A tunic is a garment for the body simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the knees. The name derives from the Latin tunica, the basic garment worn by both men and women in Ancient Rome, which in turn was based on earlier Greek garments that covered wearers' waists. Indus valley civilization figurines depict both men wearing tunic like garment. A terracotta model called"Lady of the spiked throne" depicts two standing turban wearing men wearing what appears to be conical gown marked by dense series of thin vertical incisions that might suggest a stiffened cloth. A similar gold disc in al-Sabah Collection from Kuwait National Museum which appears to be an Indus valley civilization arts depicts similar conical tunic wearing men holding two bulls by their tails under a pipal tree shown in a Indus like mirror symmetry.. A mother goddess figurine from National Museum new Dehli shows a female wearing short tight tunic.. Worn in Indian Sub-Continent, including India and Bangladesh, tunic is referred to as Kurta and is now an emerging women's top style liked by many in the West.
An Asian tunic is adorned with delicate embroidery, bead-work or intricate threadwork as well. Embroidery or thread work on such tunics combines threads of many different colors. Tunics worn by the Celts were documented by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus: "... the way they dress is astonishing: they wear brightly coloured and embroidered shirts, with trousers called braccae and cloaks fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, heavy in winter, light in summer. These cloaks are striped or checkered in design, with the separate checks close together and in various colours." Tunics were worn in ancient Greece, whence the Roman version was adopted. Greek and Roman tunics were an evolution from the similar chiton and exomis all of which can be considered versions of the garment. In ancient Greece, a person's tunic was decorated at the hem-line to represent the city-state in which he lived. Tunics might be dyed like red, purple, or green; the Roman tunica was adopted by the Roman citizens in the 3rd century BC.
It was worn by citizens and non-citizens alike. The length of the garment, the presence or lack of stripes, as well as their width and ornamentation, would indicate the wearer's status in Roman society. Roman senators, for example, used the Laticlavus, with broad purple stripes, members of the equestrian class wore the Angusticlavia, with narrower stripes. Soldiers and manual workers had tunics to a little above the knee; the tunic or chiton was worn as a gown by both genders among the ancient Romans. The body garment was loose-fitting for males beginning at the neck and ending above the knee. A woman's garment could be either close fitting or loose, beginning at the neck and extending over a skirt or skirts; the various Celtic and Germanic peoples living in the colder Middle and Northern Europe wore long-sleeved tunics from as long back as pictorial evidence goes. Such tunics are found depicted on the various Roman monuments depicting victories over these peoples, show the tunic as a simple pull-over construction reaching to the mid-thighs or to the knees.
Similar tunics were taken up by the Romans, continued to be used into the Byzantine period. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the long sleeved Celto-Germanic tunic continued to be worn; the construction was more elaborate than the earlier Graeco-Roman garment, with a tight-fitting neck with a split down the front for pulling it over the head, gusset under the arms and inserted around the lower half to give a flaring skirt. Being used by both Vikings and Normans, the garment continued as a general male garment into the Middle Ages, still being used in Norway as late as the 17th century; the tunic continued to be the basic garment of the Byzantine Romans of both sexes throughout the medieval period. The upper classes wore other garments atop the basic tunic, such as the dalmatica, a heavier and shorter type of tunic, worn by both sexes, or the scaramangion, a riding-coat of Persian origin. Except for the military or riding-dress and women of higher status wore tunics that came down to the ankles, or nearly so.
Tunics were dyed or richly embroidered, although the plainer ones could be used when layering different types. Beyond the reduced empire, the tunic continued to be worn with varying sleeve and hem lengths throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. Reaching the knees or ankles, it was worn over underclothes consisting of a shirt and drawers, it may be accompanied by hose. Wool and linen were common fabrics used, though the wealthy sometimes wore fancy silk tunics, or a lesser fabric with silk trim. Tunics worn during the Early Middle Ages featured decorative embroidery or tablet-woven braids along the neck and wrists; this was the case, for instance, with tunics worn by both rich and poor Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest. Around 1830, small boys began to be dressed in sashed or belted tunics over trousers, a fashion which replaced the earlier skeleton suit. During the Crimean War in the 1850s, it was realized that the waist length jackets, worn by British soldiers since Napoleonic times were unsuitable for fighting in winter conditions.
