Gagarin's Start

Gagarin's Start known as Baikonur Site 1 or Site 1/5 is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos. The launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as Site No.1 as the first one of its kind. It is sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1, LC-1/5, LC-1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955. A special reconnaissance commission considered several possible geographic regions and selected Tyuratam in the Kazakh SSR; this selection was approved on 12 February 1955 by the Council of Ministers, with a completion of construction targeted for 1958. Work on the construction of Site No.1 began on 20 July 1955 by military engineers. Day and night more than 60 powerful trucks worked at the site. During winter explosives were utilized.

By the end of October 1956 all primary building and installation of infrastructure for R-7 tests was completed. The Installation and Testing Building named "Site No.2" was built and a special railway completed from there to Site No.1 where the launch pad for the rocket was located. By April 1957 all remaining work was completed and the site was ready for launches; the R-7 missile made its maiden voyage from LC-1 on 15 May 1957. On 4 October 1957 the pad was used to launch the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Manned spaceflights launched from the site include Yuri Gagarin's flight, Valentina Tereshkova's flight, numerous other human spaceflight missions, including all Soviet and Russian manned spaceflights to Mir; the pad was used to launch Luna program spacecraft, Mars probe program spacecraft, Venera program spacecraft, many Cosmos satellites and others. From 1957 through 1966 the site hosted ready-to-launch strategic nuclear ICBMs in addition to spacecraft launches; the 500th launch from this site was of Soyuz TMA-18M on 2 September 2015.

In 1961, the growing launch schedule of the Soviet space program resulted in the opening of a sister pad at Baikonur, LC-31/6. LC-1 has been the primary facility for manned launches, with occasional Soyuz flights from LC-31/6. LC-1 was damaged several times by booster explosions during the early years; as of 2016, the most recent accident to occur on or around the pad was the attempted launch of Soyuz T-10-1 in September 1983 ended disastrously when the booster caught fire during prelaunch preparations and exploded, causing severe damage that left LC-1 inoperable for a year. In 2019, Gagarin's Start hosted its last two crewed launches in July and September before it´s planned modernization for Soyuz-2 rockets with planned first launch at 2023. In place of Gagarin's Start, crewed missions will use the new Soyuz-2 rocket, launched from Site 31; the first crewed mission from Site 31 is expected to be Soyuz MS-16 on April 2020. The last flight from Gagarin's Start was the Soyuz MS-15 flight to ISS, launched 25 September 2019.

Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14, the equivalent for the United States' first manned spaceflights J. K. Golovanov, M. "Korolev: Facts and myths", Nauka, 1994, ISBN 5-02-000822-2. ISBN 5-217-02942-0. I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.. Korolev. Yangel." - M. I. Kuznetsk, Voronezh: IPF "Voronezh", 1997, ISBN 5-89981-117-X. Notes of a military engineer" - Rjazhsky A. A. 2004, SC. first, the publishing house of the "Heroes of the Fatherland" ISBN 5-91017-018-X. "Rocket and space feat Baikonur" - Vladimir Порошков, the "Patriot" publishers 2007. ISBN 5-7030-0969-3 "Unknown Baikonur" - edited by B. I. Posysaeva, M.: "globe", 2001. ISBN 5-8155-0051-8 "Bank of the Universe" - edited by Boltenko A. C. Kiev, 2014. Publishing house "Phoenix", ISBN 978-966-136-169-9


Mark–Almond was a jazz-influenced English pop group of the 1970s and early 1980s, sometimes called The Mark-Almond Band. The core members were Jon Mark, who sang lead and played guitar and harmonica and Johnny Almond who played saxophone and bass flute and sang back-up. Various other musicians recorded and toured with the duo at various times, notably including drummer Dannie Richmond, a long-time associate of jazz bassist Charles Mingus. In 1963, Jon Mark, using his given name John Michael Burchell, a former schoolmate, Alun Davies. From 1965 on, Mark accompanied Marianne Faithfull on her concerts. Moreover, he arranged some songs for her. In 1968 Mark and Davies founded the short-lived band Sweet Thursday; the five-piece band had the eponymous Sweet Thursday on Fontana Records. The band was composed of Jon Mark, Alun Davies, Nicky Hopkins, Harvey Burns, Brian Odgers. However, the album was not promoted by their record label, the bandmates never toured. Johnny Almond, born John Albert Almond on 20 July 1946 in Enfield, Middlesex played in Zoot Money's Big Roll Band and the Alan Price Set, as well as performing considerable session work in England.

