GNUstep is a free software implementation of the Cocoa Objective-C frameworks, widget toolkit, application development tools for Unix-like operating systems and Microsoft Windows. It is part of the GNU Project. GNUstep features a cross-platform, object-oriented IDE. Apart from the default Objective-C interface, GNUstep has bindings for Java, Ruby, GNU Guile and Scheme; the GNUstep developers track some additions to Apple's Cocoa to remain compatible. The roots of the GNUstep application interface are the same as the roots of Cocoa: NeXTSTEP and OpenStep. GNUstep thus predates Cocoa, which emerged when Apple acquired NeXT's technology and incorporated it into the development of the original Mac OS X, while GNUstep was an effort by GNU developers to replicate the technically ambitious NeXTSTEP's programmer-friendly features. GNUstep began when Paul Kunz and others at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center wanted to port HippoDraw from NeXTSTEP to another platform. Instead of rewriting HippoDraw from scratch and reusing only the application design, they decided to rewrite the NeXTSTEP object layer on which the application depended.
This was the first version of libobjcX. It enabled them to port HippoDraw to Unix systems running the X Window System without changing a single line of their application source. After the OpenStep specification was released to the public in 1994, they decided to write a new objcX which would adhere to the new APIs; the software would become known as "GNUstep". GNUstep contains a set of graphical control elements written in the Objective-C programming language; the graphical user interface of GNUMail is composed of graphics control elements. GNUMail has to interact with the windowing system, e.g. X11 or Wayland, its graphical user interface has to be rendered. GNUstep's backend provides a small set of functions used by the user interface library to interface to the actual windowing system, it has a rendering engine which emulates common Postscript functions. The package gnustep-back provides the following backends: cairo – default backend using the Cairo 2D graphics library. Winlib – default backend on Microsoft Windows systems.
Cairo and Windows API variants. Art – old backend on unix-like systems. Uses the vector-based PostScriptlike 2d graphics library Libart. Xlib – old X11 backend. GNUstep inherits some design principles proposed in OPENSTEP as well as the Objective-C language. Model–view–controller paradigm Target–action Drag-and-drop Delegation Message forwarding In addition to the Objective-C interface, some small projects under the GNUstep umbrella implement other APIs from Apple: The Boron library aims to implement the Carbon API, it is incomplete. The CoreBase library is designed to be compatible with Core Foundation, it is not complete enough to for the Base component to be a wrapper around it. The QuartzCore library implements Core Animation APIs; the Opal library implements Quartz 2D. As of February 2020, there are no projects that builds the Swift programming language against the GNUstep Objective-C environment. Here are some examples of applications written for or ported to GNUstep. Addresses, an address/contacts manager Étoilé, a desktop environment.
GNUMail, an e-mail client GNUstep Database Library 2, an Enterprise Objects Framework clone GNUstepWeb, an application server compatible with WebObjects 4.x Gorm, an interface builder GWorkspace, a workspace and file manager Grr, an RSS feed reader Oolite, a clone of Elite, a space simulation game with trading components PRICE, imaging application ProjectCenter, the Project Builder or Xcode equivalent. TalkSoup, an IRC client Terminal Zipper, a file archiving tool Adun BioCocoa Chess Cenon EdenMath Eggplant Emacs Fortunate Gomoku NeXTGO PikoPixel TextEdit TimeMon Universal Windows Platform, which includes a WinObjC suite consisting of various parts of GNUstep and Microsoft's own implementations of things like the Cocoa Touch API; the Foundation Kit provides basic classes such as wrapper data structure classes. Strings collections and enumerators file management object archiving advanced date manipulation distributed objects and inter-process communication URL handling notifications easy multi-threading timers locks exception handling The Application Kit provides classes oriented around graphical user interface capabilities.
