152 mm howitzer 2A65
The 2A65 "Msta-B" is a Soviet towed 152.4 mm howitzer. The "B" in the designation is an abbreviation for Buksiruyemaya; this weapon has been fielded in Soviet and Russian forces since at least 1987 and is in service with Russian front and army level artillery units. The 2A65 howitzer, like many pieces of Soviet artillery, is capable of firing nuclear artillery shells. In addition to the towed 152 mm 2A36 gun covered in detail in a separate entry, Russia deployed a new 152 mm towed howitzer, designated the 2A65, allocated the NATO designation of the M1987; this was the year. According to United Nations sources there were no exports of this weapon between 1992 and 2006; the 152 mm 2A65 is referred to as the MSTA-B and the weapon forms the main armament of the 152 mm self-propelled artillery system, the 2S19, referred to as the MSTA-S. Full details of the latter are given in a separate entry. In the designation MSTA-B the latter towed; the 152 mm howitzer 2A65 is mounted on a conventional split trail carriage and, when deployed in the firing position, rests on three points, the hydraulic circular firing jack under the forward part of the carriage and the two spades at the rear.
Each of the box section trails has a caster wheel to assist the gun crew in bringing the weapon into action. When deployed in the firing position, these swing upwards through 180° and rest on top of each trail; the 152 mm ordnance is fitted with a muzzle brake and a semi-automatic breech mechanism, spring-operated ramming system, hydraulic counter-recoil device and a liquid-cooled recoil brake. Elevation and traverse is manual, two-speed, with the direct and indirect sighting devices being located on the left side of the weapon. Pneumatic brakes are fitted as standard; the gun fires the same 152 mm ammunition types as the 152 mm 2S19 self-propelled artillery system and, more a new family of separate loading 152 mm has been introduced. The standard OF45 high-explosive projectile weighs 43.56 kilograms, has a maximum muzzle velocity of 823 meters per second and a maximum range of 24.7 km. The charges include OF72, OF58 and OF73; the OF45 projectile can be fitted with different rear ends, for example various types of screw-on boat tails, or the OF61 base bleed projectile which weighs 42.86 kilograms, has a maximum muzzle velocity of 828 m/s and a maximum range of 29 km.
The OF23 cargo projectile weighs 42.8 kg, has a maximum range of 26 kilometers and contains 42 High-Explosive Anti-Tank bomblets, each of which can penetrate 100 millimeters of conventional steel armour. Other types of projectile include the HS30 jamming round and the Russian 152 mm Krasnopol laser-guided projectile, covered in the entry for the 2S19 self-propelled artillery system. A 155 mm version of this system has been developed but as far as it is known this has not been exported. China has developed a new 155 mm/52 calibre SP artillery system called the PLZ52; this has a turret similar to the 2S19. In addition to these new 152 mm projectiles the 2A65 can fire all standard types of 152 mm ammunition fired by the older Russian D-20 towed gun-howitzer and the 2S3 self-propelled gun-howitzer; the howitzer is towed by either the Ural 4320 6x6 truck. The gun consists of a distinctive four-wheeled carriage, has an armored shield that slopes to the rear and extends over the wheels, it was first deployed by Soviet forces in Eastern Europe.
In Russian Army service, the 2A65 is deployed with the 9th Artillery Brigade in Luga, the 288th Artillery Brigade in Inzhenernyy, the 291st Artillery Brigade in Maykop, as well as being stored in Perm and near Novgorod. It is in service with other units in other Russian military districts; the total number of active 2A65 howitzers in Russian service is estimated at 370. The 2A65 is in service with the Ukrainian Ground Forces, in the 11th Artillery Brigade and the 55th Artillery Brigade, Zaporizhia. In Defense Forces of Georgia, 2A65 is in service within 5th Artillery brigade of Eastern Army Command. A self-propelled version, the 2S19 "Msta-S", is produced. Belarus: 132 Georgia: 10 Kazakhstan: 50 Russia Ukraine: 130 Syria Soviet Union M-390 - This is a 155mm export version of the 2A65, developed by Factory No 9 in Yekaterinburg. MZ-146-1 - This is a 155mm export version, shown in public for the first time in 2008. Contrary to the original, this type is fitted with a fume extractor. Jane's extract on the 2A65 Picture of the MZ-146-1 on ArmyRecognition
The Russian Navy is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces. It has existed in various forms since 1696, the present iteration of, formed in January 1992 when it succeeded the Navy of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the first iteration of the Russian Navy was established by Peter the Great in October 1696. Ascribed to him is the oft quoted statement: "A ruler that has but an army has one hand, but he who has a navy has both." The symbols of the Russian Navy, the St. Andrew's ensign, most of its traditions were established by Peter I. Neither Jane's Fighting Ships nor the International Institute for Strategic Studies list any standard ship prefixes for the vessels of the Russian Navy; the U. S. government sometimes uses the exonymous prefix "RFS". However, the Russian Navy itself does not use this convention; the Russian Navy possesses the vast majority of the former Soviet naval forces, comprises the Northern Fleet, the Russian Pacific Fleet, the Russian Black Sea Fleet, the Russian Baltic Fleet, the Russian Caspian Flotilla, Naval Aviation, the Coastal Troops.