In 1969 he had founded Johnny Almond's Music Machine and had recorded two solo records Patent Pending and Hollywood Blues. On Patent Pending Almond is accompanied by Geoff Condon, Jimmy Crawford, Steve Hammond, Roger Sutton and Johnny Wiggins. On Hollywood Blues he jams with Curtis Amy, Hadley Caliman, Joe Harris, Charles Kynard, Ray Neapolitan, Joe Pass, Earl Palmer and Vi Redd. Almond and Mark began playing together on John Mayall's records Empty Rooms. From that experience they decided to form Mark-Almond. Mark-Almond's first two albums, Mark-Almond and Mark-Almond II were recorded for Bob Krasnow's Blue Thumb label, were noted for their embossed envelope-style album covers; the first album, "The Ghetto" received many plaudits. It contained "The City," which, at 10 minutes, 32 seconds is notable for the range of styles and musical expertise; the band's second album contained the Boston regional hit song "One Way Sunday," which garnered airplay for them in the United States on album-oriented rock stations in Boston, Massachusetts on WBCN FM AOR radio station, in Baltimore, MD at WAYE, according to Program Director, Ty Ford.

The group recorded two albums for Columbia Records and the live album, Mark-Almond 73, by which time the group's members had grown to seven. In October 1972, Mark was involved in an accident in Hawaii and lost most of his left-hand ring finger. Mark was quoted in Melody Maker as saying he "climbed like a native and fell like an Englishman". "What Am I Living For" from Mark-Almond 73 gained the group the most U. S. radio airplay they would get, but they disbanded that year. Mark released a solo record for Columbia Song for a Friend in 1975, he and Almond reunited in 1975 and released To the Heart on ABC Records in 1976, which featured the drummer Billy Cobham. Other notable musicians, who have recorded or toured with Mark-Almond include drummer Dannie Richmond, violinist Greg Bloch, keyboardist Tommy Eyre and bassist Roger Sutton. Eyre and Sutton teamed in Riff Raff. A&M Records signed the duo in 1978 and released Other Peoples Rooms, but the record did not sell as well as earlier releases. Mark-Almond disbanded again in the mid 1980s, after releasing two decent albums, Tuesday in New York' and a live offering The Last & Live.

In 1996 Mark-Almond reunited again for a CD release, Night Music, which featured keyboardist Mike Nock and others. Mark moved to New Zealand in the mid 1980s, released a number of successful solo Ambient music recordings on his White Cloud record label, as well as collaborating with other artists on traditional Celtic and folk recordings and producing other artists. A release of Tibetan Monk chants Mark recorded and produced with his wife Thelma Burchell won a Grammy Award in 2004. Almond lived in the San Francisco Bay Area, he died on 18 November 2009 from cancer, aged 63. He surprised local bar owners, arriving with his sax to jam, some of, recorded, including a rousing rendition of "Stormy Monday". On 25 June 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Mark-Almond among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. 1970: Mark-Almond 1971: Mark-Almond II 1972: Rising 1973: Mark-Almond 73 1973: The Best Of Mark-Almond - compilation 1976: To The Heart 1978: Other Peoples Rooms 1980: Tuesday In New York 1981: The Last & Live 1981: Best Of...

Live - compilation 1991: The Best Of - compilation 1996: Nightmusic Sleeve Design Mark Almond - Latimer/Field Sleeve Design Mark Almond 2 - Latimer/Field Sleeve Design/Illustration - Rising - Dave Field Rolling Stone Encyclopedia: Mark-Almond Band allmusic-Biografie: Mark-Almond. Franco: Mark-Almond. David E. Miller: Mark-Almond Mark-Almond bio Mark-Almond partial disco

Ruak River

The Ruak River is a right hand tributary of the Mekong. The mouth of the Ruak river is at the Thai-Burma border opposite Laos, a spot known as the "Golden Triangle", a popular tourist destination; the Ruak originates within the hills of the Daen Lao Range, Shan State, becomes the boundary river between Thailand and Burma at the confluence with the Mae Sai River near the northernmost point of Thailand. It meanders eastwards until it empties into the Mekong River at Ban Sop Ruak, Tambon Wiang, Chiang Saen District, Chiang Rai Province; the boundary section of the river is 26.75 kilometres long. Golden Triangle Some Selected Wetlands in the Mekong River Basin of Thailand Thai geography