GREE, Inc. is a Japanese Internet media company with headquarters in the Roppongi Hills Mori Tower in Roppongi, Tokyo. It has been operating the social network service GREE since its establishment in December 2004. Feb. 2004 Release of GREE alpha to the public by Yoshikazu Tanaka as a personal hobby Mar. 2004 Exceeds 10,000 users Dec. 2004 Established GREE, Inc. Nov. 2006 Launches EZ GREE as a KDDI Mobile official service Feb. 2007 Launches GREE as a NTT Docomo official service Mar. 2007 Exceeds 1 million users Aug. 2007 Launches GREE as a Softbank official service Dec. 2008 Listed on the Market of the High-Growth and Emerging Stocks Apr. 2009 Exceeds 10 million users Jun. 2010 Exceeds 20 million users Jun. 2010 Listed on the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange Jun. 2010 Release of third-party applications on "GREE Platform" Jul. 2010 Relocates Company headquarters to Roppongi Hills Mori Tower, Tokyo Nov. 2010 Announcement of investment in Project Goth, Inc. Dec. 2010 Launches "GREE Platform for smartphone" Dec. 2010 Exceeds 23.8 million users Jan. 2011 Establishment of a subsidiary, GREE International, Inc. in the US Jan. 2011 Acquisition of Atlantis Co. Ltd.
Jan. 2011 Announcement of business collaboration with Tencent Apr. 2011 Buys US social mobile gaming platform OpenFeint for $104 million May 2012 GREE purchased the mobile game developer Funzio for $210 million The company name GREE comes from a hypothesis, Six Degrees of Separation postulated by social psychologist Stanley Milgram in 1967. "Six degrees of separation" is a hypothesis that everyone is six steps away from any other person on Earth. If a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements are made, on average, any two people in the world can be connected in six steps or fewer; the name symbolizes GREE’s hope to "create and provide any new possibilities of the Internet" and to "create new forms of fun and excitement." Official website
Stanley Milgram was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale. Milgram was influenced by the events of the Holocaust the trial of Adolf Eichmann, in developing the experiment. After earning a PhD in social psychology from Harvard University, he taught at Yale and for most of his career as a professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center, until his death in 1984, his small-world experiment while at Harvard led researchers to analyze the degree of connectedness, including the six degrees of separation concept. In his career, Milgram developed a technique for creating interactive hybrid social agents, which has since been used to explore aspects of social- and self-perception, he is regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of social psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Milgram as the 46th-most-cited psychologist in the 20th century.
Milgram was born in 1933 in New York City to Jewish parents. His parents were Adele and Samuel Milgram, who had emigrated to the United States from Romania and Hungary during World War I, he was the second of three children. Milgram's immediate and extended family were both affected by the Holocaust. After the war, relatives of his who had survived Nazi concentration camps and bore concentration camp tattoos stayed with the Milgram family in New York for a time, his Bar Mitzvah speech was on the subject of the plight of the European Jews and the impact that World War II events would have on Jewish people around the world. He said, upon becoming a man under Jewish law: "As I... find happiness in joining the ranks of Israel, the knowledge of the tragic suffering of my fellow Jews... makes this... an occasion to reflect upon the heritage of my people—which now becomes mine.... I shall try to understand my people and do my best to share the responsibilities which history has placed upon all of us."
He wrote to a friend from childhood: "I should have been born into the German-speaking Jewish community of Prague in 1922 and died in a gas chamber some 20 years later. How I came to be born in the Bronx Hospital, I'll never quite understand."Milgram's interest in the Holocaust had its basis in what his biographer, Professor Thomas Blass, referred to as Milgram's "lifelong identification with the Jewish people." Author Kirsten Fermaglich wrote that Milgram as an adult had "a personal conflict as a Jewish man who perceived himself both as an outsider, a victim of the Nazi destruction, as an insider, as scientist." Alexandra stated that Milgram's Jewish identity led to his focus on the Holocaust and his obedience-to-authority research. He shared this as well with Herbert Winer, one of his obedience study subjects, who noted after speaking to Milgram about the experiment that "Milgram was Jewish. I was Jewish. We talked about this. There was a motive behind neutral research."Milgram married his wife, Alexandra, in a ceremony at the Brotherhood Synagogue in Greenwich Village in Manhattan on December 10, 1961, they had two children and Marc.