A new longer jacket was introduced which reached down to the mid thigh and this was named the'tunic' after the'tunica
Bow and arrow
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device and long-shafted projectiles. Archery is the practice, or skill of using bows to shoot arrows. A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, one who makes arrows is a fletcher, one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith; the use of bows and arrows by humans for hunting predates recorded history and was common to many prehistoric cultures. They were important weapons of war from ancient history until the early modern period, where they were rendered obsolete by the development of the more powerful and accurate firearms, were dropped from warfare. Today and arrows are used for hunting and sports. A bow consists of a semi-rigid but elastic arc with a high-tensile bowstring joining the ends of the two limbs of the bow. An arrow is a projectile with a pointed tip and a long shaft with stabilizer fins towards the back, with a narrow notch at the end to contact the bowstring.
To load an arrow for shooting, the archer places an arrow across the middle of the bow with the bowstring in the arrow's nock. To shoot, the archer pulls back the arrow and the bowstring, which in turn flexes the bow limbs, storing elastic energy. While maintaining the draw, the archer sights along the arrow to aim it; the archer releases the arrow, allowing the limbs' stored potential energy to convert into kinetic energy, transmitted via the bowstring to the arrow, propelling it to fly forward with high velocity. A container or bag for additional arrows for quick reloading is called a quiver; when not in use, bows are kept unstrung, meaning one or both ends of the bowstring are detached from the bow. This removes all residual tension on the bow, can help prevent it from losing strength or elasticity over time. For many bow designs, this lets it straighten out more reducing the space needed to store the bow. Returning the bowstring to its ready-to-use position is called stringing the bow; the bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic.
After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited region, except for Australasia and most of Oceania. The earliest definite remains of bow and arrow are from Europe. Possible fragments from Germany were found at Mannheim-Vogelstang dated 17,500-18,000 years ago, at Stellmoor dated 11,000 years ago. Azilian points found in Grotte du Bichon, alongside the remains of both a bear and a hunter, with flint fragments found in the bear's third vertebra, suggest the use of arrows at 13,500 years ago. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons about 10,000 years ago. Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that projectile weapons of some sort may be at least 71,000 years old; the oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. Several bows from Holmegaard, date 8,000 years ago.
High-performance wooden bows are made following the Holmegaard design. The Stellmoor bow fragments from northern Germany were dated to about 8,000 BCE, but they were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; the bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, but it persisted into the early 19th century in Eastern cultures and in hunting and tribal warfare in the New World. In the Canadian Arctic bows were made until the end of the 20th century for hunting caribou, for instance at Igloolik; the bow has more been used as a weapon of tribal warfare in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George Prince of Wales.
The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string. By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back, under tension. While the string is held, this stores the energy released in putting the arrow to flight; the force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is used to express the power of a bow, is known as its draw weight, or weight. Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, able to project heavier arrows at the same velocity or the same arrow at a greater velocity; the various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, used to attach the bowstring to the limbs; the riser is divided into the grip, held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window.
The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, continued into the modern period among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords, but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more fought using pistols. Fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century; the duel was based on a code of honor. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, as such the tradition of dueling was reserved for the male members of nobility. On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period; the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.
From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries. Dueling fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to wane in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in the feat of arms and chivalric combat; the feat of arms was supervised by a judge. The battle was fought as a result of a slight or challenge to one party's honor which could not be resolved by a court. Weapons were standardized and typical of a knight's armoury, for example longswords, polearms etc. however, weapon quality and augmentations were at the discretion of the knight, for example, a spiked hand guard or an extra grip for half-swording.
The parties involved would wear their own armour. The duel lasted. In early cases, the defeated party was executed; this type of duel soon evolved into the more chivalric pas d'armes, or "passage of arms", a chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. A knight or group of knights would stake out a travelled spot, such as a bridge or city gate, let it be known that any other knight who wished to pass must first fight, or be disgraced. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if the venans chose not to fight, he would leave his spurs behind as a sign of humiliation. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way; the Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, frowning both on the traditions of judicial combat and on the duel on points of honor among the nobility.
Judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin'duellum', cognate with'bellum', meaning'war'. During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes; the first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. In 1777, a code of practice was drawn up for the regulation of duels, at the Summer assizes in the town of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. A copy of the code, known as'The twenty-six commandments', was to be kept in a gentleman's pistol case for reference should a dispute arise regarding procedure. However, the tradition had become rooted in European culture as a prerogative of the aristocracy, these attempts failed. For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for afterwards, his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, it is estimated that between 1685 and 1716, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths. By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence; the cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past unsuited for modern life; as England began to industrialize and benefit from urban planning and more effective police forces, the culture of street violence in general began to wane. The growing middle class maintained their reputation with recourse to either bringing charges of libel, or to the fast-growing print media of t
The Norse–Gaels were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture. They emerged in the Viking Age, when Vikings who settled in Ireland and in Scotland adopted Gaelic culture and intermarried with Gaels; the Norse–Gaels dominated much of the Irish Sea and Scottish Sea regions from the 9th to 12th centuries. They founded the Kingdom of the Isles, the Kingdom of Dublin, the Lordship of Galloway, ruled the Kingdom of York for a time; the most powerful Norse–Gaelic dynasty were the Uí Ímair or House of Ivar. Over time, the Norse–Gaels became more Gaelicized and disappeared as a distinct group. However, they left a lasting influence in the Isle of Man and Outer Hebrides, where most placenames are of Norse–Gaelic origin. Several Scottish clans have Norse–Gaelic roots, such as Clan MacDonald, Clan MacDougall, Clan Ruaidhrí, Clan Morrison and Clan MacLeod; the elite mercenary warriors known as the gallowglass emerged from these Norse–Gaelic clans and became an important part of Irish warfare.
The Viking longship influenced the Gaelic birlinn or longa fada, which were used extensively until the 17th century. Norse–Gaelic surnames survive today and include MacIvor, MacAskill, MacAuley and Lawley; the meaning of Gall-Goídil is "foreigner Gaels" or "foreign Gaels" and although it can in theory mean any Gael of foreign origin, it was always used of Gaels with some kind of Norse identity. This term is subject to a large range of variations depending on chronological and geographical differences in the Gaelic language, e.g. Gall Gaidel, Gall Gaidhel, Gall Gaidheal, Gall Gaedil, Gall Gaedhil, Gall Gaedhel, Gall Goidel, Gall Ghaedheil etc; the modern term in Irish is Gall-Ghaeil or Gall-Ghaedheil, while the Scottish Gaelic is Gall-Ghàidheil. The Norse–Gaels called themselves Ostmen or Austmen, meaning East-men, a name preserved in a corrupted form in the Dublin area known as Oxmantown which comes from Austmanna-tún. In contrast, they called Gaels Vestmenn; the Norse–Gaels are sometimes called the Norse-Irish and Norse-Scots.
The Norse–Gaels originated in Viking colonies of Ireland and Scotland, the descendants of intermarriage between Norse immigrants and the Gaels. As early as the 9th century, many colonists intermarried with native Gaels and adopted the Gaelic language as well as many Gaelic customs. Many left their original worship of Norse gods and converted to Christianity, this contributed to the Gaelicisation. Gaelicised Scandinavians dominated the region of the Irish Sea until the Norman era of the 12th century, they founded long-lasting kingdoms, such as the Kingdoms of Man and Galloway, as well as taking control of the Norse colony at York. The Norse are first recorded in Ireland in 795. Sporadic raids continued until 832, after which they began to build fortified settlements throughout the country. Norse raids continued throughout the 10th century; the Norse established independent kingdoms in Dublin, Wexford and Limerick. These kingdoms did not survive the subsequent Norman invasions, but the towns continued to grow and prosper.
The term Ostmen was used between the 12th and 14th centuries by the English in Ireland to refer to Norse–Gaelic people living in Ireland. Meaning "the men from the east", the term came from the Old Norse word austr or "east"; the Ostmen were regarded as a separate group from the English and Irish and were accorded privileges and rights to which the Irish were not entitled. They lived in distinct localities, it was once thought that their settlement had been established by Norse–Gaels, forced out of Dublin by the English but this is now known not to be the case. Other groups of Ostmen lived in Waterford. Many were merchants or lived a rural lifestyle, pursuing fishing, craft-working and cattle raising, their roles in Ireland's economy made them valuable subjects and the English Crown granted them special legal protections. These fell out of use as the Ostmen assimilated into the English settler community throughout the 13th and 14th centuries; the Lords of the Isles, whose sway lasted until the 16th century, as well as many other Gaelic rulers of Scotland and Ireland, traced their descent from Norse–Gaels settlements in northwest Scotland, concentrated in the Hebrides.