A rearmament program approved in 2007 placed the development of the navy on an equal footing with the strategic nuclear forces for the first time in Soviet and Russian history. This program, covering the period until 2015, expected to see the replacement of 45 percent of the inventory of the Russian Navy. Out of 4.9 trillion rubles allocated for military rearmament, 25 percent will go into building new ships. "We are building as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said during a visit to Severodvinsk in July 2007, "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so that the navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down."The Russian Navy suffered since the dissolution of the Soviet Union due to insufficient maintenance, lack of funding and subsequent effects on the training of personnel and timely replacement of equipment. Another setback is attributed to Russia's domestic shipbuilding industry, reported to have been in decline as to their capabilities of constructing contemporary hardware efficiently.
Some analysts say that because of this Russia's naval capabilities have been facing a slow but certain "irreversible collapse". Some analysts say that the recent rise in gas and oil prices has enabled a sort of renaissance of the Russian Navy due to increased available funds, which may allow Russia to begin "developing the capacity to modernize". In August 2014, Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said that Russian naval capabilities would be bolstered with new weapons and equipment within the next six years in response to NATO deployments in eastern Europe and recent developments in Ukraine; the origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 6th century. The first Slavic flotillas consisted of small sailing ships and rowboats, seaworthy and able to navigate in riverbeds. During the 9th through 12th centuries, there were flotillas in the Kievan Rus' consisting of hundreds of vessels with one, two, or three masts. Riverine vessels in 9th century Kievan Rus guarded trade routes to Constantinople.
The citizens of Novgorod are known to have conducted military campaigns in the Baltic Sea —although contemporary Scandinavian sources state that the fleet was from Karelia or Estonia. Lad'ya was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod. There were smaller sailboats and rowboats, such as ushkuys for sailing in rivers and skerries, nosads, used for cargo transportation. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Cossacks conducted military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire, using sailboats and rowboats; the Don Cossacks called. These boats were capable of transporting up to 80 men; the Cossack flotillas numbered 80 to 100 boats. The centralized Russian state had been fighting for its own access to the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov since the 17th Century. By the end of that century, the Russians had accumulated some valuable experience in using riverboats together with land forces. Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, the construction of the first three-masted ship to be built within Russia was finished in 1636.
She was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein with a European design. She was christened the Frederick. In 1667–69, the Russians tried to build naval ships in a village of Dedinovo on the shores of the Oka River for the purpose of defending the trade routes along the Volga River, which led to the Caspian Sea. In 1668, they built a 26-gun ship, the Oryol, a yacht, a boat with a mast and bowsprit, a few rowboats. During much of the seventeenth century Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, explored the rivers Lena and Indigirka, founded settlements in the region of the upper Amur. Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length of present-day Russia along the Arctic coast. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the
Identification friend or foe
Identification, friend or foe is a radar-based identification system designed for command and control. It uses a transponder that listens for an interogation signal and sends a response consisting of a unique signal that identifies the broadcaster, it enables military and civilian air traffic control interrogation systems to identify aircraft, vehicles or forces as friendly and to determine their bearing and range from the interrogator. IFF may be used by both civilian aircraft. IFF was first developed during the Second World War, with the arrival of radar, several infamous friendly fire incidents. Despite the name, IFF can only positively identify friendly targets, not hostile ones. If an IFF interrogation receives no reply or an invalid reply, the object cannot be identified as friendly, but is not positively identified as foe. There are in addition many reasons that friendly aircraft may not properly reply to IFF. IFF is a tool within the broader military action of Combat Identification, "the process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision."
