GWR 4900 Class 4953 Pitchford Hall
4953 Pitchford Hall is a 4-6-0 Hall class steam locomotive built by the Great Western Railway preserved at the Epping Ongar Railway. Built at Swindon Works in August 1929 for a cost of £4375, the locomotive worked from a wide variety of sheds all over the GWR network, until withdrawal by British Railways in May 1963, it covered 1,344,464 miles over that period. Acquired by Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales in October 1963, it was purchased by Dr John Kennedy in 1984. Moved to Tyseley Locomotive Works, it was restored to full mainline standard, moved under its own power once again in February 2004, it made its first public appearance in 42 years at the Crewe Great Gathering in September 2005. It obtained its mainline certification in December 2005, after making the required light and loaded test runs from Birmingham to Stratford-upon-Avon and back. In February 2007 the locomotive attended the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway's Winter Steam Gala, on 19 May 2007 performed in tandem with 4965 Rood Ashton Hall on a trip to Bristol from their Tyseley base.
The loco took part in the 2007 season Harringworth Viaduct Shuttles, a journey from Birmingham to Kidderminster in conjunction with the Severn Valley Railway's Autumn Gala. During 2009, she operated two Shakespeare Express services between Birmingham Snow Hill and Stratford upon Avon. On 31 August 2009, 4953 operated a railtour via the Harringworth Viaduct. In October 2009 it ran as a light engine with 5029 Nunney Castle and support coach to the West Somerset Railway Gala, operating services between Bishops Lydeard and Minehead. After the 2010 Tyseley Locomotive Works steam, the locomotive was moved to the Great Central Railway, it visited the Llangollen Railway, double heading with GWR 3717 City of Truro, operating at the West Somerset Railway before returning to Loughborough. In 2011, after working the GCR Winter Steam Gala, it visited the Mid Hants Railway, before returning to the GCR, it was sold in late 2011 by Dr John Kennedy to the Epping Ongar Railway, though it remained at the GCR until April 2012, when it was moved to the EOR in time for the line's opening in late May 2012.
The loco remained in service there until summer 2013 when it was withdrawn for the routine 10-year overhaul
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 118,200 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 332,200 in 2014. Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD. One of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral, the Saxons extended and strengthened the walls to protect the city against the Danes. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain, it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations.
Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are complete. The Industrial Revolution brought railways and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period; the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. It was established in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward, was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, based at Deva. Central Chester's four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the military base originating from trade with the fortress; the fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in the Roman province of Britannia built around the same time at York and Caerleon.
The civilian amphitheatre, built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, is a Scheduled Monument; the Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British civilian settlement continued and its occupants continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea. After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have become part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century. Another, attested in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the "city of the legions" and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester, established the Anglo-Saxon position in the area from on. The Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons used an Old English equivalent of the British name, Legacæstir, current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simple name Chester emerged. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia on what is considered to be an early Christian site: it is known as the Minster of St John the Baptist, Chester which became the first cathedral. Much the body of Æthelred's niece, St Werburgh, was removed from Hanbury in Staffordshire in the 9th century and, to save it from desecration by Danish marauders, was reburied in the Church of SS Peter & Paul - to become the Abbey Church, her name is still remembered in St Werburgh's Street which passes alongside the cathedral, near the city walls. The Saxons extended and strengthened the walls of Chester to protect the city against the Danes, who occupied it for a short time until Alfred seized all the cattle and laid waste the surrounding land to drive them out.
It was Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh. A new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD 907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgar's Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six (the monk Henry Bradshaw records he
Westbury railway station
Westbury railway station is a railway station serving the town of Westbury in Wiltshire, England. The station is managed by Great Western Railway; the station is a major junction, serving the Reading to Taunton line with services to and from Penzance and London Paddington, Wessex Main Line with services to and from Cardiff and Portsmouth, services to Swindon, Heart of Wessex Line providing local services from Bristol Temple Meads to Weymouth, services to London Waterloo. The buffet at Westbury appeared in a list of "highly commended" station cafes published in The Guardian in 2009; the station was opened by the Wilts and Weymouth Railway on 5 September 1848, was the initial terminus of the WS&WR line from Chippenham. This line was extended to Frome, which opened on 7 October 1850; the Salisbury branch opened on 30 June 1856, whilst the opening of the line to Patney & Chirton in 1900 completed the GWR's new main line from London Paddington to Taunton and beyond. In the 1880s, the station was one of the meeting places of the South and West Wilts Hunt.
In 1899, Westbury station was rebuilt to cater for the 1900 line, creating two island platforms six hundred feet long and forty feet wide. It has since been rebuilt and remodelled several times, most when the area was resignalled in 1985, but without changing the underlying form created in 1901. In 2013 the Swindon and Wiltshire Local Transport Body prioritised the reopening of this platform face at an estimated cost of £5.4m. A freight yard next to the station is used by bulk limestone trains from the rail-served quarries at Merehead and Whatley in Somerset. In April 2009 the rail-served Lafarge cement was mothballed. On 28 October 1873, a mail train collided with a luggage train. On 6 December 2011, a train was derailed at Westbury; the station is served by all three main routes. On the main Reading to Taunton Line, the station is served by westbound trains to one of Exeter St Davids, Plymouth, or Penzance. There is a service on the Cardiff Central to Southampton Central and Portsmouth Harbour Wessex Main Line, a separate service between Gloucester and Westbury on this route.
Some of these trains continue through to Weymouth and in the opposite direction certain trains extend through to Cheltenham Spa and Great Malvern. Others run to Frome and Southampton, along with through trains to and from Brighton. South Western Railway runs a service between Bristol and London Waterloo via Salisbury that calls here. There are limited services to Yeovil Pen Mill. There are services between Westbury and Swindon via Chippenham and Melksham, on the original Wilts, Somerset & Weymouth line; the frequency on this route was improved at the December 2013 timetable change. At present, the line to Westbury is not due to be electrified as part of the 21st-century modernisation of the Great Western Main Line. Although local councillors support it, the extension of electrification beyond Newbury to Westbury was assessed as having a benefit–cost ratio of only 0.31
A wrecking yard, scrapyard or junkyard is the location of a business in dismantling where wrecked or decommissioned vehicles are brought, their usable parts are sold for use in operating vehicles, while the unusable metal parts, known as scrap metal parts, are sold to metal-recycling companies. Other terms include wreck yard, wrecker's yard, salvage yard, breakers yard and scrapheap. In the United Kingdom, car salvage yards are known as car breakers, while motorcycle salvage yards are known as bike breakers. In Australia, they are referred to as'Wreckers'; the most common type of wreck yards are automobile wreck yards, but junkyards for motorcycles, small airplanes and boats exist too. A scrapyard is a recycling center that sells scrap metal. Scrapyards are a scrap metal brokerage. Scrap yards buy any base metal. Scrapyards will buy electronics and metal vehicles. Scrapyards will sell their accumulations of metals either to larger scrap brokers. Metal theft is committed so thieves can sell stolen copper or other stolen valuable metals to scrapyards.
Many salvage yards operate on a local level—when an automobile is damaged, has malfunctioned beyond repair, or not worth the repair, the owner may sell it to a junkyard. Salvage yards buy most of the wrecked and abandoned vehicles that are sold at auction from police impound storage lots, buy vehicles from insurance tow yards as well; the salvage yard will tow the vehicle from the location of its purchase to the yard, but vehicles are driven in. At the salvage yard the automobiles are arranged in rows stacked on top of one another; some yards keep inventories in their offices, as to the usable parts in each car, as well as the car's location in the yard. Many yards have computerized inventory systems. About 75 % of any given vehicle can be used for other goods. In recent years it is becoming common to use satellite part finder services to contact multiple salvage yards from a single source. In the 20th century these were call centres that charged a premium rate for calls and compiled a facsimile, sent to various salvage yards so they could respond directly if the part was in stock.
