A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes. Elements and principles of game design are applied to other interactions, in the form of gamification. Game design creates goals and challenges to define a board game, card game, dice game, casino game, role-playing game, video game, war game or simulation that produces desirable interactions among its participants and spectators. Academically, game design is part of game studies, while game theory studies strategic decision making. Games have inspired seminal research in the fields of probability, artificial intelligence and optimization theory. Applying game design to itself is a current research topic in metadesign. Sports and board games are known to have existed for at least nine thousand, six thousand, four thousand years. Tabletop games played today whose descent can be traced from ancient times include chess, go, backgammon, mahjong and pick-up sticks.
The rules of these games were not codified until early modern times and their features evolved and changed over time, through the folk process. Given this, these games are not considered to have had a designer or been the result of a design process in the modern sense. After the rise of commercial game publishing in the late 19th century, many games which had evolved via folk processes became commercial properties with custom scoring pads or preprepared material. For example, the similar public domain games Generala and Yatzy led to the commercial game Yahtzee in the mid-1950s. Today, many commercial games, such as Taboo, Pictionary, or Time's Up!, are descended from traditional parlour games. Adapting traditional games to become commercial properties is an example of game design. Many sports, such as soccer and baseball, are the result of folk processes, while others were designed, such as basketball, invented in 1891 by James Naismith. Technological advances have provided new media for games throughout history.
The printing press allowed packs of playing cards, adapted from Mahjong tiles, to be mass-produced, leading to many new card games. Accurate topographic maps produced as lithographs and provided free to Prussian officers helped popularize wargaming. Cheap bookbinding led to mass-produced board games with custom boards. Inexpensive lead figurine casting contributed to the development of miniature wargaming. Cheap custom dice led to poker dice. Flying discs led to Ultimate. Personal computers contributed to the popularity of computer games, leading to the wide availability of video game consoles and video games. Smart phones have led to a proliferation of mobile games; the first games in a new medium are adaptations of older games. Pong, one of the first disseminated video games, adapted table tennis. Games will exploit distinctive properties of a new medium. Adapting older games and creating original games for new media are both examples of game design. Game studies or gaming theory is a discipline that deals with the critical study of games, game design and their role in society and culture.
Prior to the late-twentieth century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history and anthropology. As the video game revolution took off in the early 1980s, so did academic interest in games, resulting in a field that draws on diverse methodologies and schools of thought; these influences may be characterized broadly in three ways: the social science approach, the humanities approach, the industry and engineering approach. Broadly speaking, the social scientific approach has concerned itself with the question of "What do games do to people?" Using tools and methods such as surveys, controlled laboratory experiments, ethnography researchers have investigated both the positive and negative impacts that playing games could have on people. More sociologically informed research has sought to move away from simplistic ideas of gaming as either'negative' or'positive', but rather seeking to understand its role and location in the complexities of everyday life. In general terms, the humanities approach has concerned itself with the question of "What meanings are made through games?"
Using tools and methods such as interviews and participant observation, researchers have investigated the various roles that videogames play in people's lives and activities together with the meaning they assign to their experiences. From an industry perspective, a lot of game studies research can be seen as the academic response to the videogame industry's questions regarding the products it creates and sells; the main question this approach deals with can be summarized as "How can we create better games?" with the accompanying "What makes a game good?" "Good" can be taken to mean many different things, including providing an entertaining and an engaging experience, being easy to learn and play, being innovative and having novel experiences. Different approaches to studying this problem have included looking at describing how to design games and extracting guidelines and rules of thumb for making better games Game theory is a study of strategic decision making, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains equal net losses of the other participant or participan
Dragon was one of the two official magazines for source material for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game and associated products. TSR, Inc. launched the monthly printed magazine in 1976 to succeed the company's earlier publication, The Strategic Review. The final printed issue was #359 in September 2007. Shortly after the last print issue shipped in mid-August 2007, Wizards of the Coast, the publication's current copyright holder, relaunched Dragon as an online magazine, continuing on the numbering of the print edition; the last published issue was No. 430 in December 2013. A digital publication called Dragon+, which replaces the Dragon magazine, launched in 2015, it is created by Dialect in collaboration with Wizards of the Coast, restarted the numbering system for issues at No. 1. In 1975, TSR, Inc. began publishing The Strategic Review. At the time, roleplaying games were still seen as a subgenre of the wargaming industry, the magazine was designed not only to support Dungeons & Dragons and TSR's other games, but to cover wargaming in general.
In short order, the popularity and growth of Dungeons & Dragons made it clear that the game had not only separated itself from its wargaming origins, but had launched an new industry unto itself. TSR canceled The Strategic Review after only seven issues the following year, replaced it with two magazines, Little Wars, which covered miniature wargaming, The Dragon, which covered role playing games. After twelve issues, Little Wars ceased independent publication and issue 13 was published as part of Dragon issue 22; the magazine debuted as The Dragon in June 1976. TSR co-founder Gary Gygax commented years later: "When I decided that The Strategic Review was not the right vehicle, hired Tim Kask as a magazine editor for Tactical Studies Rules, named the new publication he was to produce The Dragon, I thought we would have a great periodical to serve gaming enthusiasts worldwide... At no time did I contemplate so great a success or so long a lifespan."Dragon was the launching point for a number of rules, monsters, magic items, other ideas that were incorporated into official products of the Dungeons & Dragons game.