The broadest characterization is that of friend, neutral, or unknown. CID not only can reduce friendly fire incidents, but contributes to overall tactical decision-making. With the successful deployment of radar systems for air defence during World War II, combatants were confronted with the difficulty of distinguishing friendly aircraft from hostile ones; this led to incidents such as the Battle of Barking Creek, over Britain, the air attack on the fortress of Koepenick over Germany. Before the deployment of their Chain Home radar system, the RAF had considered the problem of IFF. Robert Watson-Watt had filed patents on such systems in 1935 and 1936. By 1938, researchers at Bawdsey Manor began experiments with "reflectors" consisting of dipole antennas tuned to resonate to the primary frequency of the CH radars; when a pulse from the CH transmitter hit the aircraft, the antennas would resonate for a short time, increasing the amount of energy returned to the CH receiver. The antenna was connected to a motorized switch that periodically shorted it out, preventing it from producing a signal.
This caused the return on the CH set to periodically lengthen and shorten as the antenna was turned on and off. In practice, the system was found to be too unreliable to use, it had been suspected. When that turned out to be the case, the RAF turned to an different system, being planned; this consisted of a set of tracking stations using HF/DF radio direction finders. Their aircraft radios were modified to send out a 1 kHz tone for 14 seconds every minute, allowing the stations ample time to measure the aircraft's bearing. Several such stations were assigned to each "sector" of the air defence system, sent their measurements to a plotting station at sector headquarters, who used triangulation to determine the aircraft's location. Known as "pip-squeak", the system worked, but was labour-intensive and did not display its information directly to the radar operators. A system that worked directly with the radar was desirable; the first active IFF transponder was the IFF Mark I, used experimentally in 1939.
This used a regenerative receiver, which fed a small amount of the amplified output back into the input amplifying small signals as long as they were of a single frequency. They were tuned to the signal from the CH radar, amplifying it so that it was broadcast back out the aircraft's antenna. Since the signal was received at the same time as the original reflection of the CH signal, the result was a lengthened "blip" on the CH display, identifiable. In testing, it was found that the unit would overpower the radar or produce too little signal to be seen, at the same time, new radars were being introduced using new frequencies. Instead of putting Mark I into production, a new IFF Mark II was introduced in early 1940. Mark II had a series of separate tuners inside tuned to different radar bands that it stepped through using a motorized switch, while an automatic gain control solved the problem of it sending out too much signal. Mark II was technically complete as the war began, but a lack of sets meant it was not available in quantity and only a small number of RAF aircraft carried it by the time of the Battle of Britain.
Pip-squeak was kept in operation during this period, but as the Battle ended, IFF Mark II was put into full operation. Pip-squeak was still used for areas over land where CH did not cover, as well as an emergency guidance system. By 1940 the complex system of Mark II was reaching its limits while new radars were being introduced. By 1941, a number of sub-models were introduced that covered different combinations of radars, common naval ones for instance, or those used by the RAF, but the introduction of radars based on the microwave-frequency cavity magnetron rendered this obsolete. In 1940, English engineer Freddie Williams had suggested using a single separate frequency for all IFF signals, but at the time there seemed no
The 2K11 Krug is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile system. The system was produced by Kalinin Machine Building Plant, its GRAU designation is "2K11." Its NATO reporting name is SA-4 Ganef, after a word of Yiddish origin meaning "thief" or "rascal." Development of the Krug ZRK-SD air defense system started in 1957 by the Lyulev OKB design bureau. It was first displayed during a parade in Moscow in May 1965; the system started to be fielded in 1967 and became operational in 1969. It was used by the Russian Army as a long-range SAM; the early version of the Krug entered service in 1965. The first operational deployment version, the Krug-A, entered service in 1967, with extensively modified versions, the Krug-M in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974, which were developed to rectify problems discovered during army service; the upgraded version Krug-M was fielded in 1971 and the Krug-M1 in 1974. A target drone called 9M316M Virazh, developed from obsolete Krug missiles, was proposed for export in 1994.
