Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Germany national football team
The Germany national football team is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic. Both have been absorbed along with their records by the current national team; the official name and code "Germany FR" was shortened to "Germany" following the reunification in 1990. Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won four World Cups, three European Championships, one Confederations Cup, they have been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, a further four third-place finishes at World Cups. East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976.
Germany is the only nation to have won both the FIFA Women's World Cup. At the end of the 2014 World Cup, Germany earned the highest Elo rating of any national football team in history, with a record 2205 points. Germany is the only European nation that has won a FIFA World Cup in the Americas; the manager of the national team is Joachim Löw. Between 1899 and 1901, prior to the formation of a national team, there were five unofficial international matches between German and English selection teams, which all ended as large defeats for the German teams. Eight years after the establishment of the German Football Association, the first official match of the Germany national football team was played on 5 April 1908, against Switzerland in Basel, with the Swiss winning 5–3. Gottfried Fuchs scored a world record 10 goals for Germany in a 16–0 win against Russia at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm on 1 July, becoming the top scorer of the tournament, he was Jewish, the German Football Association erased all references to him from their records between 1933 and 1945.
As of 2016, he was still the top German scorer for one match. The first match after World War I in 1920, the first match after World War II in 1950 when Germany was still banned from most international competitions, the first match in 1990 with former East German players were all against Switzerland as well. Germany's first championship title was won in Switzerland in 1954. At that time the players were selected by the DFB; the first manager of the Germany national team was Otto Nerz, a school teacher from Mannheim, who served in the role from 1926 to 1936. The German FA could not afford travel to Uruguay for the first World Cup staged in 1930 during the Great Depression, but finished third in the 1934 World Cup in their first appearance in the competition. After a poor showing at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Sepp Herberger became coach. In 1937 he put together a squad, soon nicknamed the Breslau Elf in recognition of their 8–0 win over Denmark in the German city of Breslau, Lower Silesia.
After Austria became part of Germany in the Anschluss of March 1938, that country's national team – one of Europe's best sides at the time due to professionalism – was disbanded despite having qualified for the 1938 World Cup. Nazi politicians ordered five or six ex-Austrian players, from the clubs Rapid Vienna, Austria Vienna, First Vienna FC, to join the all-German team on short notice in a staged show of unity for political reasons. In the 1938 World Cup that began on 4 June, this "united" German team managed only a 1–1 draw against Switzerland and lost the replay 2–4 in front of a hostile crowd in Paris, France; that early exit stands as Germany's worst World Cup result, one of just two occasions the team failed to progress the group stage. During World War II, the team played over 30 international games between September 1939 and November 1942. National team games were suspended, as most players had to join the armed forces. Many of the national team players were gathered together under coach Herberger as Rote Jäger through the efforts of a sympathetic air force officer trying to protect the footballers from the most dangerous wartime service.
After World War II, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until 1950. The DFB was not a full member of FIFA, none of the three new German states — West Germany, East Germany, Saarland — entered the 1950 World Cup qualifiers; the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to as West Germany, continued the DFB. With recognition by FIFA and UEFA, the DFB continued the record of the pre-war team. Switzerland was once again the first team that played West Germany in 1950. West Germany qualified for the 1954 World Cup; the Saarland, under French control between 1947 and 1956, did not join French organisations, was barred from participating in pan-German ones. It sent their own team to the 1954 World Cup qualifiers. In 1957, Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1949, the communist German Democratic Republic was founded. In 1952 the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR was established and the East Germany national football team took to the field, they were the only team to beat the 1974 FIFA World Cup winning West Germans in the onl
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
FCSB short for Fotbal Club Steaua București and sometimes colloquially known as Steaua, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1947 as Asociația Sportivă a Armatei București, it has spent its complete history in the Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system; the team was part of the CSA Steaua București sports club and belonged to the Romanian Army, however it separated in 1998. The Army sued the football club in 2011 and has since been in a conflict regarding the ownership of the Steaua brand, which resulted in the change of the name to the acronym FCSB in early 2017. Domestically, Roș-albaștrii have won Liga I 26 times, Cupa României 22 times, Cupa Ligii 2 times and Supercupa României 6 times – all competition records. Internationally, they have won the European Cup and European Super Cup, both in 1986, they reached the European Cup final once again in 1989, when they were defeated by A. C. Milan. Throughout its history, Steaua played the final of the Intercontinental Cup, the quarter-finals of the European Cup Winners' Cup and the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup.
Their home ground is Arena Națională, having moved here from the Ministry of National Defence-owned Stadionul Ghencea. The club played in the colours of the Romanian tricolour – blue and red – but yellow soon lost its importance and the team became associated with the red and blue colours; some away kits have begun reintegrating the yellow colour. The club has a long-standing rivalry with neighbouring Dinamo București, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby" or "the Romanian Derby". Steaua was founded on 7 June 1947 at the initiative of several officers of the Romanian Royal House; the establishment took place following a decree signed by General Mihail Lascăr, High Commander of the Romanian Royal Army. The club's first name was ASA București, it was formed as a sports society with seven initial sections, including football, coached by Coloman Braun-Bogdan. ASA was renamed CSCA in 1948 and CCA in 1950. In 1949, CSCA won the Cupa României, defeating CSU Cluj 2 -- 1 in the final.
Under the name of CCA, the club managed to win three Championship titles in a row in 1951, 1952 and 1953, along with its first Championship–Cup double in 1951. During the 1950s, the so-called CCA Golden Team became nationally famous. In 1956, the Romania national team played Yugoslavia in Belgrade and won 1–0. In the same year, CCA, coached by Ilie Savu, became the first Romanian team to participate in a tournament in England, where it achieved noteworthy results against the likes of Luton Town, Sheffield Wednesday and Wolverhampton Wanderers. At the end of 1961, CCA changed its name once again to CSA Steaua București; the club's new name translated to The Star and was adopted because of the presence of a red star, a symbol of most East European Army clubs, on its crest. A poor period of two decades followed in which the club claimed only three championships. Instead, the team won nine national cup trophies, for which matter it gained the nickname of "cup specialists". During this period, on 9 April 1974 Steaua's ground, Stadionul Ghencea, was inaugurated with a friendly match against OFK Belgrade.
Under the leadership of coaches Emerich Jenei and Anghel Iordănescu, Steaua had an impressive Championship run in the 1984–85 season, which it won after a six-year break. Subsequently, Steaua became the first Romanian club to reach a European Cup final, which it won against Barcelona on penalties, after a goalless draw. Steaua therefore became the first Eastern European team to claim the title of European champions. An additional European Super Cup was won in 1987 against Dynamo Kyiv. Steaua remained at the top of European football for the rest of the decade, managing one more European Cup semi-final in 1987–88 and one more European Cup final in 1989. Notably, this was in addition to four national cups. Furthermore, from June 1986 to September 1989, Steaua ran a record 104-match undefeated streak in the championship, setting a world record for that time and a European one still standing; the Romanian Revolution led the country towards a free open market and, several players of the 1980s team left for other clubs in the West.
After a short pull-back, a quick recovery followed and Steaua managed a six consecutive championship streak between 1992–93 and 1997–98 to equalize the 1920s performance of Chinezul Timișoara and three more cups in 1995–96, 1996–97 and 1998–99. At international level, the club managed to reach the UEFA Champions League group stage three years in a row between 1994–95 and 1996–97. In 1998, the football club separated from CSA Steaua and changed its name to FC Steaua București, being led by Romanian businessman Viorel Păunescu. Păunescu soon the club was plunged into debt. George Becali, another businessman, was offered the position of vice-president in the hope that Becali would invest money in the club. Becali purchased the majority share in 2002 and turned the governing company public in January 2003; because of his c
Anorthosis Famagusta FC
Αnorthosis Famagusta FC, known as Anorthosis, is a Cypriot football and volleyball club. Based in Famagusta, the club is now based in Larnaca. Anorthosis was founded in 1911 in Famagusta and in 1934 became one of the founder clubs of the Cyprus Football Association, their home ground is the Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, the president of the club is Antreas Panteli. One of the most successful clubs in Cypriot football, Anorthosis has won 13 First Division titles, 10 Cypriot Cups and seven Super Cups. Anorthosis is one of three Cypriot clubs never to have played in the second division and the first one which had participated in the Champions League Group Stages; the club was founded in Famagusta on 30 January 1911. After the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the occupation of Famagusta by the Turkish army, Anorthosis was relocated to Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium in Larnaca and because of the occupation of Famagusta Anorthosis is one of those clubs that are known as the "refugee" clubs. Anorthosis' original home stadium in Famagusta, G.
S. E. is in poor condition. Ammochostos, or better Varoshi, around 1910 was a small town of about 4,000 inhabitants: farmers, fishermen and a few shop-keepers; the only place of recreation was the coffee shop. At that time a few and enthusiastic men of that community set a goal and managed to create a "reading club" in hospitable rooms where they could gather and educate the youth in cultural and national matters; the period from 1911 until 1928 can be characterized as the first period of Anorthosis history. In that period, Anorthosis was a nationalist and spiritual group. Patriotic speeches and national commemorations were organised in the building of Anorthosis, but the sector where Anorthosis had created a tradition, unique in the history of clubs of which the reputation and activity was spread all over Cyprus, was in music. Under the control of Demetris Demetriades, it began with great success the only madolinade and band of Anorthosis; the actions taken at that time were many, some of them were: 1913: In a collection, done in the building of Anorthosis the extravagant – for that time – amount of 84 pounds was gathered in just one hour, given for the political needs of the country.
1922: Anorthosis establishes a depository for the relief of the refugees from the Asia Minor destruction. The second period in the history of Anorthosis started with an important changeover in the aims and actions of the club; the "Anorthosis Reading Club" renamed to "Musical Philological and Philanthropical Club" and as an emblem of the club is now the mythical bird Phoenix. During this period the mantolinade and band of Anorthosis are better organised and stipendiary teachers are being appointed for the development of the two groups. In the philological sector the tradition of the past continued. Anorthosis created a first class library with a lending section. In 1936, 1,500 volumes of books were lent to Anorthosis members. In the second period a great importance was given to the athletic sector. Under the control of professor of Gymnastics, Anastasis Oikonomides and volleyball teams, sea sports and teams of classical athleticism, gave Anorthosis many first wins and trophies. Anorthosis in association with Gymnastic Club Evagoras, its own child, organized district and pan-Cyprian games and athletes got their first wins, not only in PanCyprian games.
Of course, for a small time period, there was nothing to show. For example, in 1929 with a letter of POEB of which members are in Anorthosis, said that it was ready to break up and its members to be merged into the football team of Anorthosis, it was decided that a second football team should be funded, the responsibility was on Mr. An. Oikonomidis and S. Mathaiou. On 11 February 1932, at the command of the Ammochostos governor the club of Anorthosis closed for a short time. On 29 October, the president, the general secretary and the boufι manager of Anorthosis were arrested by the police because the Greek flag was hanging on the balcony of the club building. On 26 July 2005, they beat the Turkish team Trabzonspor 3-1 in the first leg of their second-round Champions League qualifying match, they progressed 3-2 on aggregate. In the third-round qualifying tie against the Scottish team Rangers, Anorthosis lost the first leg 2-1, the second leg 2-0, so dropped into the first round of the UEFA Cup.