User interface elements graphics color management text system features: rich text format, text attachments, layout manager, rules, paragraph styles, font management, spelling document management printing features: print operations, print panel and page layout help manager pasteboard services spell checker workspace bindings for applications drag and drop operations services sharing among applications Darling, a compatibility layer that relies on GNUstep Étoilé, GNUstep-based desktop environment GNUstep Renaissance, framework for XML description of portable GNUstep/Mac OS X user interfaces Miller Columns, the method of file tree browsing the GWorkspace File Viewer uses Property list used file format to store user settings StepTalk, Scripting framework Window Maker, a window manager designed to emulate the NeXT GUI as part of the wider GNUstep project GNUstep.org project homepage GNUstep Applications and Developer Tutorials The GNUstep Application Project A 2003 interview with GNUstep developer Nicola Pero Archived 200
Abun is the honorific title used for any bishop of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church as well as of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. It was used for the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Ethiopia during the more than 1000 years when the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria appointed only one bishop at a time to serve its Ethiopian flock; when referred to without a name following, it is Abun, if a name follows, it becomes Abuna. The Abun of the Ethiopian Church was appointed by the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa, who had diocesan authority over Ethiopia and the rest of Africa, at the request of the Emperor and, in historic times, after paying a substantial fee to the Muslim government for the privilege; the Abun would be selected from the membership of the Monastery of Saint Anthony. Although several Abuns might be appointed at one time, a request in 1140 to appoint enough to consecrate a metropolitan was refused; the candidate lacked knowledge of the native language and with the local customs of the Ethiopian church.
As a result, most Abuns had a minimal influence on politics. His authority was filled in ecclesiastical matters by the Ichege or Abbot of the Monastery of Debre Libanos in Shewa, the sole possessor of this particular title in Ethiopia. Visitors to Ethiopia at this time, such as Francisco Álvares in the 16th century and Remedius Prutky in the 18th century, were amazed at the mass ordination of deacons and priests with little more than a wave of the cross and a prayer, the Abun's principal duty. After many centuries, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, the last reigning Oriental Christian monarch in the world, reached an agreement with the Coptic Orthodox Church in Alexandria, Egypt, on 13 July 1948; this led to the promotion of the Church of Ethiopia to the rank of an autocephalous Patriarchate. Five bishops were consecrated by the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria, they elected an Ethiopian patriarch for their church following the death of Abuna Qerellos IV, the last Copt to lead the Church of Ethiopia.
The first Patriarch of Ethiopia was Abuna Basilios, consecrated 14 January 1951. The current Patriarch of Ethiopia is Abune Mathias, who succeeded Abune Paulos who died on August 16, 2012. Abuna is a title used among Syriac Christians, Coptic Christians and Maronite Christians to refer to a priest; the title is used either with the priest's given name. This title is not used in self-reference. Ab Ethiopian aristocratic and religious titles List of Abunas of Ethiopia Abouna Aboona
10 Minute School is an online educational platform in Bangladesh created in 2015 by internet entrepreneur Ayman Sadiq. The platform covers academic classes from classes 1 to 12 covering the entire academic syllabus of the Bangladesh schooling system, university admission subjects covering different branches of study, skills training. Ayman Sadiq founded 10 Minute School in mid 2014 as an YouTube Channel. Self-sponsored in the beginning, 10 Minute School did not have a website and reached students through educational info graphics, it started creating video tutorials for Mathematics and English and started taking live classes on Facebook. 10 Minute School went on to cover the entire academic syllabus from Class 1 through Class12, university admission subjects covering topics from public and private university examinations and extensive software and skills training. While one of the major challenges for the organization back was to find a suitable sponsor to fund its operational activities, it came to be supported by telecom operator Robi Axiata Ltd and the ICT Ministry of Bangladesh.