The 2K11 was operated by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan in 1979 and 1980, but was withdrawn several months after the initial invasion. In 1997, it was reported that, between 1993 and 1996, some 27 fire units of Krug and 349 missiles had been sold to Armenia. Poland flight tested four missiles in September 2006 against P-15 Termit targets; the TEL vehicles are tracked based on a GM-123 chassis and carry two missiles each on an elevating turntable for up to 360-degree rotation and 70-degree elevation. The two primary versions of the missile in service are the 9M8M1 and 9M8M2, both of which are believed to be known to the US DoD as SA-4B; the original 9M8 was first introduced into service in 1965 and followed by the upgraded 9M8M in 1967 before the 9M8M1 in 1971 and the 9M8M2 in 1973. The 9M8M2 has a lower maximum engagement altitude and shorter range in exchange for better performance in engaging aircraft close to the battery; each battery consists of two 9M8M1 missiles and four 9M8M2 missiles as well as the following radars: P-40 "Long Track" E-band early warning radar, in divisions command post 1S32 "Pat Hand" H-band continuous wave fire control and guidance radar PRV-9 "Thin Skin" E-band height finding radar, in regiments or brigades command postOnly "Long Track" is mounted on a modified AT-T vehicle, TEL 2P24 and "Pat Hand" 1S32 are mounted on GM-123/ GM-124.
"Thin Skin" is mounted on a truck. Batteries may feature Ural 375D trucks 2T6 carrying spare missiles for reloading the launchers; the missiles are launched with the aid of four solid fuel rocket motors inside boosters attached to the outside of the missile. Once they have burned and the missile is aloft, a liquid-fuelled ramjet sustainer engine is ignited, it has an effective range of 50 -- 55 km depending upon the version. It carries. Possible engagement altitudes range from 100 m to 27 km; the 3M8 missile was produced by NPO Novator. Optical tracking is possible for guidance in a heavy ECM environment. SAM- regiment with two SAM- divisions, SAM- brigade with three SAM- divisions. In each headquarter, brigade and division, is one command battery; each SAM- division with three SAM- batteries. Self-propelled launch vehicle 2P24 on GM-123 base, three in each SAM- battery Rocket guidance station 1S32 on GM-124 base, one in each SAM- battery Target detection station 1S12 on modified AT-T base, one in each command battery Transporter-loader vehicle 2T6 on Ural truck base, one in each SAM- battery 2K11A Krug A2K11M 2K11M1M-31 Krug M – naval Armenia 115 Azerbaijan North Korea – 120 Syria – 40 Turkmenistan – 30 Kyrgyzstan – 12 Bulgaria – 30, in reserve Czechoslovakia had 1 brigade.
Phased out in early 1990s. East Germany. Passed onto successor states. Germany – Phased out during the 1990s Georgia – Phased out in 2006. Hungary had 1 regiment, 25. Phased out in middle 1990s. Poland – 30. Phased out in 2011. Russia – 500 launchers Missiles used as targets for training Soviet Union Ukraine Phased out Algeria SA-4 Ganef at Global Security website SA-4 Ganef at Federation of American Scientists website Photos of Polish Krug at Vestnik PVO website 2K11 KRUG-M1 Simulator
Russian Ground Forces
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, required reforms to professionalize the Ground Forces during the transition. Since 1992, the Ground Forces have withdrawn thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars and other operations in the Soviet successor states; the primary responsibilities of the Ground Forces are the protection of the state borders, combat on land, the security of occupied territories, the defeat of enemy troops. The Ground Forces must be able to achieve these goals both in nuclear war and non-nuclear war without the use of weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, they must be capable of protecting the national interests of Russia within the framework of its international obligations; the Main Command of the Ground Forces is tasked with the following objectives: The training of troops for combat, on the basis of tasks determined by the Armed Forces' General Staff.
The improvement of troops' structure and composition, the optimization of their numbers, including for special troops. The development of military theory and practice; the development and introduction of training field manuals and methodology. The improvement of operational and combat training of the Ground Forces; as the Soviet Union dissolved, efforts were made to keep the Soviet Armed Forces as a single military structure for the new Commonwealth of Independent States. The last Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union, Marshal Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, was appointed supreme commander of the CIS Armed Forces in December 1991. Among the numerous treaties signed by the former republics, in order to direct the transition period, was a temporary agreement on general purpose forces, signed in Minsk on 14 February 1992. However, once it became clear that Ukraine was determined to undermine the concept of joint general purpose forces and form their own armed forces, the new Russian government moved to form its own armed forces.
