Dragon was one of the two official magazines for source material for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game and associated products. TSR, Inc. launched the monthly printed magazine in 1976 to succeed the company's earlier publication, The Strategic Review. The final printed issue was #359 in September 2007. Shortly after the last print issue shipped in mid-August 2007, Wizards of the Coast, the publication's current copyright holder, relaunched Dragon as an online magazine, continuing on the numbering of the print edition; the last published issue was No. 430 in December 2013. A digital publication called Dragon+, which replaces the Dragon magazine, launched in 2015, it is created by Dialect in collaboration with Wizards of the Coast, restarted the numbering system for issues at No. 1. In 1975, TSR, Inc. began publishing The Strategic Review. At the time, roleplaying games were still seen as a subgenre of the wargaming industry, the magazine was designed not only to support Dungeons & Dragons and TSR's other games, but to cover wargaming in general.
In short order, the popularity and growth of Dungeons & Dragons made it clear that the game had not only separated itself from its wargaming origins, but had launched an new industry unto itself. TSR canceled The Strategic Review after only seven issues the following year, replaced it with two magazines, Little Wars, which covered miniature wargaming, The Dragon, which covered role playing games. After twelve issues, Little Wars ceased independent publication and issue 13 was published as part of Dragon issue 22; the magazine debuted as The Dragon in June 1976. TSR co-founder Gary Gygax commented years later: "When I decided that The Strategic Review was not the right vehicle, hired Tim Kask as a magazine editor for Tactical Studies Rules, named the new publication he was to produce The Dragon, I thought we would have a great periodical to serve gaming enthusiasts worldwide... At no time did I contemplate so great a success or so long a lifespan."Dragon was the launching point for a number of rules, monsters, magic items, other ideas that were incorporated into official products of the Dungeons & Dragons game.
A prime example is the Forgotten Realms campaign setting, which first became known through a series of Dragon articles in the 1980s by its creator Ed Greenwood. It subsequently went on to become one of the primary campaign'worlds' for official Dungeons and Dragons products, starting in 1987; the magazine appeared on the cover as Dragon from July 1980 changing its name to Dragon Magazine starting November 1987. Wizards of the Coast purchased TSR and its intellectual properties, including Dragon Magazine, in 1997. Production was transferred from Wisconsin to Washington state. In 1999, Wizards of the Coast was itself purchased by Inc.. Dragon Magazine suffered a five-month gap between #236 and #237 but remained published by TSR as a subsidiary of WotC starting September 1997, until January 2000 when WotC became the listed de facto publisher, they removed the word "magazine" from the cover title starting with the June, 2000 issue, changing the publication's name back to Dragon. In 1999 a compilation of the first 250 issues was released in PDF format with a special viewer including an article and keyword search on a CD-ROM package.
Included were the 7 issues of The Strategic Review. This compilation is known as the software title Dragon Magazine Archive; because of issues raised with the 2001 ruling in Greenberg v. National Geographic regarding the reprint rights of various comic scripts, printed in Dragon over the years and Paizo Publishing's policy that creators of comics retain their copyright, the Dragon Magazine Archive is out of print and hard to find. In 2002, Paizo Publishing acquired the rights to publish both Dragon and Dungeon under license from Wizards of the Coast. Dragon was published by Paizo starting September 2002, it tied Dragon more to Dungeon by including articles supporting and promoting its major multi-issue adventures such as the Age of Worms and Savage Tide. Class Acts, monthly one or two-page articles offering ideas for developing specific character classes, were introduced by Paizo. On April 18, 2007, Wizards of the Coast announced that it would not be renewing Paizo's licenses for Dragon and Dungeon.