The Hebrides are to this day known in Scottish Gaelic as Innse Gall, "the islands of foreigners". It is recorded in the Landnámabók that there were culdees in Iceland before the Norse; this appears to tie in with comments of Dicuil and is given further weight by recent archaeological discoveries. The settlement of Iceland and the Faroe Islands by the Norse would have included many Norse–Gael settlers, as well as slaves and servants, they were called Vestmen, the name is retained in Vestmanna in the Faroes and the Vestmannaeyjar off the Icelandic mainland. A number of Icelandic personal names are of Gaelic origin, including Njál, Brján, Kjartan and Kormakr. Patreksfjörður, an Icelandic village, was named after Saint Patrick. A number of placenames named after the papar exist on Iceland and the Faroes. According to so
A claymore is either the Scottish variant of the late medieval two-handed sword or the Scottish variant of the basket-hilted sword. The former is characterised as having a cross hilt of forward-sloping quillons with quatrefoil terminations and was in use from the 15th to 17th centuries; the word claymore was first used in reference to swords in the 18th century in Scotland and parts of England to refer to basket-hilted swords. This description was maybe not used during the 17th century, when basket-hilted swords were the primary military swords across Europe, but these broad-bladed swords remained in service with Scottish regiments for some time longer. After the Acts of Union in 1707 when Scottish and English regiments were integrated together, the swords were seen as a mark of distinction by Scottish officers over the more slender sabres used by their English contemporaries: a symbol of physical strength and prowess, a link to the historic Highland way of life; such swords remain in service with officers of Scottish regiments in Great Britain and various Commonwealth countries today.
The term claymore is an anglicisation of the Gaelic claidheamh-mór "great sword", attested in 1772 with the gloss "great two-handed sword". The sense "basket-hilted sword" is contemporaneous, attested in 1773 as "the broad-sword now used... called the Claymore,", although OED observes that this usage is "inexact, but common". The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica judged that the term is "wrongly" applied to the basket-hilted sword. Countering this view, Paul Wagner and Christopher Thompson argue that the term "claymore" was applied first to the basket-hilted broadsword, to all Scottish swords, they provide quotations that are earlier than those given above in support of its use to refer to a basket-hilted broadsword and targe: "a strong handsome target, with a sharp pointed steel, of above half an ell in length, screw'd into the navel of it, on his left arm, a sturdy claymore by his side". They note its use as a battle-cry as early as 1678; some authors suggest that claybeg should be used instead, from a purported Gaelic claidheamh-beag "small sword".
This does not parallel Scottish Gaelic usage. According to the Gaelic Dictionary by R. A. Armstrong, claidheamh-mòr translates to "broadsword", claidheamh dà làimh to "two-handed sword", while claidheamh-beag is given as a translation of "Bilbo"; the two-handed claymore was a large sword used in the late early modern periods. It was used in the constant clan warfare and border fights with the English from circa 1400 to 1700. Although claymores existed as far back as the Wars of Scottish Independence they were smaller and few had the typical quatrefoil design; the last known battle in which it is considered to have been used in a significant number was the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. It was somewhat longer than other two-handed swords of the era. Though the English did use swords similar to the Claymore during the renaissance called a greatsword; the two-handed claymore seems to be an offshoot of early Scottish medieval longswords which had developed a distinctive style of a cross-hilt with forward-angled arms that ended in spatulate swellings.
The lobed pommels on earlier swords were inspired by the Viking style. The spatulate swellings were frequently made in a quatrefoil design; the average claymore ran about 140 cm in overall length, with a 33 cm grip, 107 cm blade, a weight of 5.5 lb. For instance, in 1772 Thomas Pennant described a sword seen on his visit to Raasay as: "an unwieldy weapon, two inches broad, doubly edged; the largest claymore on record. It is believed to have been wielded by a member of Clan Maxwell circa the 15th century; the sword is in the possession of the National War Museum in Edinburgh, Scotland. Uniform in style, the sword was set with a wheel pommel capped by a crescent-shaped nut and a guard with straight, forward-sloping arms ending in quatrefoils, langets running down the centre of the blade from the guard. Another common style of two-handed claymore was the "clamshell hilted" claymore, it had a crossguard that consisted of two downward-curving arms and two large, concave plates that protected the foregrip.
