Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto, better known by his pen name and legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Nobel Prize winning Chilean poet-diplomat and politician. Neruda became known as a poet when he was 13 years old, wrote in a variety of styles, including surrealist poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, passionate love poems such as the ones in his collection Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971. Neruda occupied many diplomatic positions in various countries during his lifetime and served a term as a Senator for the Chilean Communist Party; when President Gabriel González Videla outlawed communism in Chile in 1948, a warrant was issued for Neruda's arrest. Friends hid him for months in the basement of a house in the port city of Valparaíso. Years Neruda was a close advisor to Chile's socialist President Salvador Allende; when Neruda returned to Chile after his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Allende invited him to read at the Estadio Nacional before 70,000 people.
Neruda was hospitalised with cancer at the time of the coup d'état led by Augusto Pinochet that overthrew Allende's government, but returned home after a few days when he suspected a doctor of injecting him with an unknown substance for the purpose of murdering him on Pinochet's orders. Neruda died in his house in Isla Negra on 23 September 1973, just hours after leaving the hospital. Although it was long reported that he died of heart failure, the Interior Ministry of the Chilean government issued a statement in 2015 acknowledging a Ministry document indicating the government's official position that "it was possible and likely" that Neruda was killed as a result of "the intervention of third parties". Pinochet, backed by elements of the armed forces, denied permission for Neruda's funeral to be made a public event, but thousands of grieving Chileans disobeyed the curfew and crowded the streets. Neruda is considered the national poet of Chile, his works have been popular and influential worldwide.
The Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez once called him "the greatest poet of the 20th century in any language", Harold Bloom included Neruda as one of the 26 writers central to the Western tradition in his book The Western Canon. Pablo Neruda was born Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto on 12 July 1904, in Parral, Chile, a city in Linares Province, now part of the greater Maule Region, some 350 km south of Santiago, to José del Carmen Reyes Morales, a railway employee, Rosa Basoalto, a schoolteacher who died two months after he was born. Soon after her death, Reyes moved to Temuco, where he married a woman with whom he had had another child nine years earlier, a boy named Rodolfo. Neruda grew up in Temuco with Rodolfo and a half-sister, one of his father's children by another woman, he composed his first poems in the winter of 1914. Neruda was an atheist. Neruda's father opposed his son's interest in writing and literature, but he received encouragement from others, including the future Nobel Prize winner Gabriela Mistral, who headed the local school.
On July 18, 1917, at the age of thirteen, he published his first work, an essay titled "Entusiasmo y perseverancia" in the local daily newspaper La Mañana, signed it Neftalí Reyes. From 1918 to mid-1920, he published numerous poems, such as "Mis ojos", essays in local magazines as Neftalí Reyes. In 1919, he participated in the literary contest Juegos Florales del Maule and won third place for his poem "Comunión ideal" or "Nocturno ideal". By mid-1920, when he adopted the pseudonym Pablo Neruda, he was a published author of poems and journalism, he is thought to have derived his pen name from the Czech poet Jan Neruda. The young poet's intention in publishing under a pseudonym was to avoid his father's disapproval of his poems. In 1921, at the age of 16, Neruda moved to Santiago to study French at the Universidad de Chile, with the intention of becoming a teacher. However, he was soon devoting all his time to writing poems and with the help of well-known writer Eduardo Barrios, he managed to meet and impress Don Carlos George Nascimento, the most important publisher in Chile at the time.
In 1923, his first volume of verse, was published by Editorial Nascimento, followed the next year by Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada, a collection of love poems, controversial for its eroticism considering its author's young age. Both works have been translated into many languages. Over the decades, Veinte poemas sold millions of copies and became Neruda's best-known work, though a second edition did not appear until 1932. One hundred years Veinte Poemas still retains its place as the best-selling poetry book in the Spanish language. By the age of 20, Neruda faced poverty. In 1926, he published the collection Tentativa del hombre infinito and the novel El habitante y su esperanza. In 1927, out of financial desperation, he took an honorary consulship in Rangoon, the capital of the British colony of Burma administered from New Delhi as a province of British India. Rangoon was a place. Mired in isolation and loneliness, he worked in Colombo and Singapore. In Java the following year he met and married his first wife, a Dutch bank employee named Marijke Antonieta Hagenaar Vogelzang.
