Janus Bey, in Turkish Yunus Bey was a Greek who became an interpreter and ambassador for the Ottoman Empire. In 1532 he had meetings with the Venetian government, he was considered as the ambassador for the Ottoman Empire, was well received, was the beneficiary of large presents from the Venetians. In 1532, he worked with French ambassador Antonio Rincon to obtain a safe-conduct for the Ottoman embassy to France. In 1537 he was co-author with Alvise Gritti of an Italian booklet, published in Venice, on the government of the Ottoman Empire; the title was Opera noua la quale dechiara tutto il gouerno del gran Turcho. He founded a mosque in Constantinople, called the "Dragoman's Mosque", he died in 1541/42. Franco-Ottoman alliance Garnier, Edith L'Alliance Impie Editions du Felin, 2008, Paris ISBN 978-2-86645-678-8 Interview Krstić, Tijana "Of Translation and Empire: sixteenth-century Ottoman imperial interpreters as Renaissance go-betweens" in Christine Woodhead, The Ottoman World pp. 130-142 132-134 Preview at Google Books
Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–55)
The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555 was one of the many military conflicts fought between the two arch rivals, the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire led by Tahmasp I. The war was triggered by territorial disputes between the two empires when the Bey of Bitlis decided to put himself under Persian protection. Tahmasp had the governor of Baghdad, a sympathiser of Suleiman, assassinated. On the diplomatic front, Safavids had been engaged in discussions with the Habsburgs for the formation of a Habsburg-Persian alliance that would attack the Ottoman Empire on two fronts; the Ottomans, first under the Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha, joined by Suleiman himself attacked Safavid Iraq, recaptured Bitlis, proceeded to capture Tabriz and Baghdad in 1534. Tahmasp remained elusive as he kept retreating ahead of the Ottoman troops, adopting a scorched earth strategy. Under the Grand Vizier Rüstem Pasha, Ottomans attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in 1548–1549.
Again, Tahmasp adopted a scorched earth policy. Meanwhile, the French king Francis I, enemy of the Habsburgs, Suleiman the Magnificent were moving forward with a Franco-Ottoman alliance, formalized in 1536, that would counterbalance the Habsburg threat. In 1547, when Suleiman attacked Persia, France sent its ambassador Gabriel de Luetz, to accompany him in his campaign. Gabriel de Luetz gave military advice to Suleiman, as when he advised on artillery placement during the Siege of Van. Suleiman made gains in Tabriz, Persian ruled Armenia, secured a lasting presence in the province of Van in Eastern Anatolia, took some forts in Georgia. In 1553 The Ottomans, first under the Grand Vizier Rustem Pasha, joined by Suleiman himself, began his third and final campaign against the Shah, in which he first lost and regained Erzurum. Ottoman territorial gains were secured by the Peace of Amasya in 1555. Suleiman returned Tabriz, but kept Baghdad, lower Mesopotamia, western Armenia, western Georgia, the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris, part of the Persian Gulf coast.
Persia retained the rest of all its northwestern territories in the Caucasus. Due to his heavy commitment in Persia, Suleiman was only able to send limited naval support to France in the Franco-Ottoman Invasion of Corsica. Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. P. xxxi. ISBN 978-1442241466
Siege of Tripoli (1551)
The Siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottomans besieged and vanquished the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established a fort in Tripoli in 1510, Charles V remitted it to the Knights in 1530; the siege culminated in the surrender of the city on 15 August. The siege of Tripoli succeeded an earlier attack on Malta in July, repelled, the successful invasion of Gozo, in which 5,000 Christian captives were taken and brought on galleys to the location of Tripoli; the city was under the command of Father Gaspard de Vallier, with 30 knights and 630 Calabrian and Sicilian mercenaries. The Ottomans had a base since 1531 in the city of Tajura, 20 kilometers to the east, where Khayr al-Din had been based; the Ottomans encircled the fort, established 3 batteries of 12 guns each. The French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Gabriel d'Aramon, joined the Ottoman fleet at Tripoli, with two galleys and a galliot, The declared mission of the ambassador was to dissuade the Ottomans from capturing the city, at the request of the Grand Master of Malta, as Malta was not identified as an enemy in the Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Habsburgs.
According to reports, when Sinan Pasha and Dragut refused to lift the siege, on grounds that they were under order to eradicate the Knights of Malta from the African continent, d'Aramon threatened to sail to Constantinople to appeal to sultan Suleiman, but he was barred from leaving the city until the end of the siege. Soon the soldiers in the fort mutinied, negotiation for surrender started; the city was captured on 15 August 1551 by Sinan Pasha after six days of bombardment. The Knights, many of them French, were returned to Malta upon the intervention of the French ambassador, shipped onboard his galleys, while the mercenaries were enslaved.. Murād Agha, the Ottoman commander of Tajura since 1536, was named as the Pashalik of the city. Nicolas de Villegagnon, the future explorer of Brazil, was present at the siege of Tripoli in 1551, wrote an account about it in 1553. From Malta, d'Aramon wrote a letter about his intervention to Henry II; the role of d'Aramon was criticized by Charles V and Julius III on suspicion that he had encouraged the Ottomans to take the city.