Scott Rouse, Senior Brand Manager of Dungeons & Dragons at Wizards of the Coast stated, "Today the internet is where people go to get this kind of information. By moving to an online model we are using a delivery system that broadens our reach to fans around the world." Paizo published the last print editions of Dragon and Dungeon magazines for September 2007. In August 2007, Wizards of the Coast announced plans for the 4th edition of the Dungeons & Dragons game. Part of this announcement was that D&D Insider subscriber content would include the new, online versions of both Dungeon and Dragon magazines along with tools for building campaigns, managing character sheets and other features. In its online form, Dragon continues to publish articles aimed at Dungeons & Dragons players, with rules data from these articles feeding the D&D Character Builder and other online tools. In the September 2013 issue of Dragon an article by Wizards of the Coast game designer and editor Chris Perkins announced that both Dragon and its sibling publication Dungeon would be going on hiatus starting January 2014 pending the release o
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Lake Geneva, Wisconsin
Lake Geneva is a city in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA. The population was 7,651 at the 2010 census. A resort city located on Geneva Lake, it is popular with vacationers from the Chicago and Milwaukee areas. Called "Maunk-suck" for a Potawatomi chief, the city was named Geneva after the town of Geneva, New York, located on Seneca Lake, to which early settler John Brink saw a resemblance. To avoid confusion with the nearby town of Geneva, Illinois, it was renamed Lake Geneva; the abutting lake is named Geneva Lake. In 1954, Lake Geneva was one of the three finalists for the location of the new United States Air Force Academy, but lost to Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1968, the late Hugh Hefner built his first Playboy resort in Lake Geneva; the club closed in 1981 and in 1982 was converted into the Americana Resort, in 1993 to the present Grand Geneva Resort. Royal Records was a Lake Geneva music recording studio where artists such as Ministry from Chicago Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs album'92, Cheap Trick from Chicago Standing on the Edge album'85, Queensrÿche Empire 1990, Crash Test Dummies "Mmm Mmm Mmm Mmm" in'93, Iron Maiden, Nine Inch Nails from Cleveland Broken in'92, Skid Row have recorded albums.
Lake Geneva is located at 42°35′33″N 88°26′4″W. The city is situated on the northeast bay of Geneva Lake on flat ground, with some steep hills and bluffs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.55 square miles, of which, 6.54 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,651 people, 3,323 households, 1,879 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,169.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,225 housing units at an average density of 646.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.6% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 8.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.3% of the population. There were 3,323 households of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.5% were non-families.
36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,148 people, 3,053 households, 1,801 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,425.1 people per square mile. There were 3,757 housing units at an average density of 749.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.81% White, 0.90% African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 5.16% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.75% of the population. As of the 2010 United States Census there were 7,651 people for a population growth of 7.04% from the 2000 United States Census to the 2010 United States Census. There were 3,053 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,924, the median income for a family was $54,543. Males had a median income of $38,930 versus $25,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,536. About 4.7% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Lake Geneva Regional News is a Lee Enterprise-owned weekly newspaper, serving Lake Geneva and the surrounding area since 1872. WLKG, a hot adult contemporary-formatted radio station, is located in Lake Geneva.
The city of Lake Geneva operates under a mayor-council form of government. The city has four aldermanic districts with two representatives per district, it is managed by a full-time city administrator. The city has an elected attorney and part-time treasurer. Fogle, Phil. Grassroots—Lake Geneva: An Illustrated History of the Geneva Lake Area. Williams Bay, Wis.: Big Foot Publishing Company, 1986. Simmons, James. Annals of Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 1835-1897. Lake Geneva, Wis.: The Herald, 1897. City of Lake Geneva Geneva Lake Museum of History Images of Lake Geneva: Historic photographs and postcards, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1892 1900 1912
Aaron Dale Allston was an American game designer and author of many science fiction books, notably Star Wars novels. His works as a game designer include game supplements for role-playing games, several of which served to establish the basis for products and subsequent development of TSR's Dungeons & Dragons game setting Mystara, his works as a novelist include those of the X-Wing series: Wraith Squadron, Iron Fist, Solo Command, Starfighters of Adumar, Mercy Kill. He wrote two entries in the New Jedi Order series: Enemy Lines I: Rebel Dream and Enemy Lines II: Rebel Stand. Allston wrote three of the nine Legacy of the Force novels: Betrayal and Fury, three of the nine Fate of the Jedi novels: Outcast and Conviction. Allston was born December 1960, in Corsicana, Texas, to Tom Dale Allston and Rose Binford Boehm. Allston graduated from high school in Denton. An avid fan of science fiction from an early age, by high school he was the secretary and reporter for his high school science fiction club.