While he was in the diploma
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. He served as President twice, first between 1927 and 1931, from 1952 to 1958, serving for 11 years in office; the presidency of Arturo Alessandri saw a rise in popular discontent over the inefficient government. In 1924, the Chilean armed forces, led by General Luis Altamirano, began the saber-rattling, a protest where soldiers banged their sabers against the floor of the Congress. Amid threats from the armed forces, Alessandri decided he could no longer govern and submitted his resignation. Although this resignation was not approved by Congress, Alessandri left the country and Altamirano established a military junta. However, another faction of the armed forces, led by Colonel Marmaduke Grove and Lieutenant Colonel Ibáñez, decided the junta's reforms did not go far enough in ending the government's inefficiency, they led another coup, deposed Altamirano, established a new junta with Emilio Bello as head. Ibáñez and Grove, the powers behind the scene, agreed to ask Alessandri to return and complete his term.
Alessandri returned in 1925 and drafted a new constitution, designed to decrease the powers of the legislature, thereby making government more effective. Ibáñez was named Minister of War and Home Affairs Minister. However, Alessandri decided Ibáñez was becoming too ambitious, manyridiculed Alessandri as a pawn of Ibáñez. In response, Alessandri went into exile. Ibáñez announced his candidacy in the upcoming presidential elections, but the three main Chilean political parties pressured him to desist; the three parties presented a consensus choice, Emiliano Figueroa, to be the sole presidential candidate, in order to avoid political campaigning in the volatile political atmosphere. Ibáñez's closest adviser, leftist José Santos Salas declared his presidential candidacy, many suspected it was with Ibáñez's backing. Figueroa kept Ibáñez as Home Affairs Minister. Ibáñez was able to control the weak Figueroa who decided to resign in 1927 rather than be Ibáñez's puppet; because he was Home Affairs Minister, under the Chilean constitution, Ibáñez became Vice President and announced elections for May 22 that year.
In the presidential elections, the traditional political parties decided not to participate. Ibáñez's only opponent was the communist Elías Lafertte, exiled in the Juan Fernández Archipelago throughout the electoral campaign. Ibáñez won the election with 98% of the vote. Ibáñez began to exercise dictatorial powers, using rule by decree, suspending parliamentary elections, instead naming politicians to the Senate and Chamber of Deputies himself, etc. Political opponents were exiled, including his former ally Marmaduke Grove, his popularity, was helped by massive loans by American banks, which helped to promote a high rate of growth in the country. He constructed massive public works, increased public spending, he created the Carabineros de Chile by unifying the disorganized police forces. Another significant achievement of Ibáñez's first administration was the signing of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, in which Chile agreed to return the Tacna Province to Peru, seized during the War of the Pacific, his popularity lasted until after the 1929 collapse of Wall Street.
At that point all loans were called. Without the influx of foreign currency, Chile was affected by the Great Depression. Ibáñez's large public spending did nothing to alleviate the situation, his opponents the exiled Grove and Alessandri, began to plan a comeback. After a great wave of public unrest, Ibáñez left the country for exile, on July 26, 1931, after delegating his office to the president of the senate, Pedro Opazo, who in turn resigned in favor of the interior minister, Juan Esteban Montero. Chile did not reach political stability until the 1932 reelection of Arturo Alessandri, whose economic policies managed to alleviate the depression. In the 1952 presidential elections, the center-right Agrarian Labor Party declared Ibáñez a presidential candidate. Ibáñez garnered the support of the left-wing Popular Socialist Party and some feminist political unions — the feminist María de la Cruz was his campaign manager, but she refused a ministerial office. Ibáñez promised to "sweep" out political corruption and bad government with his "broom" and was nicknamed the "General of Hope".
He criticized traditional political parties but was vague in his proposals and had no clear position in the political spectrum. He won the election with 47%, his second term was a modest success. By that time he was old and ailing, he left government to his cabinet, his major problems during his presidency were those concerned with the economy. He had no plan to control inflation – one of the most pressing economic problems at the time in Chile – and as a result it skyrocketed to 71% in 1954 and 83% in 1955. Helped by the Klein-Sacks mission, Ibáñez managed to reduce it to 33 %. During his term, public transport costs rose by 50% and economic growth fell to 2.5% Now much more of a centrist politically, Ibáñez won the support of many left-wingers by repealing the Law for the Defense of Democracy, which banned the Communist Party. Some Chileans continued to support an Ibáñez dictatorship; these ibañistas, most of whom were retired army officers, created the "Línea Recta" group to establish a new dictatorship.
Ibáñez met with these conspirators, but his typical lack of t
Rosa Markmann Reijer de González Videla was the Chilean First Lady from 1946 to 1952, during the presidency of her husband, Gabriel González Videla. Known by her nickname "Mitty", Markmann was born in Taltal, from German descent, her parents were the banker Ladislao Markmann and Ana Reijer, her maternal grandfather was ambassador in Sweden. Rosa's great-grandfather was born in Hamburg, she was married to González Videla until his death in 1980. During the presidency of her husband, she played a key role in the Chilean women's suffrage movement. In 1947, Rosa Markmann announced the creation of the National Association of Housewives, whose chief purpose was to prevent speculation in basic subsistence goods among producers and retailers. Markmann began to patronize a number of women's organizations and to express her support for female suffrage. In September 1948, she appeared at one of the events of FECHIF's "Pro-Women's Suffrage Week", assuring its participants that the President too favored women's suffrage.
During her husband's presidency, Rosa became a fashion symbol for women all over the country, nicknamed "The Chilean Eva Perón". She was a passionate supporter of the military government of General Augusto Pinochet. Markmann died, 101 years old, on June 12, 2009, in her mansion in Las Condes, Santiago de Chile
Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
Pedro Aguirre Cerda
Pedro Aguirre Cerda was a Chilean political figure. A member of the Radical Party, he was chosen as the Popular Front's candidate for the 1938 presidential election, was triumphally elected, he governed Chile until his death in 1941. Pedro Aguirre Cerda was of Basque descent, he was born in a small village near the city of Los Andes, in Chile. The seventh of a total of eleven children of Juan Bautista Aguirre and Clarisa Cerda, his father, a farmer, died when he was eight years old in 1887. His mother had to raise him and all his brothers alone, he finished his university studies in Santiago, at the Pedagogic Institute and became a teacher of Spanish in 1900. In 1904 he became a lawyer, he married his cousin Juana Rosa Aguirre Luco. In 1910, thanks to a government scholarship he studied administrative and financial law at La Sorbonne, plus political economy and social legislation at the College de France, he took a position as a teacher at the Instituto Nacional. He became president of the National Society of Teachers.
He was a distinguished teacher, attorney and senator. He was the first dean of the new school of economy of the Universidad de Chile; as a member of the Radical Party, he was minister of Public Instruction and of the Interior during the administrations of Juan Luis Sanfuentes and Arturo Alessandri. During the period of military domination, he was persecuted and became an active opposition leader to the government of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. For the presidential elections of 1938, he was the candidate of the Popular Front, narrowly defeated conservative candidate Gustavo Ross because of the political backlash caused by the Seguro Obrero Massacre. Pedro Aguirre Cerda was elected and assumed as president on December 25, 1938 under the slogan "Gobernar es educar" As a teacher, his priority in government was education; as such, he promoted the development of the technical-industrial schools as a means to promote the formation of technicians for the nascent industrialization of the country.
He created thousands of new regular schools and encouraged the growth of the university system to cover the whole of the country. Aguirre’s government redistributed some land, encouraged the formation of agricultural settlements, built low-cost housing and schools, integrated the Marxist parties into the political system. During his first year he had to face the military opposition to his plans, that boiled over with the so-called Ariostazo, he promoted and campaigned for a Nobel prize for Gabriela Mistral, which only came to fruition under his successor, Juan Antonio Ríos. On the economic side, prompted in part by the devastating earthquake of 1939, he created the Production Development Corporation to encourage with subsidies and direct investments an ambitious program of import substitution industrialization; this was the basis for the industrialization of Chile. From there sprung the steel and sugar industries. In 1941 due to his escalating illness, he appointed his minister of the Interior, Jerónimo Méndez as vice-president.
He died soon after, of tuberculosis, on November 1941 in Santiago, Chile. Méndez served as acting President until Juan Antonio Rios, elected on February 1, 1942, took office on April 2. In the Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1950–51, the explorers named the Aguirre Passage between Lemaire Island and Danco Coast after Don Pedro Aguirre Cerda. Economic history of Chile Ariostazo TIME article on the political scene during President Aguirre's first year in power
1942 Chilean presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Chile on February 1, 1942. The result was a victory for Juan Antonio Ríos of the Radical Party; the election was held using the absolute majority system, under which a candidate had to receive over 50% of the popular vote to be elected. If no candidate received over 50% of the vote, both houses of the National Congress would come together to vote on the two candidates who received the most votes. In 1941, due to his escalating illness, President Pedro Aguirre Cerda appointed his Minister of the Interior, Jerónimo Méndez as vice-president and died soon after, on November 25, 1941. Aguirre Cerda's two natural successors were Juan Antonio Ríos and Gabriel González Videla, both members of his Radical Party, while the right-wing coalition was united by a common candidate, former President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who had the support of the Conservative party, Liberal Party, National Socialist Party, Popular Socialist Vanguard and the majority of the independents.
Ríos started to campaign early but two days before the internal primaries of his party, Gabriel González Videla returned to Chile to dispute him the nomination. The results were too close to call, so a tribunal of honor was constituted, Juan Antonio Ríos was proclaimed the candidate of a left-wing coalition of parties, the Democratic Alliance, formed by the Radical Party, the Socialist Party, the Communist Party, the Democratic Party and the Workers' Socialist Party