As of July 2018, the website produced 4000 video lessons, 100 SmartBooks, 3965 quizzes and 255 live classes
"Baby Not on Board" is the fourth episode in the seventh season of the American animated television series Family Guy. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on November 2, 2008; the episode features Stewie after he is accidentally left at home when the Griffins head for the Grand Canyon. The family soon notice his absence, they rush home. Meanwhile, Stewie realizes; the episode was directed by Julius Wu. It received mixed reviews from critics for its cultural references. According to Nielsen ratings, it was viewed in 9.97 million homes in its original airing. The episode featured a guest performance by Jon Benjamin, along with several recurring guest voice actors for the series. "Baby Not on Board" was released on DVD along with eight other episodes from the season on June 16, 2009. Peter visits the Quahog Mini-Mart. After he threatens to sue the store for Chris' "sexual remarks", Peter is given an unlimited gas coupon for a year by Carl. Peter begins to take advantage of the card taking a trip into space, until Lois suggests that the family travel to the Grand Canyon.
They leave early the next morning but inadvertently leave Stewie behind at home, only realizing that when they visit the site of 9/11. They first can not get a hold of him, they contact Cleveland and Quagmire to look after Stewie. After not receiving any calls from either of them, Lois insists that the family return home to Stewie. While driving the car, Peter somehow enters the car next to them, causing the Griffins' car to crash; when the family attempts to ride a train home, Peter spends the last of the money that they saved on curtain rings. Lois is furious and blames all their misfortunes on Peter's stupidity, only to feel ashamed when he informs her that everyone else respects him for who he is. Brian is able to get the family a ride in a pickup truck bound for Quahog. Meanwhile, Stewie finds out that he has been left alone, takes his solitude to his advantage; when Cleveland and Quagmire arrive, Stewie believes that they are intruders and sprays tear gas all around them to knock them out.
Stewie realizes his mistake, he chains them to the Griffins' basement wall of his house and forcing them to watch the DirecTV help channel on a continuous loop. When Stewie consumes all of the food in the house, he applies for a job at fast food restaurant McBurgertown, but is fired for stealing food. Stewie realizes how much he depends on his family and is thrilled to see them return; the episode ends with a scene of Cleveland and Quagmire monotonously reciting what is being said on TV. "Baby Not on Board" was written by eventual series showrunner and executive producer Mark Hentemann, who joined the show as a writer in its third season. It was directed by Julius Wu on his first episode of the season, although he would go on to direct the episode "420" in the season. Series regulars Peter Shin and James Purdum served as supervising directors for the episode; the episode marked the first time since the show's creation that celebrities do not feature wide, circular eyes. The staff wanted to make the celebrities look more realistic in contrast to the regular characters.
The Standards and Practices had a problem with Peter saying "masturbate", so staff writers edited it to "rub one out". The episode revealed that the character Cleveland Brown was going to start in his own show, which turned out to be the Family Guy spin-off, The Cleveland Show, which premiered in September 2009."Baby Not on Board", along with the first eight episodes of the seventh season, were released on DVD by 20th Century Fox in the United States and Canada on June 16, 2009, one month after it had completed broadcast on television. The "Volume 7" DVD release features bonus material including deleted scenes and commentaries for every episode. In addition to the regular cast, voice actor Jon Benjamin, actor Joe Flaherty, actor Jacob Pressman guest starred in the episode. Recurring voice actors Alexandra Breckenridge, writer Steve Callaghan, writer Danny Smith, writer Alec Sulkin, writer John Viener made minor appearances. Recurring guest voice actors Adam West and Patrick Warburton made guest appearances as well.
"Baby Not on Board" makes several media references. The plot itself is inspired by the film Home Alone. At the Quahog Day Spa, Peter mentions. Another scene in the spa references the film Ghost. After Lois chastises Peter, he recites the speech John Candy made in Planes and Automobiles nearly verbatim. Chris asks his friend why in the Lord of the Rings films Frodo and Gandalf walk to get to Mordor instead of taking the Eagle, used at the end of the story; when driving to the Grand Canyon, the family sings Bette Midler's "The Rose". When Stewie chains Cleveland and Quagmire to the basement wall, he forces them to watch the DirecTV help channel; when Lois says they haven't heard from Joe, he is seen screaming the Rifleman's Creed at his wheelchair like marine
The flora of North Korea has much in common with that of other areas of the northern hemisphere. 2898 species have been recorded. Four are classified as threatened; the native plant communities in the lowlands have disappeared with cultivation of two egss and urbanisation, the native conifer forest communities are located in the highlands. The forest types are subarctic and cool-temperate forest. Pinus densiflora dominates coniferous forests across North Korea, has increased in abundance in areas altered by human impact; the main botanic garden in North Korea is the Central Botanical Garden, established in 1959. It is located at the base of Mount Taesong in Pyongyang. Three endangered species are so distinctive; the endangered Pentactina rupicola of the family Rosaceae is found only near the summit of Mount Geumgang in Kangwon Province. The only member of its genus, its relationships have been unclear, though molecular testing suggests its closest relative is the North American genus Petrophytum.
