Norwegian University of Life Sciences
The Norwegian University of Life Sciences is a public university located in Ås, Norway. It is located at Ås in Akershus, near Oslo, at Adamstuen in Oslo and has around 5,000 students. Established in 1859 as the Norwegian Agricultural Postgraduate College, it became a university-level university college in 1897 and received university status in 2005. Prior to 2005 it was known as the Norwegian College of Agriculture. Only a few years in 2014 the university merged with the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science in Oslo, is today known as the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Having a history since 1859, it is the second oldest institution of higher education in Norway, after the University of Oslo, it is the only educational institution in Norway to provide veterinary education. The university is organized into seven faculties: Biosciences Chemistry and Food Science Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management Landscape and Society School of Economics and Business Science and Technology Veterinary MedicineIt includes seven centers: Aquaculture Protein Center Animal Production Experimental Centre Centre for Plant Research in Controlled Climate Centre for Continuing Education The Centre for Integrative Genetics Norwegian Centre for Bioenergy Research Imaging Centre Campus Ås Bachelor's degree programmes in English International Environment and Development Studiesmaster's degree programmes in English Agroecology Animal Breeding and Genetics Aquatic Food production - Safety and Quality Aquaculture Development and Natural Resource Economics Ecology Feed Manufacturing Technology International Development Studies International Environmental Studies International Relations Radioecologybachelor's degree programmes in Norwegian Animal Science Biotechnology Business Administration Chemistry Ecology Economics Environment and Natural Resources Food Science Forest and Industry Geomatics Landscape Construction and Management Natural Science Plant Science Renewable Energy Master's degree programmes in Norwegian - 5 years Chemistry and Biotechnology Environmental Physics and Renewable Energy Geomatics Industrial Economics and Technology Management Landscape Architecture Property and Land Law Spatial Planning Structural Engineering and Architecture Urban and regional Planning Teacher Education in Natural Sciences Water and Environmental Technologymaster's degree programmes in Norwegian - 2 years Animal Science Bioinformatics and Applied Statistics Biology Biotechnology Business Administration Chemistry Environment and Natural Resources Food Science Forest Sciences Innovation and Entrepreneurship Management of Natural Resources Mathematical and Computational Sciences Microbiology Nature-based Development and Innovation Packaging Plant Science Public Health Real Estate Development Renewable EnergyPhD studies Doctoral programmes are based on a continuation in the Norwegian degree system from a master's degree or an equivalent qualification.
A doctoral programme consists of course work, individual research project and a dissertation, defended in a formal oral examination. Other programmes in Norwegian One-year Teacher Education programme - part-time One-year Teacher Education programme - full-time ScienceStudents do not have to pay tuition; the Norwegian government subsidizes all higher education. NMBU has exchange agreements with more than 93 universities worldwide, including six Nordic, 44 European and eight North American institutions. Institutional partnerships with universities in developing countries are carried out through the Department of International Environmental and Development Studies/Noragric; the objectives of NMBU’s cooperation with universities abroad include building strong academic networks, facilitating international exchange and contributing to the competence building with universities in the south. Research at NMBU includes basic research and applied research, providing a foundation for education, research training and research geared towards the private sector.
Research is focused on Environmental Sciences, Veterinary medicine, Food Science, Biotechnology and Business Development. It has a strong interdisciplinary and international approach. There is a strong link between the NMBU study programs. Research is a joint venture between research institutes in Ås. Together, the university and the institutions represent the largest research environments for life sciences in Norway. NMBU is active through national alliances with other institutions and through institutional partnerships with universities in developing countries. NMBU’s health-related research is linked to healthy food, clean water and the environment and the many related challenges in developing countries; the Pentagon, a building south of the NMBU campus, houses students. Other students live in private housing. University Foundation for Student Life in Ås The University Foundation for Student Life in Ås was established in 1955 under and in pursuance of the Act of 28.06.96 of Student unions. SiÅs shall: provide the students with good and reasonable welfare offers promote the students’ interests contribute do that NMBU becomes and attractive place to study and workSiÅs is in charge of the student accommodations, sports center, print shop and cafeterias, nursery and booking of meeting and function rooms.