Allston attended the University of Texas. Allston was a circulation manager, assistant editor, editor of Space Gamer magazine, by 1983 was a full-time freelance game designer, he served as editor of Space Gamer from issues 52 to 65, as editor of Fantasy Gamer for the first issue and co-editor of the second issue. During Allston's tenure as editor, the magazine won the H. G. Wells Award for Best Professional Role-Playing Magazine in 1982. Allston authored the book Autoduel Champions in 1983, which crossed over Champions by Hero Games and Car Wars by Steve Jackson Games. Allston helped launch the Fantasy Gamer spinoff magazine, he co-wrote the computer game Savage Empire, named Best PC Fantasy RPG by Game Player magazine in 1990. He authored a revision and compilation for the Dungeons & Dragons game, he branched into fiction, in the mid-1990s wrote five novels. He began writing for the Star Wars X-Wing series in 1997, when the primary sequence writer Michael Stackpole could not handle the entire workload.
Allston produced a new edition of Champions for Hero Games in 2002. In 2006, he launched The Legacy of the Force series with a hardcover entitled Betrayal. In 2005, Allston made his directorial debut on the independent film Deadbacks, which he wrote and produced; the film was never released. Allston lived in Texas. For a short time, he worked for the Austin American-Statesman newspaper. In early April 2009 Allston had a heart attack and underwent an emergency quadruple bypass surgery, while on the book signing tour for Outcast, the first book in the Fate of the Jedi series. On February 27, 2014, Allston collapsed during an appearance at VisionCon in Branson, Missouri from heart failure, he died that day in Springfield, Missouri, at the age of 53. Web of Danger Galatea In 2-D Double Jeopardy Thunder of the Captains Wrath of the Princes Doc Sidhe Sidhe-Devil Wraith Squadron Iron Fist Solo Command Starfighters of Adumar Mercy Kill Enemy Lines I: Rebel Dream Enemy Lines II: Rebel Stand Betrayal Exile Fury Outcast Backlash Conviction Terminator 3 Terminator Dreams Terminator Hunt The Circle and M.
E. T. E. Autoduel Champions Lands of Mystery Treasure Hunt GAZ1: The Grand Duchy of Karameikos Mythic Greece Strike Force GURPS Supers School of Hard Knocks Dungeon Master's Design Kit The Complete Fighter's Handbook Dawn of the Emperors: Thyatis and Alphatia Ninja Hero Dungeons & Dragons Rules Cyclopedia Poor Wizard's Almanac & Book of Facts Wrath of the Immortals The Complete Ninja's Handbook Champions, Fifth Edition Appelcline, Shannon. Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7. "Pen & Paper listing for Aaron Allston". Archived from the original on December 10, 2004. Aaron Allston @ FantasticFiction.co.uk Aaron Allston at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Interview with Aaron Allston, Author, "Star Wars: "Fate of the Jedi: Conviction Aaron Allston at Find a Grave
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes. Elements and principles of game design are applied to other interactions, in the form of gamification. Game design creates goals and challenges to define a board game, card game, dice game, casino game, role-playing game, video game, war game or simulation that produces desirable interactions among its participants and spectators. Academically, game design is part of game studies, while game theory studies strategic decision making. Games have inspired seminal research in the fields of probability, artificial intelligence and optimization theory. Applying game design to itself is a current research topic in metadesign. Sports and board games are known to have existed for at least nine thousand, six thousand, four thousand years. Tabletop games played today whose descent can be traced from ancient times include chess, go, backgammon, mahjong and pick-up sticks.
The rules of these games were not codified until early modern times and their features evolved and changed over time, through the folk process. Given this, these games are not considered to have had a designer or been the result of a design process in the modern sense. After the rise of commercial game publishing in the late 19th century, many games which had evolved via folk processes became commercial properties with custom scoring pads or preprepared material. For example, the similar public domain games Generala and Yatzy led to the commercial game Yahtzee in the mid-1950s. Today, many commercial games, such as Taboo, Pictionary, or Time's Up!, are descended from traditional parlour games. Adapting traditional games to become commercial properties is an example of game design. Many sports, such as soccer and baseball, are the result of folk processes, while others were designed, such as basketball, invented in 1891 by James Naismith. Technological advances have provided new media for games throughout history.
The printing press allowed packs of playing cards, adapted from Mahjong tiles, to be mass-produced, leading to many new card games. Accurate topographic maps produced as lithographs and provided free to Prussian officers helped popularize wargaming. Cheap bookbinding led to mass-produced board games with custom boards. Inexpensive lead figurine casting contributed to the development of miniature wargaming. Cheap custom dice led to poker dice. Flying discs led to Ultimate. Personal computers contributed to the popularity of computer games, leading to the wide availability of video game consoles and video games. Smart phones have led to a proliferation of mobile games; the first games in a new medium are adaptations of older games. Pong, one of the first disseminated video games, adapted table tennis. Games will exploit distinctive properties of a new medium. Adapting older games and creating original games for new media are both examples of game design. Game studies or gaming theory is a discipline that deals with the critical study of games, game design and their role in society and culture.
