Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Dick Smith (entrepreneur)
Richard Harold Smith is an Australian entrepreneur, record-breaking aviator and political activist. He is the founder of Dick Smith Electronics, Dick Smith Foods and Australian Geographic, was selected as the 1986 Australian of the Year. In 2010 he founded the media production company Smith&Nasht with the intention of producing films about global issues. In 2015 he was awarded the Companion of the Order of Australia, is a fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Smith's father was a salesman and sometime manager at Angus & Robertson's bookstore who started a business that failed when Smith was 17, his mother a housewife, his maternal grandfather was pictorialist photographer Harold Cazneaux. As a child, Smith was considered academically hopeless and, having a speech defect, called himself'Dick Miff'. From his home in East Roseville, Smith attended Primary School at Roseville Public School at which, for the Fifth Grade, he ranked academically 45th in a class of 47, he attended North Sydney Technical High School.
After three years of French he managed only 7% in the Intermediate Certificate examination. He went on to complete his Leaving Certificate in 1961, he joined the 1st East Roseville Scout Group as a Wolf Cub in 1952, aged 8 and as a Boy Scout and Rover until 1967, earning the Baden-Powell Award in 1966. Smith gained his amateur radio licence at the age of 17 and holds call sign VK2DIK. In his early 20s, Smith worked as a taxi radio repair technician for several years. In 1968, with a A$610 investment by him and his fiancée Pip, Smith founded Dick Smith Car Radios, a small taxi radio repair business in the Sydney suburb of Neutral Bay, New South Wales later expanded into the car radio business at Gore Hill, naming himself the "Car-Radio'Nut'"; this business became electronics retailer Dick Smith Electronics which grew in the late-1970s through sales of Citizens Band radios and personal computers, with annual sales of about A$17 million by 1978. Smith took the business into Asia in 1978, opening a store in Ashley Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong's tourist shopping hub, publishing an international catalogue edition until the store closed in 1980.
That year, stores were opened in Northern California and Los Angeles. In 1980, he sold the business to Woolworths for A$25 million. Though Smith retained no shares nor role in the company after 1982, the business continued to trade with his name prominently displayed in every aspect of its operations until closure of its hundreds of stores in Australia and New Zealand by May 2016. In 1986, Smith founded Australian Geographic Pty Ltd, which published the Australian Geographic magazine, a National Geographic-style magazine focusing on Australia. Smith did not want to expand Australian Geographic, but his friend and CEO Ike Bain persuaded him to change his mind and soon it was a successful business, he sold the business to Fairfax Media in 1995 for A$41 million. Smith has had a keenly pro-Australian business philosophy going back as far as 1975 when, faced with an invasion by the relative juggernaut Tandy of the United States into the local electronics business, he complained "Tandy are prepared to operate for a period of five years at a financial loss to set up in Australia...
This is not free enterprise, it is not competition, it is unfair... why should a foreign firm be allowed by the Australian Government to take over the Australian market from the Australian people and remain 99 per cent foreign-owned?" He subsequently added "Proud to be Australian" prominently in Dick Smith Electronics promotional material and several years flew an enormous Australian flag outside new headquarters in North Ryde, featuring the image on the cover of the company's 1980 catalogue. Smith founded Dick Smith Foods in 1999, a crusade against foreign ownership of Australian food producers Arnott's Biscuits, which in 1997 became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Campbell Soup Company. Dick Smith Foods only sold foods produced in Australia by Australian-owned companies and all profits went to charity. Dick Smith Foods' products were named to parody the items they competed with – for example, in competition with Redheads matches, Smith sold near-identically packaged matches called "Dickheads" with the text on the rear stating "We would have to be complete dickheads to let most of our famous Australian brands be taken over by foreign companies.
Brands such as Vegemite, Aeroplane Jelly, Arnott's, Speedo and Redhead Matches are in overseas hands. This means the profit and wealth created goes overseas and robs our children and grandchildren of a future." A chocolate biscuit called "Temptin'" competed directly with the established favourite Arnott's Tim Tam. In 2003, Arnott's took legal action against Dick Smith Foods, resulting in an out-of-court settlement that required the "p" in the Temptin' logo to be increased in size. In 2018, Smith announced closure of the business in 2019, having distributed over A$10 million in profits to charity, citing aggressive competition from German-owned Aldi through a strategy including low-cost imports notwithstanding Aldi's claim to operate an Australian first buying policy. In 1964, Smith sailed with a group of Rover Scouts to Balls Pyramid in the Pacific Ocean – the highest sea spire in the world. Failing to top it on this occasion, Smith returned in 1980, completed an ascent and, together with Hugh Ward and John Worrall, formally claimed the land for Australia by unfurling the New South Wales state flag.