Abeliophyllum distichum is a critically endangered plant from the central Korean peninsula. It too belongs to a genus. From Korea it has been introduced to horticulture in England and North America, as well as being cultivated in North Korea. Sophora koreensis was classified in its own genus, Echinosophora but has since been found to lie within the genus Sophora genetically
802 Naval Air Squadron was a Naval Air Squadron of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm. 802 Squadron was formed on 3 April 1933 aboard HMS Glorious by the merger of two independent Royal Air Force naval units, 408 Flight and 409 Flight. By 1939, 802 Squadron was operating from HMS Grebe in Egypt where, like all Fleet Air Arm units, it was taken over by the Admiralty on 24 May 1939. Nimrod I S1579 571 Osprey I K2783 Osprey III K3643 549 Osprey III Seaplane K3644 590 In April 1940 802 Squadron was serving aboard Glorious with twelve Gloster Sea Gladiators when the ship was recalled to participate in the defence of Norway; the squadron ceased to exist after Glorious was sunk by the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau on 8 June 1940 during the defence of Norway. Reformed from part of 804 Squadron on 21 November 1940 with Martlet Is, the squadron sub-flights embarked on HMS Audacity in July 1941, with B flight serving on HMS Argus in August. In the following month the whole squadron was involved in Gibraltar escort convoys from Audacity from which it shot down four Focke-Wulf Fw 200's.
The squadron was lost on 21 December 1941 when Audacity was sunk by German submarine U-751. The squadron was re-formed at Yeovilton in February 1942 with Hawker Sea Hurricane Ibs, before embarking on HMS Avenger for escorting Arctic Convoy PQ 18 in September during which time five enemy aircraft were shot down and 17 damaged, in conjunction with 883 Squadron. In September, the squadron embarked on Avenger and provided fighter cover on the Algerian invasion beaches. While returning to the UK Avenger was torpedoed and sunk by U-155 on 15 November 1942; the squadron lay dormant till May 1945 when reformed at Arbroath with 24 Supermarine Seafire L. IIIs. By VJ day, the squadron had spent a short period in HMS Queen, had been anticipated to leave for the British Pacific Fleet with 9th Carrier Air Group. By the summer of 1947, 802 Squadron had switched to Seafire XVs operating from HMS Vengeance. During the Korean War 802 Squadron was assigned to HMS Ocean, equipped with Hawker Sea Fury's. Squadron pilot Lieutenant "Hoagy" Carmichael shot down a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 on 9 August 1952.
Carmichael achieved this feat during a dogfight which started when a formation of four Sea Furys under his command were attacked by eight MiGs during a fighter bomber mission over Chinnampo. By the time of the Suez Crisis, 802 Squadron had transferred to HMS Ark Royal, was equipped with Sea Hawk FB3s – one of these aircraft lost the front of a drop tank to ground fire while the squadron was embarked aboard HMS Albion in September 1956. 802 Squadron re-equipped with Sea Hawk FB5s before transferring to the Ark Royal in May 1957. Following a trip to the United States, which included cross-operations with USS Saratoga, 802 Squadron completed two tours in the Mediterranean, the second of these starting in September 1958 aboard HMS Eagle, ending with the disbandment of 802 Squadron at RNAS Lossiemouth on 10 April 1959. Plans to reform 802 Squadron at Yeovilton in 1979 with five British Aerospace Sea Harriers failed to materialise