A prime example is the Forgotten Realms campaign setting, which first became known through a series of Dragon articles in the 1980s by its creator Ed Greenwood. It subsequently went on to become one of the primary campaign'worlds' for official Dungeons and Dragons products, starting in 1987; the magazine appeared on the cover as Dragon from July 1980 changing its name to Dragon Magazine starting November 1987. Wizards of the Coast purchased TSR and its intellectual properties, including Dragon Magazine, in 1997. Production was transferred from Wisconsin to Washington state. In 1999, Wizards of the Coast was itself purchased by Inc.. Dragon Magazine suffered a five-month gap between #236 and #237 but remained published by TSR as a subsidiary of WotC starting September 1997, until January 2000 when WotC became the listed de facto publisher, they removed the word "magazine" from the cover title starting with the June, 2000 issue, changing the publication's name back to Dragon. In 1999 a compilation of the first 250 issues was released in PDF format with a special viewer including an article and keyword search on a CD-ROM package.
Included were the 7 issues of The Strategic Review. This compilation is known as the software title Dragon Magazine Archive; because of issues raised with the 2001 ruling in Greenberg v. National Geographic regarding the reprint rights of various comic scripts, printed in Dragon over the years and Paizo Publishing's policy that creators of comics retain their copyright, the Dragon Magazine Archive is out of print and hard to find. In 2002, Paizo Publishing acquired the rights to publish both Dragon and Dungeon under license from Wizards of the Coast. Dragon was published by Paizo starting September 2002, it tied Dragon more to Dungeon by including articles supporting and promoting its major multi-issue adventures such as the Age of Worms and Savage Tide. Class Acts, monthly one or two-page articles offering ideas for developing specific character classes, were introduced by Paizo. On April 18, 2007, Wizards of the Coast announced that it would not be renewing Paizo's licenses for Dragon and Dungeon.
Scott Rouse, Senior Brand Manager of Dungeons & Dragons at Wizards of the Coast stated, "Today the internet is where people go to get this kind of information. By moving to an online model we are using a delivery system that broadens our reach to fans around the world." Paizo published the last print editions of Dragon and Dungeon magazines for September 2007. In August 2007, Wizards of the Coast announced plans for the 4th edition of the Dungeons & Dragons game. Part of this announcement was that D&D Insider subscriber content would include the new, online versions of both Dungeon and Dragon magazines along with tools for building campaigns, managing character sheets and other features. In its online form, Dragon continues to publish articles aimed at Dungeons & Dragons players, with rules data from these articles feeding the D&D Character Builder and other online tools. In the September 2013 issue of Dragon an article by Wizards of the Coast game designer and editor Chris Perkins announced that both Dragon and its sibling publication Dungeon would be going on hiatus starting January 2014 pending the release o
The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, or GURPS, is a tabletop role-playing game system designed to allow for play in any game setting. It was created by Steve Jackson Games and first published in 1986 at a time when most such systems were story- or genre-specific. Players control their in-game characters verbally and the success of their actions are determined by the skill of their character, the difficulty of the action, the rolling of dice. Characters earn points during play. Gaming sessions are story-told and run by "Game Masters". GURPS won the Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Rules of 1988, in 2000 it was inducted into the Origins Hall of Fame. Many of its expansions have won awards. Prior to GURPS, roleplaying games of the 1970s and early 1980s were developed for certain gaming environments, they were incompatible with one another. For example, TSR published its Dungeons & Dragons game for a fantasy environment. Another game from the same company, Star Frontiers, was developed for science fiction–based role-playing.
TSR produced other games for other environments, such as Gamma World, Top Secret and Boot Hill. Each of these games was set with its own self-contained rules system, the rules for playing each game differed from one game to the next. Attempts were made in Advanced Dungeons and Dragons to allow cross-genre games using Gamma World and Boot Hill rules. Though it was preceded by Basic Role-Playing and the Hero System, GURPS was the most commercially successful generic role-playing game system to allow players to role-play in any environment they please while still using the same set of core rules; this flexibility of environment is aided by the use of technology levels that allow a campaign to be set from the Stone Age to the Digital Age or beyond. Role-playing games of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Dungeons & Dragons used random numbers generated by dice rolls to assign statistics to player characters. GURPS, following the lead of the Hero System first used by the Champions role-playing game, assigned players a specified number of points with which to build their characters.
These points were spent to get attributes and advantages, such as the ability to cast magic spells. Additional points can be obtained by accepting lower-than-average attributes and other limitations. GURPS' emphasis on its generic aspect has proven to be a successful marketing tactic, as many game series have source engines which can be retrofitted to many styles, its approach to versatility includes using real world measurements wherever possible. GURPS benefits from the many dozens of worldbooks describing settings or additional rules in all genres including science fiction and historical. Many popular game designers began their professional careers as GURPS writers, including C. J. Carella, Robin Laws, S. John Ross, Fudge creator Steffan O'Sullivan; the immediate mechanical antecedent of GURPS was The Fantasy Trip, an early role-playing game written by Steve Jackson for the company Metagaming Concepts. Several of the core concepts of GURPS first appeared in TFT, including the inclusion of Strength and Intelligence as the core abilities scores of each character.
A Basic GURPS set was published in 1986 and 1987 and included two booklets, one for developing characters and one for Adventuring. In 1990 GURPS intersected part of the hacker subculture when the company's Austin, offices were raided by the Secret Service; the target was the author of GURPS Cyberpunk in relation to E911 Emergency Response system documents stolen from Bell South. The incident was a direct contributor to the founding of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. A common misconception holds that this raid was part of Operation Sundevil and carried out by the FBI. Operation: Sundevil was in action at the same time, but it was separate. See Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service. A free PDF version of the GURPS rules was released as GURPS Lite; this limited ruleset was included with various books such as GURPS Discworld and Transhuman Space. Steve Jackson Games released GURPS Fourth Edition at the first day of Gen Con on August 19, 2004, it promised to streamline most areas of play and character creation.
The changes include modification of the attribute point adjustments, an edited and rationalized skill list, clarification of the differences between abilities from experience and from inborn talent, more detailed language rules, revised technology levels. Designed by Sean Punch, the Fourth Edition is sold as two full-color hardcover books as well as in the PDF format. A character in GURPS is built with character points. For a beginning character in an average power game, the 4th edition suggests 100–150 points to modify attribute stats, select advantages and disadvantages, purchase levels in skills. Normal NPCs are built on 25–50 points. Full-fledged heroes have 150–250 points, while superheroes are built with 400–800 points; the highest point value recorded for a canon character in a GURPS sourcebook is 10,452 for the Harvester in GURPS Monsters. In principle, a Game Master can balance the power of foes to the abilities of the player characters by comparing their relative point values. Characters in GURPS have four basic attributes: Streng
Lake Geneva, Wisconsin
Lake Geneva is a city in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA. The population was 7,651 at the 2010 census. A resort city located on Geneva Lake, it is popular with vacationers from the Chicago and Milwaukee areas. Called "Maunk-suck" for a Potawatomi chief, the city was named Geneva after the town of Geneva, New York, located on Seneca Lake, to which early settler John Brink saw a resemblance. To avoid confusion with the nearby town of Geneva, Illinois, it was renamed Lake Geneva; the abutting lake is named Geneva Lake. In 1954, Lake Geneva was one of the three finalists for the location of the new United States Air Force Academy, but lost to Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1968, the late Hugh Hefner built his first Playboy resort in Lake Geneva; the club closed in 1981 and in 1982 was converted into the Americana Resort, in 1993 to the present Grand Geneva Resort. Royal Records was a Lake Geneva music recording studio where artists such as Ministry from Chicago Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs album'92, Cheap Trick from Chicago Standing on the Edge album'85, Queensrÿche Empire 1990, Crash Test Dummies "Mmm Mmm Mmm Mmm" in'93, Iron Maiden, Nine Inch Nails from Cleveland Broken in'92, Skid Row have recorded albums.
Lake Geneva is located at 42°35′33″N 88°26′4″W. The city is situated on the northeast bay of Geneva Lake on flat ground, with some steep hills and bluffs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.55 square miles, of which, 6.54 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,651 people, 3,323 households, 1,879 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,169.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,225 housing units at an average density of 646.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.6% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 8.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.3% of the population. There were 3,323 households of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.5% were non-families.
36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,148 people, 3,053 households, 1,801 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,425.1 people per square mile. There were 3,757 housing units at an average density of 749.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.81% White, 0.90% African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 5.16% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.75% of the population. As of the 2010 United States Census there were 7,651 people for a population growth of 7.04% from the 2000 United States Census to the 2010 United States Census. There were 3,053 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,924, the median income for a family was $54,543. Males had a median income of $38,930 versus $25,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,536. About 4.7% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Lake Geneva Regional News is a Lee Enterprise-owned weekly newspaper, serving Lake Geneva and the surrounding area since 1872. WLKG, a hot adult contemporary-formatted radio station, is located in Lake Geneva.
The city of Lake Geneva operates under a mayor-council form of government. The city has four aldermanic districts with two representatives per district, it is managed by a full-time city administrator. The city has an elected attorney and part-time treasurer. Fogle, Phil. Grassroots—Lake Geneva: An Illustrated History of the Geneva Lake Area. Williams Bay, Wis.: Big Foot Publishing Company, 1986. Simmons, James. Annals of Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 1835-1897. Lake Geneva, Wis.: The Herald, 1897. City of Lake Geneva Geneva Lake Museum of History Images of Lake Geneva: Historic photographs and postcards, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1892 1900 1912