Ngurah Rai International Airport
Ngurah Rai International Airport known as I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport, is the main airport in Bali, located 13 km south of Denpasar. Ngurah Rai is the second busiest airport in Indonesia after Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. In 2018, the airport served 23,779,178 passengers; the airport has category IX and is capable of serving wide-body aircraft including the Boeing 747-8 and Airbus A380. Airport Council International has awarded Ngurah Rai International Airport as the world's third best airport in 2016 based on their services; the airport is named after I Gusti Ngurah Rai, a Balinese hero who died on 20 November 1946 in a puputan against the Dutch at Marga in Tabanan, where the Dutch defeated his company with air support, killing Ngurah Rai and 95 others during the Indonesian Revolution in 1946. The airport is located in Tuban between Kuta and Jimbaran and is close to the tourist locations of southern Bali; the capital of Bali, Denpasar, is located nearby. The Pelabuhan Udara Tuban, or Tuban airfield, was established in 1931 at the narrowest point on the southern coast of Bali.
The airport was built as a simple 700 m long airstrip by the Dutch Colonial administration's Voor Verkeer en Waterstaats public works office. When first established the site only had a few huts and a short grass runway; the northern end lay in the Tuban village graveyard and in the south it occupied vacant land. The location in this area of the island has subsequently facilitated arrivals and departures over the ocean with minimal noise and overflights intruding upon populated areas; the current airport has an east–west aligned runway and associated taxiway, with over 1,000 m of that runway's length projecting westward into the sea. In 1942 the airstrip was in use to stage fighter and bomber operations and received bombing damage from Japanese forces, it was repaired using PSP pierced steel planking. The Japanese armed forces occupied Bali during the Second World War seizing the airport on 19 February 1942. A poorly motivated garrison of 600 Dutch led Balinese militia deserted immediately as the Japanese invaded the island.
Their Dutch commander was to learn that through a misunderstanding of his orders, Tuban airfield had not been destroyed by explosives as he had ordered. His order not to delay the demolition was misread by the demolition engineers at the airstrip who thought instead that he wanted the operation delayed; this confusion allowed the Japanese to take the airfield intact. During the occupation period the Japanese made improvements to the runway at the airport. In the five years from 1942 to 1947 the length of the runway was extended to 1,200 m from the original 700 m. Many Balinese identified the Japanese invaders as being potential liberators from the Dutch colonial authorities who were unpopular on the island. There was never a significant Japanese fighter squadron stationed in Denpasar although it was within the field of tactical air operations conducted from both Surabaya and Allied airbases in northern Australia. More so the taking of Tuban airfield and the island of Bali deprived the allied forces of a fighter staging field en route from Australia to defend Java.
At the time the airport was still called Tuban Airfield, named after the local fishing village. In 1949 a Terminal building and other aviation facilities were constructed and a simple wooden flight control tower was erected. Aviation communication was by morse code tranceiver. In 1959 president Sukarno sought to further develop the airstrip; the new facilities were built as part of a $13 million renovation project. To allow jet aircraft such as the Douglas DC8 and the Boeing 707 to operate from Bali, it was necessary to extend the runway westward into the sea as any potential eastern extension of the runway was by now blocked by the expansion of the local fishing village; the International Airport Tuban was developed with the decision by the Indonesia government to further develop and rebuild the terminal building and extend the existing airport runway westward by 1,200 m to a length of 2,700 m with two 100 m overruns. The project, which lasted from 1963 to 1969 was named Project Tuban Airport and was for preparation of Tuban Airport for international operations.
Land reclamation to project the runway and the two overruns by 1,500 m was achieved by taking material from the limestone rocks at Ungasan and sand from the river Antosari–Tabanan. With the completion of the temporary terminal and runway project at the Tuban Airport, the government inaugurated international air service on 10 August 1966. To meet the ever-increasing number of passengers the terminal buildings were extended with construction of an International Terminal building undertaken from 1965 to 1969; this added international facilities to the existing domestic passenger terminal. The new Ngurah Rai International Airport was inaugurated the on 1 August 1968 by the Indonesian President Suharto as Pelabuhan Udara Internasional Ngurah Rai, or Ngurah Rai International Airport; the name came from I Gusti Ngurah Rai, a significant national republican figure during the struggle for independence in Indonesia. The current airport is named after I Gusti Ngurah Rai, an Indonesian National Hero an Indonesian republican who died on 20 November 1946 in a puputan against the Dutch at Marga in Tabanan where the Dutch defeated them with the aid of aircraft, killing Ngurah Rai and 95 others during the Indonesian Revolution in 1946.
The earlier extension of the runway subsequently caused disruption of natural sand flow along the coast. By 1975 the anticipated
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, Mumbai known as Sahar International Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Mumbai Metropolitan Area, India. It is the second busiest airport in the country in terms of total and international passenger traffic after Delhi, was the 14th busiest airport in Asia and 28th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in calendar year 2017, its passenger traffic was about 49.8 million in year 2018. The airport is the second busiest in the country in terms of cargo traffic also. In March 2017, the airport overtook London Gatwick Airport as the world's busiest airport with only one operational runway at a time; the airport has three operating terminals spread over a total land area of 750 hectares and handles about 950 aircraft movements per day. It handled a record 1,007 aircraft movements on December 09 2018, higher than its earlier record of 1,003 flight movements in a day in June 2018, it handled a record 51 movements in one hour on 16 September 2014.
Along with IGI Delhi, it was adjudged the "World's Best Airport" at Airport Service Quality Awards 2017 in the highest category of airports handling more than 40 million passengers annually by Airports Council International. It has won the "Best Airport in India and Central Asia" award at the Skytrax 2016 World Airport Awards, it is one of the three airports in India to have implemented Airport Collaborative Decision Making to ensure timely takeoffs and landings. The airport is operated by Mumbai International Airport Limited, a Joint Venture between the Airports Authority of India and the GVK Industries Ltd led consortium, appointed in February 2006 to carry out the modernisation of the Airport; the new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for international operations on 12 February 2014. A dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway was opened to the public the same day; the airport is named after the 17th-century Maratha warrior king, having been renamed in 1999 from the previous "Sahar Airport" to "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport".
CSIA's IATA airport code -- "BOM" -- is derived from Mumbai's former name. It is situated across the suburbs of Vile Parle and Sahar village in Andheri. RAF Santacruz was constructed in the 1930s, it was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres and had three runways; the apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, the area, referred to today as the "Old Airport", among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India, Indamer Aviation Pvt Ltd. and MIAL's General Aviation Terminal. By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operations, two old abandoned hangars of the Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic. One hangar was used as the other for international traffic, it had counters for customs and immigration checks on a lounge in the centre. Air India handled its passengers in its own terminal adjoining the two hangars.
In its first year, it handled six civilian services a day. Traffic at the airport increased after Karachi was partitioned to Pakistan and as many as 40 daily domestic and foreign services operated by 1949, prompting the Indian Government to develop the airport, equipping the airport with a night landing system comprising a Radio range and a modernised flare path lighting system Construction of a new passenger terminal and apron began in 1950 and was commissioned in 1958. Named after the neighbourhood in which it stood and under the aegis of the Public Works Department, the new airport was subsequently run by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. A major fire gutted the International section of the terminal building on 21 September 1979, killing three passengers and shutting down the airport. A temporary departure extension or "Gulf Terminal" was made functional in October that year until the terminal was repaired. With the dawning of the Jumbo Jet era in the 1970s, despite several extensions, began suffering from insufficient operational capacity.
The Tata committee, set up in 1967 to examine the issues concerning the airport, had recommended the construction of a new international terminal to meet the requirements of traffic in the seventies. The Santa Cruz terminal was to be used for domestic traffic alone; the International Airport Authority of India, set up in 1972, started planning the construction of a new terminal building for handling international passenger traffic, to be completed by 1981. Accordingly, construction of the new International terminal at Sahar to the north-east of Santacruz in Andheri was taken up at an estimated cost of ₹ 110 million. AAI had been considering the modernisation of Mumbai airport in 1996 although the AAI board approved a modernisation proposal only in 2003. By Mumbai and Delhi airports were handling 38% of the country's aircraft movement and generating one third of all revenues earned by AAI. At that time, Mumbai airport handled 60 % of which were domestic travellers; the airport faced severe congestion for both aircraft and passengers as it was handling twice as many aircraft movements per day than it was designed for.