Many of these are now Web-based with requests for parts being e-mailed instantly. Parts for which there is high demand are removed from cars and brought to the salvage yard's warehouse. A customer who asks for a specific part can obtain it without having to wait for the salvage yard employees to remove that part; some salvage yards expect customers to remove the part themselves, or allow this at a reduced price compared to having the junkyard's staff remove it. This style of yard is referred to as a "You Pull It" yard. However, it is more common for a customer to call in and inquire whether the specific item he/she needs is available. If the yard has the requested item, the customer is instructed to leave a deposit and to come to pick up the part at a time; the part is installed by the customer or agent. The parts dismantled from automobiles are any that can be resold such as the light assemblies, parts of the exhaust system, hubcaps etc. Late model vehicles will have entire halves or portions of the body removed and stored on shelves as inventory.
Other major parts such as the engine and transmission are removed and sold to auto-parts companies that will rebuild the part and resell it with a warranty, or will sell the components as-is in used condition, either with or without warranty. Other very large, junkyards will rebuild and sell such parts themselves. Unbroken windshields and windows may be removed intact and resold to car owners needing replacements; some salvage yards will sell damaged or wrecked but repairable vehicles to amateur car builders, or older vehicles to collectors, who will restore the car for their own use or entertainment, or sometimes for resale. These cars are known as "rebuilders". Once vehicles in a wrecking yard do not have more usable parts, the hulks are sold to a scrap-metal processor, who will crush the bodies on-site at the yard's premises using a mobile baling press, shredder, or flattener, with final disposal occurring within a hammer mill which smashes the vehicle remains into fist-sized chunks; these chunks are sold by multiple tons for further processing and recycling.
Scrap Historischer Autofriedhof Gürbetal, Swiss wrecking yard which resembles a museum
Banbury is a historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England. The town is situated 64 miles northwest of London, 37 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles south-by-southeast of Coventry and 22 miles north-by-northwest of the county town of Oxford, it had a population of 46,853 at the 2011 census. Banbury is a significant commercial and retail centre for the surrounding area of north Oxfordshire and southern parts of Warwickshire and Northamptonshire which are predominantly rural. Banbury's main industries are car components, electrical goods, food processing, printing. Banbury is home to the world's largest coffee-processing facility, built in 1964; the town is famed for Banbury cakes -- oval in shape. The name Banbury derives from "Banna", a Saxon chieftain said to have built a stockade there in the 6th century, "burgh" meaning settlement; the Saxon spelling was Banesbyrig. The name appears as "Banesberie" in Domesday Book. Another known spelling was'Banesebury' in Medieval times.
During excavations for the construction of an office building in Hennef Way in 2002, the remains of a British Iron Age settlement with circular buildings dating back to 200 BC were found. The site contained around 150 pieces of stone. There was a Roman villa at nearby Wykham Park; the area was settled by the Saxons around the late 5th century. In about 556 Banbury was the scene of a battle between the local Anglo-Saxons of Cynric and Ceawlin, the local Romano-British, it was a local centre for Anglo-Saxon settlement by the mid-6th century. Banbury developed in the Anglo-Saxon period under Danish influence, starting in the late 6th century, it was assessed at 50 hides in the Domesday survey and was held by the Bishop of Lincoln. The Saxons built Banbury on the west bank of the River Cherwell. On the opposite bank they built Grimsbury, part of Northamptonshire but was incorporated into Banbury in 1889. Neithrop was one of the oldest areas in Banbury, having first been recorded as a hamlet in the 13th century.
It was formally incorporated into the borough of Banbury in 1889. Banbury stands at the junction of two ancient roads: Salt Way, its primary use being transport of salt, it continued through what is now Banbury's High Street and towards the Fosse Way at Stow-on-the-Wold. Banbury's medieval prosperity was based on wool. Banbury Castle was built from 1135 by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, survived into the Civil War, when it was besieged. Due to its proximity to Oxford, the King's capital, Banbury was at one stage a Royalist town, but the inhabitants were known to be Puritan; the castle was demolished after the war. Banbury played an important part in the English Civil War as a base of operations for Oliver Cromwell, reputed to have planned the Battle of Edge Hill in the back room of a local inn, the Reindeer Inn as it was known; the town was pro-Parliamentarian, but the castle was manned by a Royalist garrison who supported King Charles I. In 1645 during the Civil War, Parliamentary troops were billeted in nearby Hanwell for nine weeks and villagers petitioned the Warwickshire Committee of Accounts to pay for feeding them.
