, it was licensed in English by Digital Manga Publishing, which has released the first two volumes on July 22, 2009 and June 1, 2011, respectively. The manga is licensed in Taiwan by Taiwan Tohan. School Library Journal's Snow Wildsmith comments on fantasy elements of the manga with "fantasy readers will enjoy spotting the many monsters and angels that Tateno references.'s done her research." Graphic Novel Reporter's Casey Brienza commends Takeno, due to her being a "lukewarm fan of the fantasy genre", for drawing "heavily from mythological and religious tradition—hence all of the angels and demons speaking through Erudite and Allueh." PopCultureShock's Connie C. criticizes the "episodic nature" of the manga and the "monster-of-the-week-type situation". Comic Book Resources' Danielle Leigh commends Takeno for building "a interesting human dimension to the journey", with "Sowil is searching for his father, but in a way he is on a journey of self-discovery to learn more about the origin of his powers and the reason behind his existence."

Comic Book Bin's Leroy Douresseaux commends the manga with "while the stories are uncomplicated and straightforward, they are enjoyable and charming in their simplicity." Comics Village's Lori Henderson commends the manga's art with "the art is beautifully drawn Sowil. Tateno's delicate lines make for some good looking characters, and unlike other artists, the characters are still different and distinct beyond hair and clothes." Angelic Runes at Anime News Network's encyclopedia