Prior to the late-twentieth century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history and anthropology. As the video game revolution took off in the early 1980s, so did academic interest in games, resulting in a field that draws on diverse methodologies and schools of thought; these influences may be characterized broadly in three ways: the social science approach, the humanities approach, the industry and engineering approach. Broadly speaking, the social scientific approach has concerned itself with the question of "What do games do to people?" Using tools and methods such as surveys, controlled laboratory experiments, ethnography researchers have investigated both the positive and negative impacts that playing games could have on people. More sociologically informed research has sought to move away from simplistic ideas of gaming as either'negative' or'positive', but rather seeking to understand its role and location in the complexities of everyday life. In general terms, the humanities approach has concerned itself with the question of "What meanings are made through games?"
Using tools and methods such as interviews and participant observation, researchers have investigated the various roles that videogames play in people's lives and activities together with the meaning they assign to their experiences. From an industry perspective, a lot of game studies research can be seen as the academic response to the videogame industry's questions regarding the products it creates and sells; the main question this approach deals with can be summarized as "How can we create better games?" with the accompanying "What makes a game good?" "Good" can be taken to mean many different things, including providing an entertaining and an engaging experience, being easy to learn and play, being innovative and having novel experiences. Different approaches to studying this problem have included looking at describing how to design games and extracting guidelines and rules of thumb for making better games Game theory is a study of strategic decision making, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains equal net losses of the other participant or participan
Allen Varney is an American writer and game designer. Varney has produced numerous books, role-playing game supplements, technical manuals, reviews and stories, as well as the fantasy novel Cast of Fate. Since the 1990s, he has worked in computer games. Varney was born in St. Louis and was raised by his mother, Marcelene Varney, he graduated from Reno High School in 1976 and has a dual B. A. in English and history from the University of Nevada, Reno. Varney designed the pen & paper roleplaying game Necromancer, published by Steve Jackson Games. Varney wrote Son of Toon, the third supplement to the Toon RPG. From 1984 to 1986 he worked as Assistant Editor at Steve Jackson Games editing Space Gamer magazine. Warren Spector and Varney wrote the supplement Send in the Clones for West End Games' Paranoia RPG. In 1986, he left Steve Jackson Games to freelance. From this time onward, he wrote a large body of game supplements for companies like Inc.. FASA Corporation, West End Games, White Wolf, Inc.. Varney did work for TSR from 1987 to 1992, including the "Blood Brethren" trilogy and Five Coins for a Kingdom, Wildspace for Spelljammer, Veiled Alliance for Dark Sun, several gamebooks, the Ariya and Talinie realm packs for Birthright.
He edited modules for the Ravenloft and Forgotten Realms settings, was a game reviewer and news columnist for Dragon magazine. Varney wrote the AD&D Gamebook The Vanishing City in 1987, the Endless Quest gamebook Galactic Challenge for Amazing Engine in 1995. Varney served as the line editor for a new version of the roleplaying game Paranoia, published in 2004, he wrote the new rules and packaged the game's support line with the help of his "Traitor Recycling Studio" for Mongoose Publishing until 2006 when the gameline was put on hold. Most Varney has operated the Bundle of Holding site, distributing bundles of licensed but DRM-free role-playing game files in a series of time-limited offers. Enspire Learning produces a computer version of Varney's multiplayer business ethics and leadership simulation, the Executive Challenge. Executive Challenge was covered in The Wall Street Journal. Varney has long been involved in the game design and documentation for companies such as Origin Systems, Prodigy, Acclaim Entertainment, Looking Glass Technologies, MicroProse, Sony Online Entertainment.
He wrote character dialogue for Star Wars Galaxies, worked again with Warren Spector on Epic Mickey. He writes for The Escapist. In 1993, Varney designed an expansion set for Magic: The Gathering; this was not published, but the design concepts surfaced in the web-based Vanguard format of the game, with Varney credited for the original concept. Varney has participated in the Texas Juggling Society at the University of Texas since 1985. Allen Varney's website "Pen & Paper RPG Database Bibliography for Allen Varney". Archived from the original on February 16, 2005. Allen Varney at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database