The opening of the Oxford Canal from Hawkesbury Junction to Banbury on 30 March 1778 gave the town a cheap and reliable supply of Warwickshire coal. In 1787 the Oxford Canal was extended southwards opening to Oxford on 1 January 1790; the canal's main boat yard was the original outlay of today's Tooley's Boatyard. Peoples' Park was set up as a private park in 1890 and opened in 1910, along with the adjacent bowling green; the land south of the Foscote Private Hospital in Calthorpe and Easington Farm were open farmland until the early 1960s as shown by the Ordnance Survey maps of 1964, 1955 and 1947. It had only a few farmsteads, the odd house, an allotment field, the Municipal Borough of Banbury council's small reservoir just south of Easington Farm and a water spring lay to the south of it; the Ruscote estate, which now has a notable South Asian community, was expanded in the 1950s because of the growth of the town due to the London overspill and further grew in the mid-1960s. British Railways closed Merton Street railway station and the Buckingham to Banbury line to passenger traffic at the end of 1960.
Merton Street goods depot continued to handle livestock traffic for Banbury's cattle market until 1966, when this too was discontinued and the railway dismantled. In March 1962 Sir John Betjeman celebrated the line from Culworth Junction in his poem Great Central Railway, Sheffield Victoria to Banbury. British Railways closed this line too in 1966; the main railway station, now called Banbury, is now served by trains running from London Paddington via Reading and Oxford, from London Marylebone via High Wycombe and Bicester onwards to Birmingham and Kidderminster and by Cross Country Trains from Bournemouth to Birmingham and Manchester. Banbury used to be home to a cattle market, situated on Merton Street in Grimsbury. For many decades and other farm animals were driven there on the hoof from as far as Scotland to be sold to feed the growing population of London and other towns. Since its closure in June 1998 a new housing development has been built on its site which includes Dashwood Primary School.
The estate, which lies between Banbury and Hanwell, was built in between 2005–06, on the grounds of the former Hanwell Farm. Banburyshire is an informal area centred on Banbur
GWR 4900 Class 4979 Wootton Hall
GWR 4900 Class 4-6-0 No. 4979 Wootton Hall is a steam locomotive. It was built at Swindon, February 1930, was one of 258 Hall class steam locomotives constructed, its first shed allocation was Plymouth Laira and after 32 years of service it ended up at Oxford. During this time it was allocated to sheds in Penzance, Severn Tunnel Junction, Cardiff Canton, ended its days in the London Division of the Western Region of British Railways, based at Southall, Reading and Oxford in July 1958, it was used for a variety of duties including freight. It was withdrawn from service in December 1963 and acquired by Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, South Wales, in June 1964; the locations of 4979 on particular dates. Of the 259 Hall Class locomotives built, 11 have been preserved with no. 4979 being one of several Halls salvaged from Woodhams' Scrapyard. It was sold to Fleetwood Locomotive Centre in Lancashire, left as the 179th departure from Barry in October 1986. In 1994 it was purchased by the Furness Railway Trust and moved to storage at the Lytham Motive Power Museum.
In March 2007 it was again moved to a new storage site at Appleby where, during its time at the Heritage Centre there, preventative maintenance was carried out to prevent further decay on the locomotive but the years of being by the sea air at Barry and Fleetwood has taken its toll. Once the FRT's new accommodation in Preston was completed, 4979 was moved from Appleby in October 2014, to the Ribble Steam Railway at Preston where restoration has since begun; the tender tank was immediately removed and is now sat in the yard awaiting eventual disposal. As many re-usable parts as possible have been recovered from the remains of the tender frames for eventual re-use on the locomotives restored tender; the remains of the locos drag box have been cut away for replacement and a number of small parts from the loco are being worked on. The long term goal for the FRT is to restore the locomotives tender first and when the tender is completed and funding has been raised, restore Wootton Hall to her former glory.
"4979 at Honeybourne". 1963. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.