Russian president Boris Yeltsin signed a decree forming the Russian Ministry of Defence on 7 May 1992, establishing the Russian Ground Forces along with the other branches of the military. At the same time, the General Staff was in the process of withdrawing tens of thousands of personnel from the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, from Mongolia. Thirty-seven divisions had to be withdrawn from the four groups of forces and the Baltic States, four military districts—totalling 57 divisions—were handed over to Belarus and Ukraine; some idea of the scale of the withdrawal can be gained from the division list. For the dissolving Soviet Ground Forces, the withdrawal from the former Warsaw Pact states and the Baltic states was an demanding and debilitating process; as the military districts that remained in Russia after the collapse of the Union consisted of the mobile cadre formations, the Ground Forces were, to a large extent, created by relocating the full-strength formations from Eastern Europe to under-resourced districts.
However, the facilities in those districts were inadequate to house the flood of personnel and equipment returning from abroad, many units "were unloaded from the rail wagons into empty fields." The need for destruction and transfer of large amounts of weaponry under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe necessitated great adjustments. The Ministry of Defence newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda published a reform plan on 21 July 1992. One commentator said it was "hastily" put together by the General Staff "to satisfy the public demand for radical changes." The General Staff, from that point, became a bastion of conservatism, causing a build-up of troubles that became critical. The reform plan advocated a change from an Army-Division-Regiment structure to a Corps-Brigade arrangement; the new structures were to be more capable in a situation with no front line, more capable of independent action at all levels. Cutting out a level of command, omitting two out of three higher echelons between the theatre headquarters and the fighting battalions, would produce economies, increase flexibility, simplify command-and-control arrangements.
The expected changeover to the new structure proved to be rare and sometimes reversed. The new brigades that appeared were divisions that had broken down until they happened to be at the proposed brigade strengths. New divisions—such as the new 3rd Motor Rifle Division in the Moscow Military District, formed on the basis of disbanding tank formations—were formed, rather than new brigades. Few of the reforms planned in the early 1990s eventuated, for three reasons: Firstly, there was an absence of firm civilian political guidance, with President Yeltsin interested in ensuring that the Armed Forces were controllable and loyal, rather than reformed. Secondly, declining funding worsened the progress. There was no firm consensus within the military about what reforms should be implemented. General Pavel Grachev, the first Russian Minister of Defence, broadly advertised reforms, yet wished to preserve the old Soviet-style Army, with large numbers of low-strength formations and continued mass conscription.
The General Staff and the armed services tried to preserve Soviet era doctrines, weapon
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 . Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga. During the period of Tartar raids it was the western end of the Oka bank defense line; the Great stand on the Ugra River was fought just to the west. In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky; the ancestral home of these princes lies southwest of the modern city. On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga is connected to Moscow by the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road; this road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.
On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray, the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz, the Georgian princess Thecla, the Avar leader Imam Shamil. Kaluga was occupied by the German army in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow, it was occupied from October 12, 1941 to December 30, 1941. In 1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army—whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested by in the Vilno area. Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.
In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines. In recent years Kaluga has become one center of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area: On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, further expanded by 2009; the investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant assembles the Volkswagen Passat, Škoda Fabia and Škoda Rapid. On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, inaugurated on January 19, 2009; the plant has a yearly capacity of 5,000 Renault trucks. On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga. By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models; the city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Moscow. Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses and marshrutkas.
Kaluga has a humid temperate continental, with humid summers. Winter extreme records can be as low as −45 °C, while summer heat may reach up +40 °C, but it's about between −5 °C and −20 °C during winter and between 15 °C and 30 °C during summer in Kaluga. Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher; the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration". Other notable people include: Alexander Amfiteatrov Yuri Averbakh Mykola Azarov Pafnuty Chebyshev, mathematician Alexander Chizhevsky David Edelstadt Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian-American composer Jonah of Hankou Andrei Kalaychev Valery Kobelev, ski jumper Mikhail Linge Pavel Popovich, the only person to receive two honorary citizenships of Kaluga Nikolai Rakov Imam Shamil Nikolay Skvortsov, swimmer Yuliya Tabakova Georgy Zhukov Olesya Zykina, 400m athlete Bulat Okudzhava and taught Literature in public school in 1980th.
Serafim Tulikov Kaluga is twinned with: Suhl, Germany.