Milgram's father worked as a baker, providing a modest income for his family until his death in 1953. Milgram attended PS 77 and James Monroe High School in the Bronx, excelled academically and was a great leader among his peers. One of Milgram's classmates at James Monroe High School was Philip Zimbardo, the architect of the Stanford prison experiment. Milgram and Zombardo shared an affinity for the popular television program Candid Camera and an admiration for its creator, Allen Funt. By the time he was college age, his family had moved to nearby Queens. In 1954, Milgram received his bachelor's degree in political science from Queens College in New York, which he attended tuition-free, he studied at Brooklyn College, where he received A-grades in "Psychology of Personality" and "An Eclectic Approach to Social Psychology." He applied to a PhD program in social psychology at Harvard University, was rejected due to an insufficient background in psychology. He was accepted to Harvard in 1954 after first enrolling as a student in Harvard's Office of Special Students.
In 1961, Milgram received a PhD in social psychology from Harvard. He became an assistant professor at Yale in the fall of 1960, he served as an assistant professor in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard from 1963 to 1966 on a three-year contract. The contract was extended for one additional year, but with the lower rank of a lecturer. Most because of his controversial obedience experiment, Milgram was denied tenure at Harvard. In 1967 he accepted an offer to become a tenured full professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center, he taught at City University until he died in 1984. Milgram had a number of significant influences, including psychologists Solomon Asch and Gordon Allport. Milgram died on December 1984, aged 51, of a heart attack in New York City, it was his fifth heart attack. He left behind a widow, Alexandra "Sasha" Milgram, a daughter, Michele Sara, a son, Marc Daniel. In 1963, Milgram submitted the results of his obedience experiments in the article "Behavioral Study of Obedience."
In the ensuing controversy, the American Psychological Association held up his application for membership for a year because of questions about the ethics of his work, but did grant him full membership. Ten years in 1974, Milgram published Obedience to A
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Social networking service
A social networking service is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, backgrounds or real-life connections. The social network is distributed across various computer networks; the social networks are inherently computer networks, linking people and knowledge. Social networking services vary in the number of features, they can incorporate a range of new information and communication tools, operating on desktops and on laptops, on mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. They may feature "web logging" diary entries online. Online community services are sometimes considered social-network services by programmers and users, though in a broader sense, a social-network service provides an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Defined as "websites that facilitate the building of a network of contacts in order to exchange various types of content online," social networking sites provide a space for interaction to continue beyond in person interactions.
These computer mediated interactions link members of various networks and may help to both maintain and develop new social ties. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, digital photos and videos, to inform others about online or real-world activities and events with people in their network. While in-person social networking – such as gathering in a village market to talk about events – has existed since the earliest development of towns, the Web enables people to connect with others who live in different locations, ranging from across a city to across the world. Depending on the social media platform, members may be able to contact any other member. In other cases, members can contact anyone they have a connection to, subsequently anyone that contact has a connection to, so on; the success of social networking services can be seen in their dominance in society today, with Facebook having a massive 2.13 billion active monthly users and an average of 1.4 billion daily active users in 2017.
LinkedIn, a career-oriented social-networking service requires that a member know another member in real life before they contact them online. Some services require members to have a preexisting connection to contact other members; the main types of social networking services contain category places, means to connect with friends, a recommendation system linked to trust. One can categorize social-network services into three types: socializing social network services used for socializing with existing friends online social networks are decentralized and distributed computer networks where users communicate with each other through internet services. Networking social network services used for non-social interpersonal communication social navigation social network services used for helping users to find specific information or resources There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests. A study reveals that India recorded world's largest growth in terms of social media users in 2013.
A 2013 survey found that 73% of U. S. adults use social-networking sites. There is a variety of social networking services available online. However, most incorporate common features: social networking services are Web 2.0, Internet-based applications user-generated content is the lifeblood of social networking services. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization social networking services facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups; the variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition. Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together and provides too broad a definition; such a broad definition would suggest that the telegraph and telephone were social networking services – not the Internet technologies scholars are intending to describe.