It appeared that d'Aramon had participated in the victory banquet of the Ottomans, raising further suspicions about his role in the siege, leading to claims by Charles V that France participated in the siege. In any instance, d'Aramon had a special relationship with the Ottomans, was aware that the fall of Tripoli represented a major setback for Charles V. Upon his return to Malta, Gaspard de Vallier was criticized by the Grand Master Juan de Homedes y Coscon who wished to assign all the blame for the defeat on him, he was brought in front of a tribunal, stripped from the habit and cross of the Order. He had been however staunchly defended by Nicolas de Villegagnon, who exposed the duplicity of de Homedes; the siege was the first step of the all-out Italian War of 1551–1559 in the European theater, in the Mediterranean the French galleys of Marseilles were ordered to join the Ottoman fleet. In 1553, Dragut was nominated commander of Tripoli by Suleiman, making the city an important center for piratical raids in the Mediterranean and the capital of the Ottoman province of Tripolitania.
In a famous attack from Tripoli, in 1558, Dragut attacked Reggio, took all its inhabitants as slaves to Tripoli. In 1560, a powerful naval force was sent to recapture Tripoli, but that force was defeated in the Battle of Djerba. Franco-Ottoman alliance Timeline of Maltese history List of Ottoman sieges and landings Battle of Tripoli 2011
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy, he succeeded his father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres.
He was known as François du Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, the Roi-Chevalier for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars; the succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, his subsequent election as Holy Roman Emperor, meant that France was geographically encircled by the Habsburg monarchy. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; when this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. Francis d'Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the only son of Charles d'Orléans, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France.
His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir; the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, Francis inherited the throne, he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France.
Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading and writing and he became proficient in Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling, he ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by humanism than any previous French king. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern.
During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Leonardo da Vinci. While da Vinci painted little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa, these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the painters Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces, he invited the noted architect Sebastiano Serlio, who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was renowned as a man of letters; when Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtie
Reggio di Calabria known as Reggio Calabria or Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria. Reggio is located on the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina, it is situated on the slopes of the Aspromonte, a long, craggy mountain range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third economic centre of mainland Southern Italy, the city proper has a population of more than 200,000 inhabitants spread over 236 square kilometres, while the fast-growing urban area numbers 260,000 inhabitants. About 560,000 people live in the metropolitan area, recognised in 2015 by Italian Republic as a metropolitan city; as a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical and economic ties with the city of Messina, which lies across the strait in Sicily, forming a metro city of less than 1 million people.
Reggio is the oldest city in the region, despite its ancient foundation – Ρηγιον was an important and flourishing colony of Magna Graecia – it has a modern urban system, set up after the catastrophic earthquake on 28 December 1908, which destroyed most of the city. The region has been subject to earthquakes, it is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with Naples and Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums, the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to Ancient Greece. Reggio is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological Superintendence of Lucania; the city centre, consisting of Liberty buildings, has a linear development along the coast with parallel streets, the promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms. Reggio has used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the Bronzes of Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins. During its 3,500-year history Reggio has been renamed.
Each name corresponds with the city's major historical phases: Recion, name appeared on the most ancient coins retrieved in Reggio. Erythrà, the pre-Greek settlement populated by the Italic people. Rhégion, the Greek city from the archaic age to the Magna Grecia age, from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC. Febèa, a short period under Dionysius II of Syracuse, in the 4th century BC. Regium, its first Latin name, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC became Rhegium. Rhègium Julium, as a noble Roman city during the Imperial age. Rivàh, Arabic name under the short domination by Emirate of Sicily, between 10th and 11th centuries. Rìsa, under the Normans, between the 11th and 12th centuries. Regols, Catalan name under the Crown of Aragon, in the late 13th century. Reggio or Regio, usual Italian name in the Middle and Modern age. Règgio di Calàbria, post Italian Unification; the toponym of the city is derived from Chaldean word Rec or maybe from the Greek one régnȳmi referring to the straits between Calabria and Sicily as a break in the land.