Studensamfunnet in Ås The NMBU student community consists of 60-70 clubs and societies that both alone and together offer most students unique and social activities with many challenges. Studentsamfunnet
University of Würzburg
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402; the university had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Maximilian Joseph; the University of Würzburg is part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group. Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology is a scientific institution of the University Its official name is Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg but it is referred to as the University of Würzburg; this name is taken from Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, who reestablished the university in 1582, Prince Elector Maximilian Joseph, the prince under whom secularization occurred at the start of the 19th century.
The university’s central administration, foreign student office, several research institutes are located within the area of the old town, while the new liberal arts campus, with its modern library, overlooks the city from the east. The university today enrolls 29,000 students, out of which more than 1,000 come from other countries. Although the university was first founded in 1402, it was short-lived; this was attributed to the instability of the age. Johannes Trithemius, well-known humanist and learned abbot of the Scottish monastery of St. Jacob, held the dissolute student lifestyle responsible for the premature decline of the city's first university. In the Annales Hirsaugiensis Chronologia Mystica of 1506 he cites bathing, brawling, inebriation and general pandemonium as "greatly impeding the academic achievement in Würzburg". Evidence of this is provided by the fatal stabbing of the university's first chancellor, Johann Zantfurt, in 1413, by a scholar's unruly assistant, or famulus, evidently the result of these influences.
Despite Egloffstein's thwarted first attempt at founding a university, the city still boasts one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world on a par with Prague, Heidelberg and Erfurt. A university in Würzburg was refounded more than 150 years later. A "second founding" by Prince Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn in 1582 offered the institution guaranteed autonomous self-government; the university was fiercely Roman Catholic and considered a "bastion of Catholicism in the face of Protestantism", words used in the university charter which prevented all non-Catholics from graduating from or receiving tenure at the Alma Julia. Echter intended it as a tool of Counter-Reformation. Over a century would pass before the university opened its doors to non-Catholics, in keeping with the spirit of Enlightenment encouraged by Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn's newly formulated students' charter of 1734; the resultant increase in religious tolerance enabled the summoning and subsequent appointment of the famous physician, Karl Kaspar von Siebold, under Schönborn's successor, Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim.
Shortly after his arrival in 1769, Protestant medical students were permitted to study for their doctorates at the university. Würzburg's increasing secularisation as a bishopric and its eventual surrender to Bavarian rule at the beginning of the 19th century resulted in the loss of the university's Roman Catholic character; the end of the city's status as a Grand Duchy under Ferdinand of Toscana in 1814 heralded the Alma Julia's ideological transition to the non-denominational establishment which endures to this day. This new inclusiveness towards professors and students alike was instrumental in the resultant upturn in all areas of research and education in the 19th century. Since the university has borne the name of its second and most influential founder known as the Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Bavaria; the many medical accomplishments associated with the university from the mid- to late-19th century were inextricably linked with achievements in the affiliated field of natural science, notably by Schwab, the eminent botanist, the zoologist, the celebrated chemist and Boveri, the biologist.
Their progress culminated in the discovery of x-rays by physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, first winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1895. Röntgen's discovery, which he dubbed a "new kind of ray", is regarded as the university's greatest intellectual achievement, a scientific development of huge global import. Röntgen's successors, namely Wilhelm Wien, Johannes Stark and the chemists Emil Fischer and Eduard Buchner number among the succession of Nobel Prize winners to lecture at the university, a tradition which endures in the modern-day example of Klaus von Klitzing. After World War II, the free state of Bavaria invested a fortune in the rebuilding and renovation of the university buildings, damaged by Allied bombing. Restoration of Echter's "Old University", current home to the faculty of law, continues today; the eventual rebuilding of the Neubaukirche affiliated to the legal faculty and razed to the ground in 1945, marked the end of the city's extensive reconstruction process. In 1970 it was decided that the church, one of the most important examples of 16th century vaulted architecture in southern Germany, should fulfill a dual function as a place of worship and
Karen Kristine Holtsmark was a Norwegian painter. She was born at Ås in Norway, she was a daughter of his wife Margrete Weisse. Her father was a physicist and her mother was an educator, she was a maternal granddaughter of philologist Johan Peter Weisse, a paternal granddaughter of agriculturalist and politician Bent Holtsmark. She was a niece of politicians Bernt and Torger Holtsmark, a sister of professors Johan and Anne Holtsmark. Herself, she married Haakon R. Brækken in July 1936, she attended the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry from 1924 to 1927 and the Norwegian National Academy of Fine Arts from 1927 to 1930. Her most important teacher was Axel Revold, she was influenced by Vilhelm Bjerke-Petersen to take up the Surrealist style; some of her paintings were Expressionist. She became a Communist, stayed several times in France where she studied under Georg Jacobsen in 1936. In 1932 she participated in a group exhibition at the Kunstnerforbundet in Oslo with Bjarne Rise, Johannes Rian and Vilhelm Bjerke-Petersen.