It was so named. Historical fencing in Scotland Claude Blair, "Claymore" in David H. Caldwell, Scottish Weapons and Fortifications, 378–387 David H. Caldwell, The Scottish Armoury, 24–26 Fergus Cannan, Scottish Arms and Armour, 29–31, 79, 82 Tobias Capwell, The Real Fighting Stuff: Arms and Armour at Glasgow Museums, 84 Ross Cowan and Tua-Handit: Late Medieval Scottish Hand-and-a-Half and Two-Handed Swords. Updated version of two articles published in Medieval Warfare 1.2 & 1.3. Ross Cowan,'Lairds of Battle', Military History Monthly 32, 47–48 G. A. Hayes-McCoy,'Sixteenth Century Swords Found in Ireland', Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 78, 38–54 J. G. Mann,'A Late Medieval Sword from Ireland', Antiquaries Journal 24, 94–99 John Wallace, Scottish Swords and Dirks: An Illustrated Reference to Scottish Edged Weapons, 10-17 Dwelly's Illustrated Gaelic to English Dictionary (Gairm Publicatio
Boiled leather referred to by its French translation, cuir bouilli, was a historical material for various uses common in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. It was leather, treated so that it became tough and rigid, as well as able to hold moulded decoration, it was the usual material for the robust carrying-cases that were made for important pieces of metalwork, instruments such as astrolabes, personal sets of cutlery, books and the like. It was used for some armour, being both much cheaper and much lighter than plate armour, but could not withstand a direct blow from a blade, nor a gunshot. Alternative names are "moulded leather" and "hardened leather". In the course of making the material it becomes soft, can be impressed into a mould to give it the desired shape and decoration, which most surviving examples have. Pieces such as chests and coffers usually have a wooden inner core. Various recipes for making cuir bouilli survive, do not agree with each other. Vegetable-tanned leather is specified.
Scholars have attempted to recreate the historical material. Many, but not all, sources agree that actual boiling of the leather was not part of the process, but immersion in water, cold or hot, was. Cuir bouilli was used for cheap and light armour, although it was much less effective than plate armour, expensive and too heavy for much to be worn by infantry. However, cuir bouilli could be reinforced against slashing blows by the addition of metal bands or strips in helmets. Modern experiments on simple cuir bouilli have shown that it can reduce the depth of an arrow wound especially if coated with a crushed mineral facing mixed with glue, as one medieval Arab author recommended. In addition, "armour based on hide has the unique advantage that it can, in extremis, provide some nutrition", when boiled. Josephus records that the Jewish defenders in the Siege of Jerusalem in AD 70 were reduced to eating their shields and other leather kit, as was the Spanish expedition of Tristan de Luna in 1559.
Versions of cuir bouilli were used since ancient times for shields, in many parts of the world. Although in general leather does not survive long burial, excavated archaeological evidence for it is rare, an Irish shield of cuir bouilli with wooden formers, deposited in a peat bog, has survived for some 2,500 years, it was used in the Western world for helmets. As leather does not conduct heat the way metal does, firemen continued to use boiled leather helmets until WW2, the invention of strong plastics; the word cuirass for a breastplate indicates that these were made of leather. In the Late Middle Ages, the heyday of plate armour, cuir bouilli continued to be used by the rich for horse armour and for tournament armour, as well as by ordinary infantry soldiers. Tournaments were regulated in order to reduce the risk to life, in 1278 Edward I of England organized one in Windsor Great Park at which cuir bouilli armour was worn, the king provided swords made of whale bone and parchment; the account of the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 by Jean de Wavrin, present on the French side, describes the crucial force of English longbowmen as having on their heads either cuir bouilli helmets, or wicker with iron strips, or nothing.
A few pieces of Roman horse armour in cuir bouilli have been excavated. Evidence from documents such as inventories show that it was common in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, used by the highest ranks, but survivals are few. In 1547 the Master of Armoury in the Tower of London ordered 46 sets of bards and crinets in preparation for the final invasion of Scotland in the war known as the Rough Wooing. In September that year the English cavalry were crucial in the decisive victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh; the German Count Palatine of the Rhine had six sets of cuir bouilli horse armour for his and his family's use in the 16th century. The shaffron for the horse's head would be in steel, though leather ones are known. Cuir bouilli was very common for scabbards; however surviving specimens of leather armour are rare, more so than the various types of civilian containers. It is believed that many leather pieces are depicted in sculpted tomb monuments, where they are more decorated than metal pieces would have been.
Cuir bouilli was often used for elaborate figurative crests on some helmets. The material is mentioned in Froissart's Chronicles of the Hundred Years' War, Geoffrey Chaucer, in his Canterbury Tales, written in the late 1300s, says of the knight Sir Thopas:; the large decorative crests that came to top some helmets in the late Middle Ages were made of cuir bouilli, as is the famous example belonging to the Black Prince and hung with other "achievements" over his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral. His wooden shield has the heraldic animals appliqued in cuir bouilli; as well as the crests on helmets described above, cuir bouilli was used sculpturally in various contexts, over a wood or plaster framework where necessary. When Henry V of England died in France, his effigy in cuir bouilli was placed on top of his coffin for the journey back to England. A near life-size crucifix in the Vatican Museums is in cuir bouilli over wood; this is of special interest to art historians because it was made in 1540 as a replica of a crucifix in silver presented by Charlemagne some 740 years before.