The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social networking services as social media. A recent attempt at providing a clear definition reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to current social networking services: social networking services are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications, user-generated content, such as user-submitted digital photos, text posts, "tagging", online comments, diary-style "web logs", is the lifeblood of the SNS organism, users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization, social networking services facilitate the development of social networks online by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, bulletin board services.
Many prototypical features of social networking sites were present in online services such as America Online, CompuServe, ChatNet, The WELL. Early social netw
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. An icon or figure representing a particular person in a video game, Internet forum, etc, it may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. Avatar images have been referred to as "picons" in the past, though the usage of this term is uncommon now, it can refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. The term "avatar" can refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user; the word avatar originates in Hinduism, where it stands for the "descent" of a deity in a terrestrial form. The earliest use of the word avatar in a computer game was the 1979 PLATO role-playing game Avatar; the use of the term avatar for the on-screen representation of the user was coined in 1985 by Richard Garriott for the computer game Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar.
In this game, Garriott desired the player's character to be his earth self manifested into the virtual world. Garriott did this because he wanted the real player to be responsible for the character's in game actions due to the ethical parables he designed into the story. Only if you were playing "yourself" Garriott felt, could you be judged based on your character's actions; because of its ethically-nuanced, story-driven approach, he took the Hindu word associated with a deity's manifestation on earth in physical form, applied it to a player manifesting in the game world. The term avatar was used in 1986 by Chip Morningstar in Lucasfilm's online role-playing game Habitat. Another early use of the term was in the paper role-playing game Shadowrun. In Norman Spinrad's novel Songs from the Stars, the term avatar is used in a description of a computer generated virtual experience. In the story, humans receive messages from an alien galactic network that wishes to share knowledge and experience with other advanced civilizations through "songs".
The humans build a "galactic receiver" that describes itself: The galactic receiver is programmed to derive species specific full sensory input data from standard galactic meaning code equations. By controlling your sensorium input along species specific parameters galactic songs astral back-project you into approximation of total involvement in artistically recreated broadcast realities... From the last page of the chapter titled "The Galactic Way" in a description of an experience, being relayed via the galactic receiver to the main characters: You stand in a throng of multifleshed being, mind avatared in all its matter, on a broad avenue winding through a city of blue trees with bright red foliage and living buildings growing from the soil in a multitude of forms; the use of avatar to mean online virtual bodies was popularised by Neal Stephenson in his cyberpunk novel Snow Crash. In Snow Crash, the term avatar was used to describe the virtual simulation of the human form in the Metaverse, a fictional virtual-reality application on the Internet.
Social status within the Metaverse was based on the quality of a user's avatar, as a detailed avatar showed that the user was a skilled hacker and programmer while the less talented would buy off-the-shelf models in the same manner a beginner would today. Stephenson wrote in the "Acknowledgments" to Snow Crash: The idea of a "virtual reality" such as the Metaverse is by now widespread in the computer-graphics community and is being used in a number of different ways; the particular vision of the Metaverse as expressed in this novel originated from idle discussion between me and Jaime Taaffe... The words avatar and Metaverse are my inventions, which I came up with when I decided that existing words were too awkward to use... after the first publication of Snow Crash, I learned that the term avatar has been in use for a number of years as part of a virtual reality system called Habitat...in addition to avatars, Habitat includes many of the basic features of the Metaverse as described in this book.
Despite the widespread use of avatars, it is unknown which Internet forums were the first to use them. Avatars on Internet forums serve the purpose of representing users and their actions, personalizing their contributions to the forum, may represent different parts of their persona, interests or social status in the forum; the traditional avatar system used on most Internet forums is a small square-shaped area close to the user's forum post, where the avatar is placed in order for other users to identify who has written the post without having to read their username. Some forums allow the user to upload an avatar image that may have been designed by the user or acquired from elsewhere. Other forums allow the user to select an avatar from a preset list or use an auto-discovery algorithm to extract one from the user's homepage; some avatars are animated. In such animated avatars, the number of images as well as the time in which they are replayed vary considerably. Other avatar systems exist, such as on Gaia Online, WeeWorld, Frenzoo or Meez, where a pixelized representation of a person or creature is used, which can be customized to the user's wishes.