The bidding process for its modernisation began in May 2004 with the decision by the Empowered Group of Ministers was announced in January 2006. A consortium of GVK Industries Ltd, Airports Company South Africa and Bidve
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Uttarakhand known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is referred to as the Devabhumi due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being created from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh, it borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north. The state is divided into two divisions and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts; the interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times; the region formed a part of the Uttara Kuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism.
Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighboring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, culture and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s; the natives of the state are called Uttarakhandi, or more either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India. Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words uttara meaning'north', khaṇḍa meaning'land', altogether meaning'Northern Land'.
The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of "Kedarkhand" and "Manaskhand". Uttarakhand was the ancient Puranic term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas. However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led central government and Uttar Pradesh state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act; the name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage. In August 2006, Union Cabinet of India assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament.
The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, since January 1, 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand. Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, paleolithic stone tools, megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic practices in the area; the Pauravas, Mauryans, Kunindas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Raikas, Karkotas, Parmars or Panwars, the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. It is believed. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet, it is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy persisted here; however and Kumaon were restored to nominal Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.
Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley in Kumaon. The significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and remodelled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji and Tharu people. By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period and new forms of painting developed. Modern-day Garhwal was unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom, it was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.
The Garhwal Kingdom was re-established from a smaller region in Tehri. Af
Bombay Stock Exchange
The Bombay Stock Exchange is an Indian stock exchange located at Dalal Street, Mumbai. Established in 1875, the BSE is Asia's first stock exchange; the BSE is the world's 10th largest stock exchange with an overall market capitalization of more than $4.9 trillion on as of April 2018. Bombay stock Exchange was founded by Premchand Roychand, he was one of the most influential businessmen in 19th-century Bombay. A man who made a fortune in the stockbroking business and came to be known as the Cotton King, the Bullion King or just the Big Bull, he was the founder of the Native Share and Stock Brokers Association, an institution, now known as the BSE. While BSE Ltd is now synonymous with Dalal Street, it was not always so; the first venue of the earliest stock broker meetings in the 1850s was in rather natural environs - under banyan trees - in front of the Town Hall, where Horniman Circle is now situated. A decade the brokers moved their venue to another set of foliage, this time under banyan trees at the junction of Meadows Street and what is now called Mahatma Gandhi Road.
As the number of brokers increased, they had to shift from place to place, but they always overflowed to the streets. At last, in 1874, the brokers found a permanent place, one that they could, quite call their own; the new place was, called Dalal Street. The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in Asia, its history dates back to 1855, when 22 stockbrokers would gather under banyan trees in front of Mumbai's Town Hall. The location of these meetings changed many times to accommodate an increasing number of brokers; the group moved to Dalal Street in 1874 and became an official organization known as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association" in 1875. On August 31, 1957, the BSE became the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. In 1980, the exchange moved to the Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers at Fort area. In 1986, it developed the S&P BSE SENSEX index, giving the BSE a means to measure the overall performance of the exchange.
In 2000, the BSE used this index to open its derivatives market, trading S&P BSE SENSEX futures contracts. The development of S&P BSE SENSEX options along with equity derivatives followed in 2001 and 2002, expanding the BSE's trading platform. An open outcry floor trading exchange, the Bombay Stock Exchange switched to an electronic trading system developed by CMC Ltd. in 1995. It took the exchange only 50 days to make this transition; this automated, screen-based trading platform called BSE On-Line Trading had a capacity of 8 million orders per day. The BSE has introduced a centralized exchange-based internet trading system, BSEWEBx.co.in to enable investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform. Now BSE has raised capital by issuing shares and as on 3 May 2017 the BSE share, traded in NSE only closed with Rs.999. The BSE is a Partner Exchange of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchange initiative, joining in September 2012. BSE established India INX on 30 December 2016. India INX is the first international exchange of India.