From the late 3rd millennium BC onwards until the 8th century BC the city was inhabited by peoples such as the Osci, Trojans and Achæans by Oenotrians, Ausones, Taureanes, Sicels and Itali. The land around Reggio was first known as Saturnia, or Neptunia, Italia, which in Roman times became the name of the whole Italian peninsula. In those days however, it corresponded only to present-day, southern Calabria, which came to be known as Bruttium, while the name Italia, in fact, was first used only for the area of Reggio itself. After Cumae, Reggio is one of the oldest Greek colonies in southern Italy; the colony was settled by the inhabitants of Chalcis in 730 or 743 BC on the site of the older settlement, Erythrà, meaning "the Red one". This dated back to the 3rd millennium BC and was established by the Ausones; the last Ausonian ruler was king Italós, from. King Iokastos is buried on the Punta Calamizzi promontory, called "Pallantiòn", where Greek settlers arrived; the colony retained the earlier name of "Rhégion".
Under Greek rule, Reggio became an ally of Athens. Rhégion was governed by the Messenians, from 737 to 461 BC. Reggio was one of the most important cities in Greater Greece, reaching great economic and political power during the 5th and 6th centuries BC under the Anaxilas government. Anaxilas allowed Reggio to rule over all the Messina Strait, including Zancle. Rhegion allied with Athens during the Peloponnesian War until 387 BC when the city was taken by the Syracusans. Throughout classic
Nicolas de Nicolay
Nicolas de Nicolay, Sieur d'Arfeville & de Belair, of the Nicolay was a French geographer. Born at la Grave in Oisans, in the Dauphiné, he left France in 1542 to participate in the siege of Perpignan, held by Emperor Charles V of Austria. In 1547 he sailed to Scotland. In 1548 he returned to Scotland to take away Mary, Queen of Scots from Dumbarton Castle, sailing around the west coast of Ireland, he travelled around Germany, England, Italy, Spain and Turkey and served in the armies of most of these countries. On his return to France, Henry II made him Geographer Valet to the Chamber. Around this time, he appears to have made a terrestrial globe that provided the model for the Oterschaden globe of c.1600. In 1551, Henry II ordered him to follow Gabriel d'Aramon and ambassador to the Grand Turk Suleiman the Magnificent. In the course of the voyage, his unofficial mission was to survey the places visited, including Istanbul, it has been suggested. In 1583, he died in Soissons, where he was Commissioner of artillery, after a stay at the royal castle of Moulins.
Published in 1598, Quatre premiers livres des navigations recorded Nicolay's observations about the Ottoman court and peoples from his 1551 mission to Istanbul on behalf of the French government. The book served as the first comprehensive survey of customs and costumes in the Ottoman world, is hailed as one of the earliest and most accurate depictions of the Islamic world to appear in Europe. Travels in Turkey achieved a high level of commercial success upon its release, it was reissued and translated for a number of different countries, including Italy, the Netherlands and Germany. The widespread popularity of the book contributed to the proliferation of costume books throughout Europe at the end of the 16th century, continued to influence Orientalist artists well into the 19th century such as Eugene Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Travels in Turkey is divided in four books, following Nicolay's voyage to Istanbul, accounts of ethnic groups and Ottoman court life, the religious and military administration in Istanbul.
Louis Danet made 60 engravings based on Nicolay's original drawings, which serve as the core of the books, each print is followed by a caption, describing Islamic ritual and monuments. The images cover all aspects of Ottoman daily life, depict figures ranging from sultans and sultanas to wrestlers and Janissary generals; the images are typical of costume books, consist of lone figures, depicted on a sparse background, which emphasizes the dress of the figure, rather than geography. In the costume book, figures are schematized and follow general types, Brafman writes that "Nicolay, or his engravers, render facial expressions in an exaggerated style. Emotional reaction are evoked artistically, whether it be identification with a mother, sympathy for a Christian slave, or fascination with exotic and'monstrous' alien practice", he wrote several books: Description générale des Duché de Berry. Quatre premiers livres des navigations Description générale du Bourbonnais en 1569, ou Histoire de cette province (villes, bourgs, châteaux, monastères, familles anciennes.
Description générale de la ville de Lyon et des anciennes provinces du du Beaujolais. Discovrs et histoire veritable des navigations, Anvers, A. Coninx,' 1586. From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress Les navigations, peregrinations et voyages faicts en la Turquie, at Bibliothèque nationale de France Nicolas D'Arfeville's map of Scotland at the National Library of Scotland Voyage en Orient au XVIe siècle de Nicolas de Nicolay, par Honoré Pallias, 1857. Description du Berry et diocèse de Bourges au XVIe siècle par Nicolas de Nicolay Dauphinois, géographe et valet de chambre du roi Charles IX avec une notice sur l'auteur par M. Victor Advielle, Paris, A. Aubry et Dumoulin, 1865. R. Herve,"L'oeuvre cartographique de Nicolas de Nicolay et d'Antoine de Leval, 1544-1619", Bulletin de la Section de Géographie du Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, LXVIII, 223-63. Roger Hervé, L'Œuvre cartographique de Nicolas de Nicolay et d'Antoine de Laval, Imprimerie nationale, 1956.
Franz Wawrik, “Der Erdglobus des Johannes Oterschaden”, Der Globusfreund, Nos.25-27, 1978, pp. 155–167
The Franco-Ottoman alliance Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent. The strategic and sometimes tactical alliance was one of the most important foreign alliances of France, was influential during the Italian Wars, it lasted intermittently for more than two and a half centuries, until the Napoleonic campaign in Ottoman Egypt, in 1798–1801. The alliance was exceptional, as the first non-ideological alliance between a Christian and Muslim state, caused a scandal in the Christian world. Carl Jacob Burckhardt called it "the sacrilegious union of the lily and the crescent". Following the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmet II and the unification of swaths of the Middle East under Selim I, the son of Selim, managed to expand Ottoman rule to Serbia in 1522; the Habsburg Empire thus entered in direct conflict with the Ottomans. Some early contacts seem to have taken place between the French.
Philippe de Commines reports that Bayezid II sent an embassy to Louis XI in 1483, while Cem, his brother and rival pretender to the Ottoman throne was being detained in France at Bourganeuf by Pierre d'Aubusson. Louis XI refused to see the envoys, but a large amount of money and Christian relics were offered by the envoy so that Cem could remain in custody in France. Cem was transferred to the custody of Pope Innocent VIII in 1489. France had signed a first treaty or Capitulation with the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt in 1500, during the reigns of Louis XII and Sultan Bayezid II, in which the Sultan of Egypt had made concessions to the French and the Catalans, which would be extended by Suleiman. France had been looking for allies in Central Europe; the ambassador of France Antonio Rincon was employed by Francis I on several missions to Poland and Hungary between 1522 and 1525. At that time, following the 1522 Battle of Bicoque, Francis I was attempting to ally with king Sigismund I the Old of Poland.
In 1524, a Franco-Polish alliance was signed between Francis I and the king of Poland Sigismund I. A momentous intensification of the search for allies in Central Europe occurred when the French ruler Francis I was defeated at the Battle of Pavia on February 24, 1525, by the troops of Emperor Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Madrid, through which he had to relinquish the Duchy of Burgundy and the Charolais to the Empire, renounce his Italian ambitions, return his belongings and honours to the traitor Constable de Bourbon; this situation forced Francis I to find an ally against the powerful Habsburg Emperor, in the person of Suleiman the Magnificent. The alliance was an opportunity for both rulers to fight against the hegemony of the House of Habsburg; the objective for Francis I was to find an ally against the Habsburgs, although the policy of courting a Muslim power was in reversal of that of his predecessors. The pretext used by Francis I was the protection of the Christians in Ottoman lands, through agreements called "Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire".
King Francis was imprisoned in Madrid. A first French mission to Suleiman seems to have been sent right after the Battle of Pavia by the mother of Francis I, Louise de Savoie, but the mission was lost on its way in Bosnia. In December 1525 a second mission was sent, led by John Frangipani, which managed to reach Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, with secret letters asking for the deliverance of king Francis I and an attack on the Habsburg. Frangipani returned with an answer from Suleiman, on 6 February 1526: I who am the Sultan of Sultans, the sovereign of sovereigns, the dispenser of crowns to the monarchs on the face of the earth, the shadow of the God on Earth, the Sultan and sovereign lord of the Mediterranean Sea and of the Black Sea, of Rumelia and of Anatolia, of Karamania, of the land of Romans, of Dhulkadria, of Diyarbakir, of Kurdistan, of Azerbaijan, of Persia, of Damascus, of Aleppo, of Cairo, of Mecca, of Medina, of Jerusalem, of all Arabia, of Yemen and of many other lands which my noble fore-fathers and my glorious ancestors conquered by the force of their arms and which my August Majesty has made subject to my flamboyant sword and my victorious blade, I, Sultan Suleiman Khan, son of Sultan Selim Khan, son of Sultan Bayezid Khan: To thee who art Francesco, king of the province of France...
You have sent to my Porte, refuge of sovereigns, a letter by the hand of your faithful servant Frangipani, you have furthermore entrusted to him miscellaneous verbal communications. You have informed me that the enemy has overrun your country and that you are at present in prison and a captive, you have asked aid and succors for your deliverance. All this your saying having been set forth at the foot of my throne, which controls the world. Your situation has gained my imperial understanding in every detail, I have considered all of it. There is nothing astonishing in emperors being made captive. Take courage and be not dismayed. Our glorious predecessors and our illustrious ancestors have never ceased to make war to repel the foe and conquer his lands. We ourselves have followed in their footsteps, have at all times conquered provinces and citadels of great strength and difficult of approach. Night and day our horse is saddled and our saber is girt. May the God on High promote righteousness! May whatsoever He will be accomplished!
For the rest, question your ambassador and be informed. Know that it will be as said; the plea of the French king nicely corresponded to the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe, and