Smith learned graduating to a twin engine Beech Baron. In 1976 he competed in the Perth to Sydney air race. Smith initiated airline flights over Antarctica, his first flight was made by a chartered QANTAS aircraft on 13 February 1
A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers, such as actors, comedians and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons and may be similar or nearly identical to an individual's birth name. In some situations, a performer will adopt his or her title as a legal name, although this is not the case. Personal names or nicknames that make up the professional name should not be considered as a "fake name" like Lady Gaga: for example: Miley Cyrus: born Destiny Hope Cyrus, uses her personal nickname "Miley" and her maiden name "Cyrus" as her professional name, in 2018 she changed to Miley Ray Hemsworth. A performer will take a stage name because his/her real name is considered unattractive, dull, or unintentionally amusing, is difficult to pronounce or spell, has been used by another notable individual, or projects an undesired image. Sometimes a performer adopts a name, unusual or outlandish to attract attention. Other performers use a stage name; the equivalent concept among writers is called a nom de pen name.
In radio, the term "radio name" or "air name" is used. Some individuals who are related to a celebrity take a different last name so they are not perceived to have received undue advantage from their family connection. Examples of these include Joan Fontaine, Luka Bloom, Mike McGear. Sisters Loretta and Brenda Webb adopted the names Loretta Lynn, Peggy Sue, Crystal Gayle, respectively. Actor Nicolas Cage, born Nicolas Coppola, chose a new last name to avoid comparisons with his uncle, director Francis Ford Coppola, who gave him his big break in the movie Peggy Sue Got Married. Conversely, individuals who wish to receive benefit from their family connections may take that person's first or last name. For example, Lon Chaney Sr.’s son Creighton spent a number of years appearing in minor roles before renaming himself Lon Chaney, Jr. Actress Rebecca Isabelle Laemmle rechristened herself Carla Laemmle in reference to her uncle, Universal Studios head Carl Laemmle. Emilio Estevez and his sister Renee chose not to take their father Martin Sheen’s professional name and use their birth names.
Women who achieve fame after marriage use their married name as part of their professional name, ie. Kris Jenner while women who achieved fame before marriage continue to use their maiden name or a Hyphenated surname like Mariah Carey and Courteney Cox-Arquette. In some cases, the individual may adopt a stage name to avoid confusion with other family members who have similar names. Actor Mark Harmon uses his middle name professionally to avoid confusion with his father Heisman Trophy winner and former broadcaster Tom Harmon. Guilds and associations that represent actors, such as the Screen Actors Guild in the United States and British Actors' Equity Association in the United Kingdom, stipulate that no two members may have identical working names. An actor whose name has been taken must choose a new name. Notable examples include: David Tennant, born David McDonald, who said in an interview that he adopted the surname "Tennant" after seeing Neil Tennant in a copy of Smash Hits. Diane Keaton, whose birth name is Diane Hall, took her mother's maiden name as a stage name after learning that there was a registered actress named Diane Hall in the Actors' Equity Association.
Ugly Betty actress Vanessa Williams uses "Vanessa L. Williams" due to SAG guidelines, although the other actress with same first and last name is arguably less notable. David Walliams changed one letter in his surname due to there being another "David Williams". Terry O'Quinn of Lost fame changed his surname from Quinn to O'Quinn as another registered actor had the name Terrance Quinn. Long-time Simpsons writer and Futurama executive producer David X. Cohen changed his middle initial from S to X because there was a David S. Cohen registered with the Writer's Guild of America. In other cases, a middle name may be adopted in preference to changing a name. Examples include comedian Hugh Dennis born Peter Hugh Dennis, actor-comedian Hugh Laurie born James Hugh Calum Laurie, actor Timothy Carlton born Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch. In some cases, attaching a generational suffix is sufficient for guild rules. A person hoping to become successful as an entertainer who has a name identical to a name familiar to the public may change his/her name in order to avoid having his/her name evoke the other person with the same name.