BSE launches commodity derivatives contract in silver. Stock market crashes in India Clause 49 National Stock Exchange of India List of South Asian stock exchanges List of stock exchanges in the Commonwealth of Nations SAMCO Securities SECURITY ANALYSIS AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT "M. RANGABATHAN, R. MADHUMATI" Official website
Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
A conglomerate is a combination of multiple business entities operating in different industries under one corporate group involving a parent company and many subsidiaries. A conglomerate is a multi-industry company. Conglomerates are large and multinational. Conglomerates were popular in the 1960s due to a combination of low interest rates and a repeating bear-bull market, which allowed the conglomerates to buy companies in leveraged buyouts, sometimes at temporarily deflated values. Famous examples from the 1960s include Ling-Temco-Vought, ITT Corporation, Litton Industries, Teledyne; because of low interest on the loans, the overall return on investment of the conglomerate appeared to grow. The conglomerate had a better ability to borrow in the money market, or capital market, than the smaller firm at their community bank. For many years this was enough to make the company's stock price rise, as companies were valued on their return on investment; the aggressive nature of the conglomerators themselves was enough to make many investors, who saw a "powerful" and unstoppable force in business, buy their stock.
High stock prices allowed them to raise more loans, based on the value of their stock, thereby buy more companies. This led to a chain reaction, which allowed them to grow rapidly. However, all of this growth was somewhat illusory and when interest rates rose to offset inflation, conglomerate profits fell. Investors noticed that the companies inside the conglomerate were growing no faster than before they were purchased, whereas the rationale for buying a company was that "synergies" would provide efficiency. By the late 1960s they were shunned by the market, a major sell-off of their shares ensued. To keep the companies going, many conglomerates were forced to shed the industries they had purchased, by the mid-1970s most had been reduced to shells; the conglomerate fad was subsequently replaced by newer ideas like focusing on a company's core competency. In other cases, conglomerates are formed for genuine interests of diversification rather than manipulation of paper return on investment. Companies with this orientation would only make acquisitions or start new branches in other sectors when they believed this would increase profitability or stability by sharing risks.
Flush with cash during the 1980s, General Electric moved into financing and financial services, which in 2005 accounted for about 45% of the company's net earnings. GE owned a minority interest in NBCUniversal, which owns the NBC television network and several other cable networks. In some ways GE is the opposite of the "typical" 1960s conglomerate in that the company was not leveraged, when interest rates went up they were able to turn this to their advantage, it was less expensive to lease from GE than buy new equipment using loans. United Technologies has proven to be a successful conglomerate. With the spread of mutual funds, investors could more obtain diversification by owning a small slice of many companies in a fund rather than owning shares in a conglomerate. Another example of a successful conglomerate is Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, a holding company which used surplus capital from its insurance subsidiaries to invest in a variety of manufacturing and service businesses; the end of the First World War caused a brief economic crisis in Weimar Germany, permitting entrepreneurs to buy businesses at rock-bottom prices.
The most successful, Hugo Stinnes, established the most powerful private economic conglomerate in 1920s Europe – Stinnes Enterprises – which embraced sectors as diverse as manufacturing, shipbuilding, hotels and other enterprises. The best known British conglomerate was Hanson plc, it followed a rather different timescale than the U. S. examples mentioned above, as it was founded in 1964 and ceased to be a conglomerate when it split itself into four separate listed companies between 1995 and 1997. In Hong Kong, some of the well-known conglomerates include Jardine Matheson, Swire Group, C K Hutchison Whampoa, Sino Group, Swire Group Started by Liverpool natives the Swire family, which controls a wide range of businesses, including property, beverages and trading. Jardine Matheson operates businesses in the fields of property, trading and hotels. C K Hutchison Whampoa: finance, telecommunication, real estate, hotels Sino Group: Kerry Logistics, Universal Studios Singapore, Shangri-LaIn Japan, a different model of conglomerate, the keiretsu, evolved.
Whereas the Western model of conglomerate consists of a single corporation with multiple subsidiaries controlled by that corporation, the companies in a keiretsu are linked by interlocking shareholdings and a central role of a bank. Mitsui, Sumitomo are some of Japan's best known keiretsu, reaching from automobile manufacturing to the production of electronics such as televisions. While not a keiretsu, Sony is an example of a modern Japanese conglomerate with operations in consumer electronics, video games, the music industry and film production and distribution, financial services, telecommunications. In China, many of the country's conglomerates are state-owned enterprises, but there