There are avatar systems where a representation is created using a person's face with customi
Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe a class of devices that are still technically otherwise smartphones, besides their lack of advanced hardware and capabilities of modern ones. Feature phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface, provide voice calling and text messaging functionality in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities and other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. Feature phones have a backlit LCD screen and micro USB port and have a physical keyboard, a microphone, SD card slot, a rear-facing camera to record video and capture pictures; some feature phones include a rudimentary app store that include basic software such as mobile games and calculator programs. Prior to the popularity of smartphones, the term'feature phone' was used on high-end phones with assorted functions for retail customers, developed around the advent of 3G networks, which allowed sufficient bandwidth for these capabilities.
Feature phones were mid-range devices, between basic phones on the low end with few or no features beyond basic dialing and messaging, business-oriented smartphones on the high end. The best-selling feature phones include those by Nokia, the Razr by Motorola, the multimedia-enabled Sony Ericsson W580i, the LG Black Label Series that targeted retail customers. Feature phones run on proprietary firmware with third-party software support through platforms such as Java ME or BREW; the proprietary operating systems were not designed in mind to develop nor handle the intensive applications found on iOS and Android, both of which cater to third-party application development which became important. Depending on extent of functionality, feature phones may have many of the capabilities of a smartphone, within certain cases. For example, today's feature phones serve as a portable media player, can have digital cameras, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi and mobile broadband internet access, mobile gaming through discrete apps.
In developed economies, feature phones are specific to niche markets, or have become a preference—owing to certain feature combinations not available in other devices, such as affordability, durability and extended battery life per one charge. In emerging markets, a feature phone remains the primary means of communication for many. A well-designed feature phone can be used in industrial environments and the outdoors, at workplaces that proscribe dedicated cameras, as an emergency telephone. Several models are equipped with hardware functions — such as FM radio and flashlight — that prevent the device from becoming useless in the event of a major disaster, or obsolete, if and when 2G network infrastructure is shut down. Other feature phones are designed for the elderly, yet others for religious purposes. Feature phones are kept in phone manufacturers' lineups for several reasons: They are lower priced than smartphones, because: Most patents on basic mobile device technology have expired; some expired patents make it possible to add more functions in their basic form that before were the purview of mid-range or high-end devices.
Many standards-essential patents are required to have fair and non-discriminatory licensing, which means that license payments for each device using a standards-essential technology must be low enough that it will not disincentivize adoption of a standard or cause legal conflict. Many basic phones now include some of that functionality, rendering them as either basic feature phones or smart feature phones—whereas advanced feature phones include all of these and more. From the point of view of markets and consumers, there are several situations for which feature phones are beneficial: Power requirements are relatively low, which translates to extended talk and standby times. Anticipated loss, damage, or reasonably rough use: Feature phones are more durable, less complex, more affordable, for these reasons are preferred as travel devices, children's devices, for field use scenarios; the devices' low cost means that loss of such an item is manageable, serves as a disincentive for theft in mature markets.
Liberal and mature markets are well-suited for specific functions: In countries where payphones have been discontinued, some operators offer prepaid cellular plans with a SIM card and a basic mobile phone in one package for about the same amount a mid-tier calling card would have cost. Travelers may prefer this option, given expensive roaming fees; the first cellular phone, the Motorola DynaTAC released in 1984, is considered a basic mobile phone due to its inability to do anything more than making voice calls. Despite the introduction of smartphones in the mid-1990s, ignited with the August 1994 release of the IBM Simon, Nokia Communicator from 1996 on, the BlackBerry line of handheld personal digital assistants from Research in Motion, feature phones enjoyed unchallenged popularity into the mid 2000s. In North America, such as Palm and BlackBerry, were still considered a niche category for enterprise use. Outside North America, Nokia's Symbian devices had captured the smartphone market, in which price was the only barrier to entry, Nokia offered smartphones across all feasible price segments.
In the mid-2000s, phone makers