France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Jean Omer Beriziky is a Malagasy politician and diplomat, Prime Minister of Madagascar in the government of consensus of President Andry Rajoelina from 2011 to 2014. Beriziky, who hails from the northern part of the island, worked as a history professor, he was posted in Brussels as Madagascar's Ambassador to the European Union and Belgium from 1995 to 2006. A member of the LEADER Fanilo political party, Beriziky was appointed as Prime Minister on 28 October 2011 on the proposal of the party of former President Albert Zafy, he took office on 2 November 2011. He was succeeded by Roger Kolo after newly-elected president Hery Rajaonarimampianina appointed Kolo to the post following the 2013 elections
Bernard Ramanantsoa was the Dean of HEC Paris between 1996 and 2015. Ramanantsoa is the nephew of Gabriel Ramanantsoa, former President of Madagascar, he and his two children are HEC Paris alumni. He is administrator of EuropaNova, he will leave his position in 2015
HEC Paris is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France. Among the most selective French grandes écoles, HEC Paris offers its flagship Master in Management, MBA and EMBA programs, specialized MSc programs, a PhD program, executive education offerings. HEC Paris has been ranked the best business school in France, among the top in the world. HEC alumni include 12 current CEOs of F500 companies - more than any other business school in the world and third institution only to Harvard and Stanford -, several heads of states and governments, heads of international organizations, other prominent figures in politics and the arts. In 2017, HEC Alumni has been ranked by The Economist as the 2nd most powerful business school alumni network in the world. HEC Paris is the founding member of CEMS - Global Alliance in Management Education and holds the triple accreditation. With ESSEC and ESCP, it forms the informal group referred as the 3 Parisiennes. Established in 1881 by the Paris Chamber of Commerce, the École des hautes études commerciales de Paris wanted to be in the fields of management and trade what Centrale Paris was in the field of engineering.
In order to gain recognition from the academic world, the school offered lessons similar to what was taught in secondary education and few classes in management. In 1921, the school introduced the case-based method of the Harvard Business School, but most of the lectures remained theoretical. In 1938, the HEC program was lengthened to 3 years. Due to French corporations' demand for North American style management education, at the end of the 1950s, the case-based method was generalized and a one-year classe préparatoire was created to prepare for the entrance examination, which had become difficult. An evidence of the recognition of the diploma is that only 9% of HEC students attended university in 1959, whereas 47% had done so in 1929. In 1964, French President Charles de Gaulle inaugurated a new 250-acre wooded campus in Jouy-en-Josas. In 1967, HEC launched its executive education programs. Women have been accepted at HEC since 1973. Only 27 women were accepted that year and HEC jeunes filles, another school dedicated to women, was closed.
Its alumnae are considered as graduates of HEC. HECJF alumni include, for example, Édith Cresson, the first and to date the only woman to have held the office of Prime Minister of France. In 1988, HEC founded the CEMS network with the Bocconi University and the Cologne University. In 2015, the school adopted a new legal status to allow private investors to join the Board. In 2017, HEC launched a portfolio of new dual degree programs called M2M with Yale, HKUST, FGV. French students who attended a classe préparatoire are taught fundamental managerial sciences during their first year at HEC. Courses include economics, finance, psychology and mathematics. During this first year, students can spend a semester in a foreign university, they can enroll in a specific one-year program to get a bachelor's degree from a French university. Direct admissions, including international students, enter directly into the second year, where they begin a business intensive program. Courses include corporate and market finance, marketing, mathematics, human resources, supply chain.
Second-year students are given the opportunity to spend one semester in a foreign university. At the end of their second year, students choose specific majors and must pass through a less competitive application process. In order to graduate, students are required to have 8 months of internships. Since this is difficult during the summer, many students take a semester or year off for their internship between the second and third year; the final year of study covers intensive courses in the chosen major. HEC Paris has numerous double degree agreements with French and foreign institutions, including Sciences Po Paris, ENS Paris, Ecole Polytechnique in France, Yale University, HKUST, FGV abroad; some of them only make degrees of the partner institution available to HEC students, while others enable selected students of the partner institution to graduate from HEC. MSc International Finance MSc Managerial and Financial Economics MSc Strategic Management MSc/MS Marketing MSc Sustainability and Social Innovation The MBA program, created in 1969, has two intakes: September and January.
HEC's MBA consists in a 16 month-long curriculum, with 8 months of core courses and 8 months of customized program, including several specialization options, exchange programs, fieldwork projects. A typical class is composed of some 250 students - 90% of whom are international students - with more than 52 nationalities represented in the 2017 graduating class; the selection process seeks a balance between academic achievement, professional experience, international exposure, personal motivation. Knowledge of French is not an entry requirement, but participants are encouraged to have a basic knowledge of French by the start of the MBA Program, while mandatory and optional language courses are offered throughout the duration of the program. Exchange and dual degree programs are offered with about 40 international partner business schools, including HKUST, London Business School, Columbia Business School and Yale; the HEC Executive MBA is a program for top executives with a minimum of 8 years of corporate experience, which pr
Albert Zafy was a Malagasy politician and educator who served as President of Madagascar from 27 March 1993 to 5 September 1996. In 1988, he founded the National Union for Democracy and Development. In 1992, Zafy stood as a presidential candidate against President Didier Ratsiraka; the election soon became a run-off between the two candidates. In 1993, Zafy won the run-off election in a landslide. During his presidency, Zafy received poor polling numbers due to an economic decline with accusations of corruption in his office, he was impeached in 1996 and defeated by Ratsiraka in the 1996 presidential election. After leaving office, Zafy remained active in politics as an opposition leader under successive administrations. Zafy was born in Ambilobe, Diana Region on 1 May 1927, he studied at the University of Montpellier in France. After his return to Madagascar he became Minister of Public Health and Social Affairs under Gabriel Ramanantsoa. After Didier Ratsiraka took power in 1975, Zafy resigned from the government and joined the University of Madagascar.
In 1988 he founded the National Union for Development. At a national conference of the opposition in 1990, Zafy was elected as President of the Committee of Active Forces, a cooperation group of several opposition parties, including Zafy's UNDD. On 16 July 1991, the CFV declared the creation of an alternative government, with Zafy as its Prime Minister. Zafy was detained for a week in late July 1991 and was met with a crowd of about 100,000 supporters upon his release, he was subsequently wounded during a protest. The opposition was successful in forcing Ratsiraka to agree to the Panorama Convention, which established a transitional government and stripped Ratsiraka of most of his powers, on 31 October 1991. Zafy oversaw the transition as head of the High State Authority, along with the Social and Economic Recovery Council, replaced the Supreme Revolutionary Council and the National Assembly during the 1991–1993 transitional period. In the multiparty presidential election held in November 1992, Zafy placed first in the first round with about 45% of the vote.
In the second round, held on 10 February 1993, Zafy won the presidency with 66.74% of the vote. He took office in late March–the first time since Madagascar's independence in 1960 that an incumbent president peacefully transferred power to an elected member of the opposition. In June 1993, Zafy's supporters won a majority in parliamentary elections. In office, Zafy's rivalry with Prime Minister Francisque Ravony led him to seek increased powers, in September 1995 a successful referendum was held that increased the powers of the president; this gave him authority over the selection of the prime minister, a decision, in the hands of the National Assembly. The president gained the ability to dismiss the prime minister without requiring new elections. Ravony resigned in October 1995, Zafy appointed Emmanuel Rakotovahiny, the head of the UNDD and had been Minister of State for Rural Development and Land Reform, in his place. Zafy's time in office was seen as being marked by economic decline, which negatively impacted his popularity, amid accusations of corruption and abuse of power, he was impeached by the National Assembly on 26 July 1996.
The impeachment was backed by more than the necessary two-thirds majority. On 4 September, the High Constitutional Court upheld the impeachment. On 5 September, Zafy announced that he would leave office on 10 October, he described his impeachment as a "constitutional coup d'état" that occurred as a result of his criticism of the National Assembly. Although he could not delay his departure from office, he was able to stand as a candidate in the late 1996 presidential election called as a result of his impeachment. In his 1996 campaign, Zafy blamed the problems faced by Madagascar during his presidency on his opponents and the International Monetary Fund, he downplayed the charges against him that had led to his impeachment. Although he had lost much of his support, in the first round of the election, held on 3 November, he was able to take second place with 23.39% of the vote, behind Ratsiraka's 36.61%. Zafy received some support in the second round from those who, despite their criticisms of Zafy, felt he was preferable to Ratsiraka, such as Interim President Norbert Ratsirahonana, who had unsuccessfully stood as a candidate in the first round.