For example, the actor/writer/director Albert Brooks was born Albert Einstein and changed his surname to avoid associations with the renowned physicist with the same name. Singer Katy Perry, born Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson, released her self-titled album under the name Katy Hudson, but used her mother's maiden name to avoid confusion with
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China. The General Secretary is head of the Secretariat; the officeholder is considered the "paramount leader" of China. According to the Constitution, the General Secretary serves as an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. Since 1989, the holder of the post has been, except for transitional periods, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making the holder the Supreme Military Command of the People's Liberation Army; the current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012 and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. Afterwards, he was given the ability to have no limit to the amount of terms as a General Secretary. Since the abolition of the post of Chairman of the Communist Party of China by the 12th Central Committee in 1982, the General Secretary has been the highest-ranking official of the party and heads the Central Secretariat, Political Bureau and its Standing Committee.
Since its revival in 1982, the post of General Secretary has been as de jure government position, the most important post in the PRC, though it did not become the de facto most important post until Deng Xiaoping's retirement in 1990. As China is a de facto one-party state, the General Secretary holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. However, the men who have held the post have held far less power than Chairman Mao Zedong. Since the mid-1990s, the General Secretary has traditionally held the post of President of the PRC. While the presidency is nominally a ceremonial post, it is customary for the General Secretary to assume the presidency to confirm his status as de jure head of state. Since Xi Jinping's ascendance to power, two new bodies of the Communist Party, the National Security Commission and Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, have been established, ostensibly concentrating political power in the "paramount leader" to a greater degree than anyone since Deng.
These bodies were tasked with establishing the general policy direction for national security as well as the agenda for economic reform. Both groups are headed by the General Secretary, thus the power of the General Secretary has become more concentrated. Leader of the Communist Party of China Chairman of the Communist Party of China Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China Paramount leader Leadership core Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China
Cunnilingus is an oral sex act performed by a person on the female genitalia. The clitoris is the most sexually sensitive part of the human female genitalia, its stimulation may result in female sexual arousal or orgasm. Cunnilingus can be sexually arousing for participants and may be performed by a sexual partner as foreplay to incite sexual arousal before other sexual activities or as an erotic and physically intimate act on its own. Like most forms of sexual activity, oral sex can be a risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. However, the transmission risk for oral sex HIV transmission, is lower than for vaginal or anal sex. Oral sex is regarded as taboo, but most countries do not have laws which ban the practice. Heterosexual couples do not regard cunnilingus as affecting the virginity of either partner, while lesbian couples do regard it as a form of virginity loss. People may have negative feelings or sexual inhibitions about giving or receiving cunnilingus or may refuse to engage in it.
The term cunnilingus is derived from the Latin words for the vulva and the verb "to lick". There are numerous slang terms for cunnilingus, including drinking from the furry cup, carpet munching, muff-diving. Additional common slang terms used are giving lip service, or tipping the velvet, it is popularly known in the urban community as dining at the Y or DATY. A person who performs cunnilingus may be referred to as a cunnilinguist. General statistics indicate that 70-80% of women require direct clitoral stimulation to achieve orgasm. Shere Hite's research on human female sexuality reports that, for most women, orgasm is achieved by cunnilingus because of the direct clitoral stimulation that may be involved during the act. A person who performs cunnilingus on someone might be referred to as the giving partner, the other person as the receiving partner. During the activity, the receiving female's partner may use fingers to open the labia majora to enable the tongue to better stimulate the clitoris, or the female may separate the labia for her partner.
Separating the legs wide would usually open the vulva sufficiently for the partner to orally reach the clitoris. Some sex manuals recommend beginning with a gentler, less focused stimulation of the labia and the whole genital area; the tip, blade, or underside of the tongue may be used, so might the nose, chin and lips. Movements can be slow or fast, regular or erratic, firm or soft, according to the participants' preferences; the tongue can be inserted into the vagina, either moving. The performing partner may hum to produce vibration. Cunnilingus may be accompanied by the use of a sex toy. Women may consider personal hygiene before practicing oral sex important, as poor hygiene can lead to bad odors, accumulation of sweat and micro-residue, which the giving partner may find unpleasant; some women trim pubic hair, which may enhance their oral sex experience. Autocunnilingus, cunnilingus performed by a female on herself, may be possible, but an unusually high degree of flexibility is required, which may be possessed only by contortionists.