She had her first exhibit at Kunstnerforbundet in 1935, had major exhibits in Copenhagen in 1935 and Lund, Sweden in 1937. In 1959 she was one of the winners of a contest to be displayed in the Parliament of Norway, her work Solens gang was woven by Else Halling between 1959 and 1965, was displayed in the Central Hall. Some of her works the main work Mennesket og vilkårene, were controversial, it was not bought by the National Gallery of Norway until 1993; the National Gallery does own twelve of her landscape paintings. Her art is on display at Lillehammer Art Museum and Bergen Billedgalleri, she retired in 1970 because of an eye condition. She died in March 1998 in Ås
Norsk biografisk leksikon
Norsk biografisk leksikon is the largest Norwegian biographical encyclopedia. The first edition was issued including 19 volumes and 5,100 articles, it was published by Aschehoug with economic support from the state. Kunnskapsforlaget bought the rights to NBL1 from Aschehoug in 1995, after a pre-project in 1996-97 the work for a new edition began in 1998; the project had economic support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Ministry of Culture, the second edition was launched in the years 1999-2005, including 10 volumes and ca. 5,700 articles. In 2006 the work for an electronic edition of NBL2 began, with support from the same institutions. In 2009 an Internet edition, with free access, was released by Kunnskapsforlaget together with the general-purpose Store norske leksikon; the electronic edition features additional biographies, updates about dates of death of biographees. Apart from that, the vast body of text is unaltered from the printed version; this is a list of volumes in the second edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon.
Volume 1: Abel–Bruusgaard. Published 1999 Volume 2: Bry–Ernø. Published 2000 Volume 3: Escholt–Halvdan. Published 2001 Volume 4: Halvorsen–Ibsen. Published 2001 Volume 5: Ihlen–Larsson. Published 2002 Volume 6: Lassen–Nitter. Published 2003 Volume 7: Njøs–Samuelsen. Published 2003 Volume 8: Sand–Sundquist. Published 2004 Volume 9: Sundt–Wikborg. Published 2005 Volume 10: Wilberg–Aavik, plus extra material. Published 2005This is a list of volumes in the first edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Volume 1: Aabel–Bjørnson. Published 1923 Volume 2: Bjørnstad–Christian Frederik. Published 1925 Volume 3: Christiansen–Eyvind Urarhorn. Published 1926 Volume 4: Fabricius–Grodtschilling. Published 1929 Volume 5: Grosch–Helkand. Published 1931 Volume 6: Helland–Lars Jensen. Published 1934 Volume 7: Lars O. Jensen–Krefting. Published 1936 Volume 8: Kristensen–Løwenhielm. Published 1938 Volume 9: Madsen–Nansen. Published 1940 Volume 10: Narve–Harald C. Pedersen. Published 1949 Volume 11: Oscar Pedersen–Ross. Published 1952 Volume 12: Rosseland–Schult.
Published 1954 Volume 13: Schultz–Skramstad. Published 1958 Volume 14: Skredsvig–Stenersen. Published 1962 Volume 15: Stensaker–Sørbrøden. Published 1966 Volume 16: Sørensen–Alf Torp. Published 1969 Volume 17: Eivind Torp–Vidnes. Published 1975 Volume 18: Vig–Henrik Wergeland. Published 1977 Volume 19: N. Wergeland–Øyen. Published 1983