In the second round, held on 29 December, Zafy narrowly lost to Ratsiraka, taking 49.29% of the vote and losing by about 45,000 votes. He alleged that the High Constitutional Court had switched the numbers for himself and Ratsiraka and said that he had not spoken of that at the time for the sake of peace. Zafy led an attempt to impeach Ratsiraka in early 1998, accusing him of various charges, including perjury and nepotism; the impeachment motion failed in the National Assembly on 4 February 1998 when only 60 deputies voted in favor of it, well short of the necessary 92. Zafy subsequently won a seat in the May 1998 parliamentary election, becoming the oldest deputy in the National Assembly, he unsuccessfully sought the secession of Antsiranana Province from Madagascar at around the same time. On 31 August 2001, Zafy announced that he would again run in the
Philibert Tsiranana was a Malagasy politician and leader, who served as the first President of Madagascar from 1959 to 1972. During the twelve years of his administration, the Republic of Madagascar experienced institutional stability that stood in contrast to the political turmoil many mainland African countries experienced in this period; this stability contributed to his reputation as a remarkable statesman. Madagascar experienced moderate economic growth under his moderately socialist policies and came to be known as "the Happy Island." However, the electoral process was fraught with issues and his term terminated in a series of farmer and student protests that brought about the end of the First Republic and the establishment of the socialist Second Republic. The "benevolent schoolmaster" public image that Tsiranana cultivated disguised intense firmness that tended toward authoritarianism. Nonetheless, he remains an esteemed Malagasy political figure remembered throughout the country as its "Father of Independence."
According to his official biography, Tsiranana was born on 18 October 1912 in Ambarikorano, Sofia Region, in northeastern Madagascar. Born to Madiomanana and Fisadoha Tsiranana, Catholic cattle ranchers from the Tsimihety ethnic group, Philibert was destined to become a cattle rancher himself. However, following the death of his father in 1923, Tsiranana's brother, suggested that he attend a primary school in Anjiamangirana. A brilliant student, Tsiranana was admitted into the Analalava regional school in 1926, where he graduated with a brevet des collèges. In 1930, he enrolled in the Le Myre de Vilers normal school in Tananarive, named after former resident-general of Madagascar Charles Le Myre de Vilers, where he entered the "Section Normale" program, preparing him for a career teaching in primary schools. After completing his studies, he started a teaching career in his hometown. In 1942, he began receiving instruction in Tananarive for middle school teaching and in 1945, he succeeded in the teacher assistant competitive examinations, allowing him to serve as a professor in a regional school.
In 1946, he obtained a scholarship to the École normale d'instituteurs in Montpellier, where he worked as a teacher assistant. He left Madagascar on 6 November. In 1943, Philibert Tsiranana joined the professional teachers' union and in 1944 entered the General Confederation of Labor. With the end of World War II and the creation of the French Union by the Fourth Republic, the colonial society of Madagascar experienced a liberalization; the colonized peoples now had the right to be politically organized. Tsiranana joined the Group of Student Communists of Madagascar in January 1946, on the advice of his mentor Paul Ralaivoavy, he assumed the role of treasurer. The GEC enabled him to meet future leaders of the PADESM, which he became a founding member of in June 1946; the PADESM was a political organization composed of Mainty and Tanindrana from the coastal region. The PADESM came about as a result of the holding of the French constituent elections of 1945 and 1946. For the first time, the people of Madagascar were allowed to participate in French elections, with electing settlers and indigenous people to the French National Assembly.
To ensure that they won one of the two seats allotted to native people of Madagascar, the inhabitants of the coastal region made an agreement with the Mouvement démocratique de la rénovation malgache, controlled by the Merina of the uplands. The coastal people agreed to seek the election of Paul Ralaivoavy in the west, while leaving the east to the Merina candidate, Joseph Ravoahangy; this agreement was not honoured and the Merina Joseph Raseta won the second seat in October 1945 and June 1946. Concerned about the possible return of "Merina control," the coastal people founded PADESM in order to counter the nationalist goals of the MDRM and oppose Malagasy independence - a position justified by Tsiranana in 1968: If had occurred in 1946, there would have been a civil war at once because the coastal people would not have accepted it. Given the intellectual level of the period, they would have remained petty village chiefs, subjugated, not to say slaves, since the gap between the people of the coast and the people of the uplands was enormous.
In July 1946, Tsiranana refused the post of secretary general of PADESM on account of his impending departure for the École normale de Montpellier. Tsiranana had become known for his contributions to PADESM's journal Voromahery, authored under the pseudonym "Tsimihety"; as a result of his journey to France, Tsiranana escaped the Malagasy Uprising of 1947 and its bloody suppression. Moved by the events, Tsiranana participated in an anti-colonial protest in Montpellier on 21 February 1949, although not a supporter of independence. During his time in France, Tsiranana became conscious of the bias towards the Malagasy elite in education, he found. In his view, there could never be a free union between all Malagasy while a cultural gap remained between the coastal people and the people of the highlands. To remedy this gap, he established two organisations in Madagascar: the Association of Coastal Malagasy Students in August 1949, the Cultural Association of Coastal Malagasy Intellectuals in September 1951.
These organisations were held against him. On his return to Madagascar in 1950, Tsiranana was appointed professor of technical education at the École industrielle in Tananarive in the highlands. There he taught mathematics, but he wa
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope