St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway
The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway was a historic railroad that operated in Missouri, Arkansas during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it ran from Missouri, to Texarkana, Arkansas, as well as to southeast Missouri. The line was established to deliver iron ore from Iron Mountain, Missouri to St. Louis; the company was referred to as the St. Louis Iron Mountain & Southern or shortened to the Iron Mountain Railway; the railroad was robbed twice, once by the James-Younger Gang on January 31, 1874, at Gad's Hill and once by the "One-Time Train Robbery Gang". on November 3, 1893, at Olyphant, Arkansas. In 1883 the StLIM & S was acquired by Jay Gould. On May 12, 1917, it was formally merged into the Missouri Pacific Railroad, which in turn was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad in 1982; the railroad is famous for giving its name to the Iron Mountain Baby, the railroad is reported to have paid for the child's education. The name has been resurrected by a modern short line railroad based in Missouri.
The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway operates a heritage railroad in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri. Historic map from the David Rumsey Collection History of the StLIM&S from mopac.org Official homepage of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, operating a heritage railroad in Jackson Albert Mansker, Last of the Arkansas Train Robbers
Piedmont is a fourth-class city located in northwestern Wayne County in Southeast Missouri in the United States. The population was 1,977 at the 2010 census. A part of the Ozarks Foothills Region, Piedmont is located on the convergence of State Highways 34 and 49. Piedmont, transliterated as "foot of the mountain," is named for its geographic placement at the foot of Clark Mountain, a 1424-foot summit two miles north of the town. Piedmont was platted in 1871; the community derives its name from the French pied and mont, meaning "foot" and "mountain" respectively. A post office called Piedmont has been in operation since 1872. Piedmont is located at 37°9′0″N 90°41′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.15 square miles, of which, 2.14 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Piedmont includes the neighborhood of Beckville; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,977 people, 823 households, 500 families residing in the city. The population density was 923.8 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 993 housing units at an average density of 464.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 823 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.2% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 42.9 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1% male and 53.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,992 people, 869 households, 528 families residing in the city; the population density was 955.5 people per square mile.
There were 959 housing units at an average density of 460.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.09% White, 0.16% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.20% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. Among the major first ancestries reported in Piedmont were 21.4% American, 11.6% German, 11.3% Irish, 8.6% English, 3.7% Dutch, 2.5% French. There were 869 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.79. In the city the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 25.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 85.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,678, the median income for a family was $23,500. Males had a median income of $27,120 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,976. About 24.3% of families and 26.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.7% of those under age 18 and 16.6% of those age 65 or over. Among residents 25 years of age and older in Piedmont, 53.4% possess a high school diploma or higher, 7.9% have a bachelor's degree, 2.6% hold a post-graduate/professional degree as their highest educational attainment. The Clearwater R-I School District serves the educational needs of most of the city's residents and nearby throughout most of western Wayne County. According to the Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education, there is one elementary school, one middle school and one senior high school in the district.
During the 2008-2009 school year, there was a total of 1,110 students and 111 certified staff members enrolled in the Clearwater R-I School District. The school colors are orange and black and its mascot is the tiger. Clearwater Elementary School Clearwater Middle School Clearwater High School Victory Baptist Academy The City of Piedmont is governed by Mayor William H. "Bill" Kirkpatrick and a four-member city council. Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month at 6:00 p.m. Central Standard Time at Piedmont City Hall, 115 W. Green Street. Piedmont Elected City Officials Mayor: William H. "Bill" Kirkpatrick Ward I Aldermen: Brian Tutterow and Karin Townsend Ward II Aldermen: Kyle Allen and Scott Tucker City Collector: Bill McMurry Chief of Police: Richard SandersPiedmont Appointed City Officials City Clerk: Tammy Thurman City Treasurer: Dennis Ross City Attorney: Robert M. Ramshur Piedmont is a part of Missouri's 144th Legislative District and is represented by Chris Dinkins. In the Missouri Senate, State Senator Wayne Wallingford represents Piedmont as part of Missouri's 27th Senatorial District.
Piedmont is included in Missouri's 8th congressional district and is represented in the U. S. House of Representatives by Jason T. Smith. Piedmont has a humid subtropical climate. Piedmont was once known for
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Wayne County, Missouri
Wayne County is a county located in the Ozark foothills in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,521; the county seat is Greenville. The county was organized on December 11, 1818, is named after General "Mad" Anthony Wayne who served in the American Revolutionary War. Wayne County was created in December 1818 by the last Missouri Territorial Legislature from portions of Cape Girardeau and Lawrence counties. Wayne County thus predates statehood. In March 1819, Congress established the Territory of Arkansas, most of Lawrence County became Lawrence County, Arkansas Territory; the small strip, excluded was added to Wayne County by the Missouri State Constitution of 1820. The Osage Strip on the Kansas border was added in 1825. Between 1825 and 1831, Wayne County was larger than the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware combined. All or part of 32 present Missouri counties once belonged to Wayne County. Despite its size, the Census of 1820 revealed that Wayne County had a total population of just 1,239 white inhabitants and 204 African American slaves.
When Wayne County was formed in 1818, the territorial legislature appointed five commissioners to govern it. They chose. Renamed Greenville, it had grown to about 1,000 by the turn of the 20th century. By 1940, the population had declined to 572. In 1941, the remaining inhabitants were forced to relocate because of the construction of Lake Wappapello; this new town's population had fallen to 270 in 1950, but has now increased to about 563. The Wayne County Courthouse was destroyed by a fire in 1854. In 1866, the records in new courthouse were stolen, in 1892 the courthouse again burned down, thus few county records survive from that time. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 774 square miles, of which 759 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water; the most populous community in Wayne County is Piedmont with a population of 2,401 people, followed by Greenville with 563 and Williamsville with 386. Madison County Bollinger County Stoddard County Butler County Carter County Reynolds County Iron County U.
S. Route 67 Route 34 Route 49 Mark Twain National Forest Mingo National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 Census, there were 13,521 people, 5,717 households, 3,850 families residing in the county; the population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 8,083 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. 1.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 Census, the most common first ancestries reported in Wayne County were 32.9% American, 15.0% German, 11.9% English, 11.7% Irish, 3.0% French, 2.0% Dutch and 2.0% Italian. There were 5,717 households out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were husband-wife families. 32.7% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 19, 5% from 20 to 24, 14.2%% from 25 to 39, 36.4% from 40 to 64, 21.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,954, the median income for a family was $39,419. Males had a median income of $26,048 versus $18,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,378. About 15.8% of families and 23% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Wayne County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in Wayne County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists and Roman Catholics. Though it contains a conservative populace, the Democratic Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Wayne County.
Democrats hold all but five of the elected positions in the county. Wayne County is divided among three legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives. District 153 – Currently represented by Steve Cookson and consists of the southwestern corner of Wayne County south of Piedmont and includes Mill Spring and Williamsville. District 156 – Currently represented by Shelley Keeney and consists of most of the northern parts of the county and includes Greenville and Piedmont. District 159 – Currently represented by Billy Pat Wright and consists of the southeastern corner of Wayne County bordering neighboring Stoddard County. All of Wayne County is a part of Missouri's 25th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by State Senator Rob Mayer. In 2008, Mayer defeated Democrat M. Shane Stoelting 65.32%-34.68% in the district. The 25th Senatorial District consists of Butler, New Madrid, Ripley and Wayne counties. Wayne County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U.
S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remainin
The James–Younger Gang was a notable 19th-century gang of American outlaws that centered around Jesse James and his brother Frank James. The gang was based in the state of the home of most of the members. Membership fluctuated from robbery to robbery, as the outlaws' raids were separated by many months; as well as the notorious James brothers, at various times it included the Younger brothers, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, George Shepard, Oliver Shepard, William McDaniel, Tom McDaniel, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts, Bill Chadwell. The James–Younger Gang had its origins in a group of Confederate bushwhackers that participated in the bitter partisan fighting that wracked Missouri during the American Civil War. After the war, the men continued to plunder and murder, though the motive shifted to personal profit rather than for the glory of the Confederacy; the loose association of outlaws did not become the "James–Younger Gang" until 1868 at the earliest, when the authorities first named Cole Younger, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, George Shepard and Oliver Shepard as suspects in the robbery of the Nimrod Long bank in Russellville, Kentucky.
The James–Younger Gang dissolved in 1876, following the capture of the Younger brothers in Minnesota during the ill-fated attempt to rob the Northfield First National Bank. Three years Jesse James organized a new gang, including Clell Miller's brother Ed and the Ford brothers, renewed his criminal career; this career came to an end in 1882. For nearly a decade following the Civil War, the James–Younger Gang was among the most feared, most publicized, most wanted confederations of outlaws on the American frontier. Though their crimes were reckless and brutal, many members of the gang commanded a notoriety in the public eye that earned the gang significant popular support and sympathy; the gang's activities spanned much of the central part of the country. From the beginning of the American Civil War, the state of Missouri had chosen not to secede from the Union but not to fight for it or against it either: its position, as determined by an 1861 constitutional convention, was neutral. Missouri, had been the scene of much of the agitation about slavery leading up to the outbreak of the war, was home to dedicated partisans from both sides.
In the mid-1850s, local Unionists and Secessionists had begun to battle each other throughout the state, by the end of 1861, guerrilla warfare erupted between Confederate partisans known as "bushwhackers" and the more organized Union forces. The Missouri State Guard and the newly elected Governor of Missouri, Claiborne Fox Jackson, who maintained implicit Southern sympathies, were forced into exile as Union troops under Nathaniel Lyon and John C. Frémont took control of the state. Still, pro-Confederate guerrillas resisted; this conflict raged until after the fall of Richmond and the surrender of General Robert E. Lee, costing thousands of lives and devastating broad swathes of the Missouri countryside; the conflict escalated into a succession of atrocities committed by both sides. Union troops executed or tortured suspects without trial and burned the homes of suspected guerrillas and those suspected of aiding or harboring them. Where credentials were suspect, the accused guerrilla was executed, as in the case of Lt. Col. Frisby McCullough after the Battle of Kirksville.
Bushwhackers, meanwhile went house to house, executing Unionist farmers. The James and Younger brothers belonged to slave-owning families from an area known as "Little Dixie" in western Missouri with strong ties to the South. Zerelda Samuel, the mother of Frank and Jesse James, was an outspoken partisan of the South, though the Youngers' father, Henry Washington Younger, was believed to be a Unionist. Cole Younger's initial decision to fight as a bushwhacker is attributed to the death of his father at the hands of Union forces in July 1862, he and Frank James fought under one of the most famous Confederate bushwhackers, William Clarke Quantrill, though Cole joined the regular Confederate Army. Jesse James began his guerrilla career in 1864, at the age of sixteen, fighting alongside Frank under the leadership of Archie Clement and "Bloody Bill" Anderson. At the war's end, Frank James surrendered in Kentucky, he was nursed back to health by his cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, whom he married. When Cole Younger returned from a mission to California, he learned that Quantrill and Anderson had both been killed.
The James brothers, continued to associate with their old guerrilla comrades, who remained together under the leadership of Archie Clement. It was Clement who, amid the tumult of Reconstruction in Missouri, turned the guerrillas into outlaws. On February 13, 1866, a group of gunmen carried out one of the first daylight, armed bank robberies in U. S. history when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Missouri. The outlaws stole some $60,000 in cash and bonds and killed a bystander on the street outside the bank. State authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid, promptly issued a rewa
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl