A falling leaf is an aerobatic maneuver in which an aircraft performs a wings-level stall which begins to induce a spin. This spin is countered with the rudder, which begins a spin in the direction that must be countered with rudder. A falling leaf is a controlled stall performed in a fixed-wing aircraft, the maneuver is performed by purposely stalling the airplane and carefully using the rudder to try to hold the aircraft on a steady course. The falling leaf consists of a constant rotation about the yaw axis while continually changing the direction and this is opposed to a flat spin, where the aircraft constantly rotates around its yaw axis in only one direction, similar to a Frisbee. The falling leaf is sometimes described as walking the aircraft while stalled. The maneuver is performed mostly with the rudder, trimming with the elevator. The rotation may be self-induced, called autorotation, or, in maneuvers like the falling leaf, the incipient spin begins when the aircraft first starts to rotate around the yaw axis.
The rotation causes one wing to move faster than the other, as the aircraft rolls it slips sideways. If the spin is not stopped, the plane continue to roll and slip until it is in an out-of-control. However, if rudder is used to stop the incipient spin before it becomes a full spin, in this case the incipient spin will begin in the opposite direction, so it must be stopped again, and the process is repeated throughout the maneuver. The falling leaf is used as a training maneuver, teaching the pilot to control the plane during a stall. It is generally performed from a low-speed, level stall, to avoid the buffeting, departure from the normal flightpath and it is used in aerobatic competitions and shows as a demonstration maneuver. As the speed drops, the pilot holds the plane as level as possible in both the direction and the lateral direction. When the stall speed is reached, the plane will lose lift, due to the low speed and high angle of attack, the aircraft loses its boundary layer, making the control surfaces barely responsive to pilot inputs.
Therefore, the controls are usually pushed to their maximum limit to get the plane to respond, as the aircraft stalls, the nose will begin to drop. At this point the pilot applies full or nearly full elevator, while holding the ailerons neutral, the pilot applies full rudder in one direction, to induce a spin. When the spin begins, the pilot reverses the rudder direction, the aircraft will roll during the spin and will drop to the side in a slip before the rudder has a chance to take authority over the plane. As the rudder stops the spin, the wings will level, at this time, the pilot reverses the rudder, and this is repeated until the pilot decides to disengage from the maneuver
Hannes Arch was an Austrian pilot who competed in the 2007 Red Bull Air Race World Series season following a round of qualification held in Phoenix, Arizona during October 2006. He joined 13 other pilots,2 of them receiving entry after the Arizona qualifying, Arch won the World Championship in the 2008 season. Hannes Arch was born in Leoben, Austria in 1967, hannes Arch died on 8 September 2016 during a helicopter crash in the Austrian Alps during a helicopter delivery of goods to a remote mountain cabin, the Elberfelder Hütte. Shortly after takeoff at about 9, 15pm, the struck the side of a mountain. Arch died of a neck, a passenger survived the crash. Arch was accompanied in the helicopter by the Mountain Huts Owner Reinhard B. a 62-year-old German who runs an Alpine hut which Arch had delivered supplies to, the German was seriously injured in the crash but survived. Hannes Arch was buried in the company of his closest relatives in Troifaiach on 13 September 2016 and he is survived by his girlfriend, Miriam
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy,284 km east of Tunisia, the country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the worlds smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union, Malta has one national language, which is Maltese, and English as an official language. John and British, have ruled the islands, King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross to Malta in 1942 for the countrys bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Maltas national flag, the country became a republic in 1974, and although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the United Nations in 1964 and to the European Union in 2004, in 2008, Catholicism is the official religion in Malta.
The origin of the term Malta is uncertain, and the modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language, the most common etymology is that the word Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, honey. The ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning honey-sweet, possibly due to Maltas unique production of honey, an endemic species of bee lives on the island. The Romans went on to call the island Melita, which can be considered either as a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth a haven or port in reference to Maltas many bays, few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. The extinction of the hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on Malta. Prehistoric farming settlements dating to the Early Neolithic period were discovered in areas and in caves.