Any position which offers a sex partner oral access to a female's crotch area is suitable for cunnilingus, including: Doggy style: the female crouches on all fours, while her partner performs oral sex from behind or from below. Face-sitting: the female sits on or above the partner's face. In this position she has more control over her body movements and can guide her partner or auto-stimulate against the partner's face. Missionary: the female lies on her back, with her legs spread, pulled up to her chest, on her partner or raised; the female can lie on any surface, such as a table, etc. Mutual stimulation: such as in the 69 position. Sitting: the female sits on a chair or uses some other support. Spreadeagle: similar to the missionary position except that the arms and legs are spread wide, that physical restraints may be used. Standing: the female stands while her partner is either sitting or on the knees. However, in this position the clitoris is more difficult to stimulate orally; the female may hold onto furniture for support.
Chlamydia, human papillomavirus, herpes and other sexually transmitted infections, can be transmitted through oral sex. Any sexual exchange of bodily fluids with a person infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, poses a risk of infection. Risk of STI infection, however, is considered lower for oral sex than for vaginal or anal sex, with HIV transmission considered the lowest risk with regard to oral sex. Furthermore, the documented risk of HIV transmission through cunnilingus is lower than that associated with fellatio, vaginal or anal intercourse. There is an increased risk of STI if the receiving partner has wounds on her genitals, or if the giving partner has wounds or open sores on or in his or her mouth, or bleeding gums. Brushing the teeth, flossing, or undergoing dental work soon before or after performing cunnilingus can increase the risk of transmission, because all of these activities can cause small scratches in the lining of the mouth; these wounds when they are microscopic, increas
Harry William Baals was the Republican Mayor of Fort Wayne, from 1932–1947 and from 1951 until his death in 1954. He had two children: Donald Baals; when Baals first took office, he lowered city tax rates. He launched construction of Fort Wayne's massive underground sewage system and built the city sewage treatment plant, still being used today. During the Great Depression, Mayor Baals directed war materials drives, upgraded city equipment and services, broke ground for Baer Field, now Fort Wayne International Airport. In the 1930s one of his major accomplishments was getting the old Nickel Plate Railroad tracks, running through downtown, to be elevated; this opened up the north side of the city for development. Fort Wayne newscaster Bob Chase, of WOWO-AM, relates a story that he once pronounced the mayor's name "Bales." Mayor Baals called him following the broadcast to correct his pronunciation, saying, "son, this is your Mayor. I pronounce my name'Balls'."Harry W. Baals died in 1954 of a kidney infection, while serving his fourth term as mayor.
He is buried at Lindenwood Cemetery in Indiana. Harry Baals Drive was named in honor of the late mayor, extending east from Parnell Avenue and west of the St. Joseph River in Johnny Appleseed Park. In recent years, the double entendre arising from Baals's name has led Fort Wayne officials to shy away from naming streets and buildings after him; the aforementioned street has been renamed to "H. W. Baals Drive" as the old street sign was being stolen. In early 2011 Fort Wayne city officials invited people to suggest names for a new government building; the winner with 23,826 votes was the "Harry Baals Government Center," more than ten times the votes received by the closest contender. But city officials immediately backed away from the name The city's deputy mayor Beth Malloy said, "We realize that while Harry Baals was a respected mayor, not everyone outside of Fort Wayne will know that. We wanted to pick something that would reflect our pride in our community beyond the boundaries of Fort Wayne."
Subsequently, it was announced that the building would be named "Citizens Square." Baals's descendants have taken to pronouncing their name so that it became a homophone of "Bales." "Baals, Harry William", Who's Who and What's What in Indiana Politics, published by James E. Perry, Indianapolis, 1944. Killer in the Rain Harry Baals at Find a Grave
Wen Jiabao was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013. In his capacity as Premier, Wen was regarded as the leading figure behind Beijing's economic policy. From 2002 to 2012, he held membership in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, the country's de facto top power organ, where he was ranked third out of nine members and headed by Party general secretary Hu Jintao, he worked as the chief of the Party General Office between 1986 and 1993, accompanied Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang to Tiananmen Square during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. In 1998, he was promoted to the post of Vice Premier under Premier Zhu Rongji, his mentor, oversaw the broad portfolios of agriculture and finance. Wen was dubbed "the people's premier" by both foreign media. Instead of concentrating on GDP growth in large cities and rich coastal areas, Wen advocated for advancing policies considered more favourable towards farmers and migrant workers.
Wen's government pursued ambitious infrastructure projects. Following the global financial crisis of 2008, Wen's government injected four trillion yuan as part of a stimulus program. Seen as the leading member of the reform wing of the Communist Party, Wen's family came under scrutiny by investigative journalists for having accumulated a massive fortune during his time in government, casting a cloud over his legacy shortly prior to his retirement, he was succeeded by Li Keqiang. A native of Beichen District, Wen Jiabao went to the Nankai High School from which his predecessor premier Zhou Enlai graduated, he joined the Communist Party of China in April 1965 and entered the work force in September 1967. Wen has a background in engineering and holds a post-graduate degree from the Beijing Institute of Geology, he began his career in the geology bureau of Gansu province. From 1968–1978, he presided over the Geomechanics Survey Team under the Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and head of its political section.
Wen succeeded in office, rising as chief of the Gansu Provincial Geological Bureau and as Vice-minister of Geology and Mineral Resources. Wen was "discovered" by then-general secretary Hu Yaobang, joined the ranks of the Central Committee and Politburo. There was some public speculation after 1989 over whether Wen was closer to Hu Yaobang or Zhao Ziyang, but Wen implicitly confirmed that he was a protégé of Hu by the release of his 2010 article, "Recalling Hu Yaobang when I return to Xingyi". After Wen was promoted to work in Beijing, he served as Chief of the Party's General Affairs Office, an organ that oversaw day-to-day operations of the party's leaders, he remained in the post for eight years. Wen has built a network of patronage during his career. Throughout this period Wen was said to be a strong administrator and technocrat, having earned a reputation for meticulousness, a focus on tangible results. Outgoing Premier Zhu Rongji showed his esteem for Wen by entrusting him from 1998 with the task of overseeing agricultural and environmental policies in the office of Vice-Premier, considered crucial as China prepared to enter the World Trade Organization.
Wen served as Secretary of the Central Financial Work Commission from 1998 to 2002. By the end of the 1990s Wen and Zhang Peili were the main investor and founder of Ping An Insurance, established with the help of Hong Kong tycoon Cheng Yu-tung's family through real estate firm New World Development. Wen's most significant political recovery occurred after accompanying Zhao on his visit to students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square in 1989. Unlike Zhao, purged from the party days for "grave insubordination" and lived under house arrest in Beijing until his death in January 2005, Wen survived the political aftermath of the demonstrations. Wen Jiabao is the only Chief of the Party's General Affairs Office to have served under three General Secretaries: Hu Yaobang, Zhao Ziyang, Jiang Zemin. Wen entered the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's highest ruling council, in November 2002, ranked third out of nine members. During the transition of authority as Hu Jintao assumed the general secretary and presidency in November 2002 and March 2003 Wen's nomination as premier was confirmed by the National People's Congress with over 99% of the delegates' vote.
After taking over as Premier, Wen oversaw the continuation of economic reforms and has been involved in shifting national goals from economic growth at all costs to growth which emphasizes more egalitarian wealth, along with other social goals, such as public health and education. Wen's broad range of experience and expertise cultivated while presiding over agricultural policies under Zhu Rongji has been important as the "fourth generation" sought to revitalize the rural economy in regions left out by the past two decades of reform. In addition, the Chinese government under Wen has begun to focus on the social costs of economic development, which include damage to the environment and to workers' health; this more comprehensive definition of development was encapsulated into the idea of a xiaokang society. Regarded as quiet and unassuming, Wen is said to be a good communicator and is known as a "man of the people." Wen has appeared to make great efforts to reach out those who seem left out by two decades of stunning economic growth in rural and western China.
Unlike Jiang Zemin and his protégés on the Politburo Standing Committee, who form the so-called "Shanghai clique", both Wen and Hu hail from, have cultivated their polit