They were defeated 6-1 on aggregate by the Italian team Palermo. Anorthosis qualified for the 2007–08 UEFA Cup by way of their Cypriot Cup win, they entered the competition at the First Qualifying round stage. Aggregate victories over FK Vardar and CFR 1907 Cluj saw them move through to the First Round proper. Anorthosis were drawn against English Premier League side Tottenham Hotspur; the first leg was played at White Hart Lane on 20 September 2007 which Tottenham Hotspur won 6-1. On 4 October 2007 the second leg resulted in a 1-1 draw when Robbie Keane equalised for Tottenham Hotspur after Fabinho had put Anorthosis ahead. After winning the domestic league 2007–08, Anorthosis qualified for the 2008–09 UEFA Champions League Group Stage, over-running Armenian Champions FC Pyunik, Austrian Champions Rapid Wien and Greek Champions Olympiacos in the qualifying rounds; this allowed the team to qualify for the Group Stage of the Champions League, the first time for a Cypriot team. In the group stage, they earned their first point following a 0-0 away draw with Werder Bremen got their first win beating Panathinaikos FC 3-1 while Hawar Mulla Mohammed became the first Iraqi playe
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Măcin is a town in Tulcea County, in the Dobrudja region of Romania. Măcin is located in Tulcea County; the city is located at the intersection of the DN22D national roads. The DN22 road links it to cities of Isaccea and Tulcea; the DN22D road connects Măcin through a southern route with Constanţa. According to the 2011 census, the population numbered 7,666 inhabitants, composed of 91.46% Romanians, 4.8% Roma, 2.92% Turks and 0.37% Russian Lipovans. The town is located on an ancient Celtic settlement, named Arrubium, it was included in the Getic polities of Rhemaxos and Zyraxes conquered by the Roman Empire, which stationed a cavalry unit in this place between 99 and 241 AD. The ruins of the old Roman fortifications, could be seen today on the top of "Cetate" Hill. Part of the Bulgarian and Ottoman Empire, it was included for some time in the Wallachian and Moldavian voivodates, it was the site of the Battle of Măcin in 1791. The main share of the local economy is taken by agriculture animal husbandry, cereal growing and in less extent, fishing.
Industry is centered on surface mining - extraction of granite rocks, from quarries situated on southern slopes of Măcin Mountains, while light industries like textile and clothing manufacturing are still well represented. A large part of city and surroundings population is involved in textile industry. In the manufacturing sector one could mention about the factory of electrostatic air purifiers and ventilation systems. Since mid-2000s, the wine industry has grown in importance, as new vineyards have been planted on Carcaliu Hill along DJ222L road, six kilometers outside city limits to the southeast; the local wine producer sells white and red wines with the "D. O. C." Designation, "Controlled term of origin", from Sarica-Niculițel region. The town has an "inland port" on the Danube, operated by two local fixed cranes and sometimes depending on the freight fluxes, by additional floating cranes brought in from Brăila; the port has some warehousing facilities. Tourism development is consistent with the strategic guidelines, the implementation of this priority axis will contribute to improving the attractiveness of regions and create new jobs.
Macin Mountains National Park Lake Iacobdeal Old Inn and the window of grinding Old Danube – Macin arm Source cure Macin Mountains Beech Valley Forest Popina Blasova in Balta Braila Point Fossil Hill Bujoarele Arrubium Fortress Troesmis – Turcoaia Roman-Byzantine fortress Dinogeţia Monastery of Macin, with wooden interior Heroes Monument Macin Memorial House “Panait Cerna” The houses with specific architecture Dobrogean Website https://turism-macin.ro/ Four kindergarten, one with prolonged activities program. Two primary schools:"Nifon Bălășescu" school and "Gheorghe Banea" school Vocational school; the school has been established since 1905, according to Spiru Haret was "the most beautiful school from all over Dobrudja" in the period around World War I. High school: "Gheorghe Munteanu-Murgoci" "Cadastre and Cartography College" within Faculty of Geography, University of Bucharest. Gheorghe Munteanu-Murgoci Măcin is twinned with: Blaye www.macin.ro