The Sicani were the tribe known to have inhabited the island at this time and are generally regarded as being closely related to the Iberians. Pottery from the Għar Dalam phase is similar to found in Agrigento. A culture of megalithis temple builders either supplanted or arose from this early period, the temples have distinctive architecture, typically a complex trefoil design, and were used from 4000 to 2500 BCE. Animal bones and a knife found behind an altar stone suggest that temple rituals included animal sacrifice. Tentative information suggests that the sacrifices were made to the goddess of fertility, the culture apparently disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BC. Archaeologists speculate that the builders fell victim to famine or disease
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as Il-Belt in Maltese. The historical city has a population of 6,444, while the area around it has a population of 393,938. Valletta is the southernmost capital of Europe and the second southernmost capital of the European Union after Nicosia, Valletta contains buildings from the 16th century onwards, built during the rule of the Order of St. John known as Knights Hospitaller. The City of Valletta was officially recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980, the official name given by the Order of Saint John was Humilissima Civitas Valletta—The Most Humble City of Valletta, or Città Umilissima in Italian. The building of a city on the Sciberras Peninsula, originally called Xaghriet Mewwija, had proposed by the Order of Saint John as early as 1524. Back then, the building on the peninsula was a small watchtower dedicated to Erasmus of Formia. In 1552, the watchtower was demolished and the larger Fort Saint Elmo was built in its place, in the Great Siege of 1565, Fort Saint Elmo fell to the Ottomans, but the Order eventually won the siege with the help of Sicilian reinforcements.
The victorious Grand Master, Jean de Valette, immediately set out to build a new fortified city on the Sciberras Peninsula to fortify the Orders position in Malta, the city took his name and was called La Valletta. The Grand Master asked the European kings and princes for help, pope Pius V sent his military architect, Francesco Laparelli, to design the new city, while Philip II of Spain sent substantial monetary aid. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Grand Master de Valette on 28 March 1566 and he placed the first stone in what became Our Lady of Victories Church. De Valette died from a stroke on 21 August 1568 at age 74, originally interred in the church of Our Lady of the Victories, his remains now rest in St. Johns Co-Cathedral among the tombs of other Grand Masters of the Knights of Malta. Francesco Laparelli was the principal designer and his plan departed from medieval Maltese architecture. He designed the new city on a grid plan. The streets were designed to be wide and straight, beginning centrally from the City Gate and ending at Fort Saint Elmo overlooking the Mediterranean and his assistant was the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, oversaw the construction of the city himself after Laparellis death in 1570.
The Ufficio delle Case regulated the building of the city as a planning authority, seven Auberges were built for the Orders Langues, and these were complete by the 1580s. An eighth Auberge, Auberge de Bavière, was added in the 18th century. During António Manoel de Vilhenas reign, a town began to form between the walls of Valletta and the Floriana Lines, and this evolved from a suburb of Valletta to Floriana, a town in its own right. In 1749, Muslim slaves plotted to kill Grandmaster Pinto and take over Valletta, in 1798, the Order left the islands and the French occupation of Malta began
Matthias Dolderer is a German professional race pilot. He is the 2016 champion of the Red Bull Air Race and he was raised at his parent’s flight school and at the early age of five became hooked on machines and fast cars making his first solo flight at 14. His life has revolved around aviation ever since, “Flying was my passion from the very first moment and my inspiration. I’ve spent my life in hangars, on airfields and in cockpits. He gained a glider and ultralight license at the age of 17, just a few days he finished 3rd in the German Championships. From 1988 until 1991, Matthias Dolderer took part in four German and he ended his ultralight aviator career as the German Champion. At 21 he became the youngest flight teacher in Germany, in 2002 he became an official pilot of the Flying Bulls, where he still performs with different aircraft. In 2006, Matthias Dolderer intensified his activities to become a Red Bull Air Race pilot in the near future. Just one year later, he took part at the World Aerobatic Championship, in 2008, Dolderer made his breakthrough after hard training.
He won the German Aerobatic Championship and achieved top standings at international competitions such as the World Aerobatics Cup, Matthias Dolderers achievements opened him the way for an invitation to attend the Red Bull Air Race qualification camp in Casarrubios, Spain, at the end of September 2008. Of the six candidates, five qualified for the super license required to compete in the world championship, Matthias Dolderer was one of four rookies selected for active race status
A pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. Other aircrew members such as attendants and ground crew, are not classified as aviators. In recognition of the qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots. The first recorded use of the aviator was in 1887, as a variation of aviation, from the Latin avis. The term aviatrix, now archaic, was used for a female aviator. These terms were used more in the days of aviation, when airplanes were extremely rare. For example, a 1905 reference work described the Wright brothers first airplane, The weight, the Aéro-Club de France delivered the first certificate to Louis Blériot in 1908—followed by Glenn Curtiss, Léon Delagrange, and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the pilot in command derives from that of a ships captain, when flying for an airline, pilots are usually referred to as airline pilots, with the pilot in command often referred to as the captain.
While the flight decks of U. S. and European airliners do have ex-military pilots, military training and flying, while rigorous, is fundamentally different in many ways from civilian piloting. Pilots licensing in Canada is similar to the United States, the Aeronautics Act of 1985 and Canadian Aviation Regulations provide rules for pilots in Canada. Retirement age is provided by each airline with some set to age 60, in 1930, the Air Commerce Act established pilot licensing requirements for American civil aviation. Commercial airline pilots in the United States have a retirement age of 65. Military pilots fly with the forces of a government or nation-state. Their tasks involve combat and non-combat operations, including direct hostile engagements, military pilots undergo specialized training, often with weapons. Examples of military pilots include fighter pilots, bomber pilots, transport pilots, military pilots serve as flight crews on aircraft for government personnel, such as Air Force One and Air Force Two in the United States.
Military pilots are trained with a different syllabus than civilian pilots and this is due to the different aircraft, flight goals, flight situations and chains of responsibility. Many military pilots do transfer to civilian-pilot qualification after they leave the military, the person controlling a remotely piloted UAV may be referred to as its pilot or operator. Most jurisdictions have restrictions on the use of UAVs which have limited their use in controlled airspace, UAVs have mostly been limited to military
Marta Bohn-Meyer was an American pilot and engineer. Marta Bohn-Meyer served as engineer of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. She was manager in a study of advanced laminar flow wing design using the General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft. Bohn-Meyer was an accomplished Unlimited aerobatic pilot, and was twice a member of the United States Unlimited Aerobatic Team and she served as Team Manager in 2005. The cause of the crash was deemed to be the failure of the front hinge of the canopy - which apparently incapacitated her. She is survived by her husband Robert R. Meyer, Jr. a project manager, biography from NASA Official NASA press release
Marsamxett Harbour, historically referred to as Marsamuscetto, is a natural harbour on the island of Malta. It is located to the north of the larger Grand Harbour, the harbour is generally more dedicated to leisure use than the Grand Harbour. The harbour mouth faces north east and is bounded to the north by Dragut Point and its northwest shore is made up of the towns of Sliema, Gżira and Ta Xbiex. The harbour extends inland to Pietà and Msida, off Gżira lies Manoel Island, now connected to the mainland by a bridge. The south eastern shore of the harbour is formed by the Sciberras peninsula, which is covered by the town of Floriana. At its tip lies the 16th century Fort Saint Elmo, the Sciberras peninsula divides Marsamxett from the larger parallel natural harbour, Grand Harbour. Along its partner the Grand Harbour, Marsamxett lies at the centre of gently rising ground, development has grown up all around the twin harbours and up the slopes so that the whole bowl is effectively one large conurbation.
Much of Maltas population lives within a three kilometer radius of Floriana and this is now one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The harbours and the surrounding areas make up Maltas Northern and Southern Harbour Districts, these districts contain 27 of 68 local councils. They have a population of 213,722 which make up over 47% of the population of the Maltese islands. In 1551, Ottomans landed at Marsamxett and marched upon the Grand Harbour and this skirmish was followed by an unsuccessful attack against Mdina, and successful sacking of Gozo and conquest of Tripoli. After this attack, Fort Saint Elmo was built to guard both Marsamxett and the Grand Harbour, a much larger Ottoman invasion came in 1565, in the Great Siege of Malta. During the siege, the Ottoman fleet was based at Marsamxett, during the attack, the Ottoman admiral Dragut was killed by stray gunfire. The siege was lifted and the Order and the Maltese emerged victorious. A new city was constructed on the Sciberras Peninsula, and was named Valletta after the Grandmaster who commissioned it, the suburb of Floriana was built outside the city, and it has now developed into a town in its own right.
In 1592, a quarantine hospital was built on Manoel Island. It was dismantled a year later, but a permanent Lazzaretto was built in its place in 1643, between 1723 and 1733, Fort Manoel was built on Manoel Island, while Fort Tigné was built on Tigné Point in 1793. British barracks were built on Tigné Point, but these have since been demolished
Kirby Chambliss is an American commercial pilot and a renowned world champion in aerobatics. Chambliss was born in Corpus Christi, United States, as a youngster, he wanted to be a pilot. His father was a skydiver, and he loved the steep spiral in the sky the pilot put the plane into when racing the skydivers back to the ground, during his high school years, he fueled aircraft to earn money. By December 1975 at the age of 16, Chambliss debuted in solo flying after formal flight training, in the beginning, he earned his living as a certified flight instructor and as a night freight pilot. His job as a jet pilot enabled him in 1985 to take aerobatic flight training. Winning top honors in his very first contest, Chambliss worked the way up to the elite unlimited level, in 1997, he became member and captain of the US Aerobatic Team. He won five U. S. national championships and 13 medals at the world championships and he holds the title 2000 Mens Freestyle World Champion, and has logged over 27000 flying hours.
In 2013, Chambliss lost power performing a high Alpha pass at the Illopango El Salvador Airshow, Chambliss exited his aircraft with minor injuries after a forced landing on a rocky embankment. Chambliss enjoys performing in traditional airshows throughout the year when he is not training or competing, since 2003, he takes part at the international aerobatic competition Red Bull Air Race World Series as a member of the Red Bull Team along with his team mate Hungarian Péter Besenyei. The champion of 2004, Chambliss finished the 2006 Series as the champion again with four wins of eight rounds on his Zivko Edge 540 aircraft, to stay in shape for enormous g-forces and exact timing, he runs four miles five days a week. He lives with his wife and fellow pilot and their daughter Karly Nicole at the Flying Crown Ranch, Arizona, USA. Legend, CAN, Cancelled DNP, Did not participate DNS, Did not show DQ, Disqualified NC, Not classified Red Bull Air Race World Series official website Team Chambliss official website
Julie E. Clark is an aerobatic air show pilot and former commercial airline pilot. She started her commercial flying career with Golden West Airlines as a first officer and she was one of the first female pilots to work for a major airline. She has been voted as Performer of the Year several times for her performance in air shows. Clark has 40 years of experience and 30,000 accident-free hours to her name and flies an average of 20 air shows a year in her Beechcraft T-34 Mentor. Clarks father, Captain Ernest Clark, was an airline pilot and he was murdered in 1964 by a suicidal passenger on Pacific Air Lines Flight 773. All crew and passengers were killed as a result of the passenger shooting both pilots, causing the plane to crash and her mothers death just a year earlier, and her fathers subsequent death, increased her determination to fly. News Profiles Display Julie Clarks website julieclarkairshows. com