The Dark Tower IV: Wizard and Glass
Wizard and Glass is a fantasy novel by American writer Stephen King, the fourth book in The Dark Tower series, published in 1997. Subtitled "Regard", it placed fourth in the annual Locus Poll for best fantasy novel; the novel begins. After Jake, Eddie and Roland fruitlessly riddle Blaine the Mono for several hours, Eddie defeats the mad computer by telling childish jokes. Blaine is unable to handle short-circuits; the four gunslingers and Oy the billy-bumbler disembark at the Topeka railway station, which to their surprise is located in the Topeka, Kansas, of the 1980s. The city is deserted, as this version of the world has been depopulated by the influenza of King's novel The Stand. Links between these books include the following reference to The Walkin' Dude from The Stand on page 95, "Someone had spray-painted over both signs marking the ramp's ascending curve. On the one reading St. Louis 215, someone had slashed watch out for the walking dude", among others; the world has some other minor differences with the one known to Eddie and Susannah.
The ka-tet leaves the city via the Kansas Turnpike, as they camp one night next to an eerie dimensional hole which Roland calls a "thinny", the gunslinger tells his apprentices of his past, his first encounter with a thinny. At the beginning of the story-within-the-story, Roland earns his guns—an episode retold in the inaugural issue of The Gunslinger Born—and becomes the youngest gunslinger in memory, he did it because he discovered his father's trusted counsellor, the sorcerer Marten Broadcloak, having an affair with his mother, Gabrielle Deschain. In anger, Roland challenges his mentor, Cort, to a duel to earn his guns. Roland bests his teacher, his father sends him east, away from Gilead, for his own protection. Roland leaves with Cuthbert Allgood and Alain Johns. Soon after their arrival in the distant Barony of Mejis, Roland falls in love with Susan Delgado, the promised "gilly" of Thorin—the mayor, his love for Susan Delgado clouds his reasoning for a time and nearly results in a permanent split between him and his inseparable friend Cuthbert.
He and his ka-tet discover a plot between the Barony's elite and "The Good Man" John Farson, leader of a rebel faction, to fuel Farson's war machines with Mejis oil. After being seized by the authorities on trumped-up charges of murdering the Barony's Mayor and Chancellor, Roland's ka-tet manages to escape jail with Susan's help, destroy the oil and the detachment Farson sent to transport it, as well as the Mejis traitors; the battle ends at Eyebolt Canyon, where Farson's troops are maneuvered into charging to their deaths into a thinny. The ka-tet captures the pink-colored Wizard's Glass, a mystical, malevolent orb or crystal ball from the town witch, Rhea of the Cöos; the globe had entranced Rhea so much that she was starving herself and her pets to death because she spent every free moment watching the visions in the orb. The glass shows Roland a vision of his future, of Susan's death; the visions send him into a stupor, from which he recovers—at which point the glass torments him with other visions, this time of events that he was not present for but nonetheless shaped his fate and Susan's, such is the nature of the Wizard's Glass.
Thus Roland's sad tale comes to a close. In the morning, Roland's new ka-tet comes to a suspiciously familiar Emerald City; the Wizard of Oz parallels continue inside, where the Wizard is revealed to be Marten Broadcloak known as Randall Flagg, who flees when Roland attempts to kill him with Jake's Ruger and narrowly misses. In his place he leaves Maerlyn's Grapefruit, which shows the ka-tet the day Roland accidentally killed his own mother. Roland, it has been explained time and again, tends to be bad medicine for his friends and loved ones. Nonetheless, when given the choice, Eddie and Jake all refuse to swear off the quest. Readers of the uncut version of The Stand may be confused by the dates given in the book; the uncut edition takes place in 1990, while Wizard and Glass brings the ka-tet to that world in 1986. When The Stand was first published, it took place in 1980, it may be said" than the novel The Stand, as pointed out by Roland. "There are other worlds than these" Dave McKean created eighteen Illustrations for The Dark Tower IV: Wizard and Glass.
The original eighteen illustrations appear only in the first edition hardback released in 1997. All subsequent trade paperback editions of the novel only feature twelve of McKean's illustrations. Official website
Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants for food and beauty. A more precise definition can be given as "The cultivation and sale of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, flowers as well as many additional services", it includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management and garden design and maintenance, arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs, their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, quality, nutritional value, resistance to insects and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, therapists and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden; the word horticulture is modeled after agriculture, comes from the Latin hortus "garden" and cultūra "cultivation", from cultus, the perfect passive participle of the verb colō "I cultivate".
Hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and the borrowed word garden. The major areas of Horticulture include: Arboriculture is the study of, the selection, plant and removal of, individual trees, shrubs and other perennial woody plants. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use. Floriculture includes the marketing of floral crops. Study of flower cultivation. Landscape horticulture includes the production and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the marketing of vegetables. Pomology includes the marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the marketing of grapes. Oenology includes all aspects of winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants and animals. Horticulture has a long history; the study and science of horticulture dates all the way back to the times of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia, has been going on since, with present-day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank.
The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years. The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least 6950–6440 cal BP; the origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited during migrations from one area to the next. In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. In forest areas such horticulture is carried out in swiddens. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. Horticulture differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.
Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety of crops including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, cacao and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans, squash and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended or by women. Since 1804 The Royal Horticultural Society, a UK charity, leads on the encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches and shares this knowledge through its community and learning programmes, world class gardens and shows; the oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still have four shows a year in York, UK.
The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticulture. The IOH has an international branch for members outside of these islands; the International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science. The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas; the Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. The National Junior Horticultural Association was established in 1934 and was the first organisation in the world dedicated to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, develop skills in, the ever-expanding art and science of horticulture; the New Zealand Horticulture Institute. The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHo
Topeka is the capital city of the U. S. state of Kansas and the seat of Shawnee County. It is situated along the Kansas River in the central part of Shawnee County, in northeast Kansas, in the Central United States; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 127,473. The Topeka Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Shawnee, Jefferson and Wabaunsee counties, had a population of 233,870 in the 2010 census; the name Topeka is a Kansa-Osage sentence that means "place where we dug potatoes", or "a good place to dig potatoes". As a placename, Topeka was first recorded in 1826 as the Kansa name for what is now called the Kansas River. Topeka's founders chose the name in 1855 because it "was novel, of Indian origin and euphonious of sound." The mixed-blood Kansa Native American, Joseph James, called Jojim, is credited with suggesting the name of Topeka. The city, laid out in 1854, was one of the Free-State towns founded by Eastern antislavery men after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Bill.
In 1857, Topeka was chartered as a city. The city is well known for the landmark U. S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson and declared racial segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional. Three ships of the U. S. Navy have been named USS Topeka after the city. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America were inhabited by Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In the 1840s, wagon trains made their way west from Independence, Missouri, on a journey of 2,000 miles, following what would come to be known as the Oregon Trail.
About 60 miles west of Kansas City, three half Kansas Indian sisters married to the French-Canadian Pappan brothers established a ferry service allowing travelers to cross the Kansas River at what is now Topeka. During the 1840s and into the 1850s, travelers could reliably find a way across the river, but little else was in the area. In the early 1850s, traffic along the Oregon Trail was supplemented by trade on a new military road stretching from Fort Leavenworth through Topeka to the newly established Fort Riley. In 1854, after completion of the first cabin, nine men established the Topeka Town Association. Included among them was Cyrus K. Holliday, an "idea man" who would become mayor of Topeka and founder of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. Soon, steamboats were docking at the Topeka landing, depositing meat and flour and returning eastward with potatoes and wheat. By the late 1860s, Topeka had become a commercial hub providing many Victorian era comforts. Topeka was a bastion for the free-state movement during the problems in Kansas Territory between anti- and proslavery settlers.
After southern forces barricaded Topeka in 1856, Topeka's leaders took actions to defend the free-state town from invasion. A militia was organized and fortifications were built on Quincy Street; the fortifications seemed to consist of low-lying earthwork levies strengthened by the presence of at least one cannon. There was stone in the fortifications; the militia manned the fortifications until at least September 1856, when the siege around the town was lifted. After a decade of abolitionist and pro-slavery conflict that gave the territory the nickname Bleeding Kansas, Kansas was admitted to the Union in 1861 as the 34th state. Topeka was chosen as the capital, with Dr. Charles Robinson as the first governor. In 1862, Cyrus K. Holliday donated a tract of land to the state for the construction of a state capitol. Construction of the Kansas State Capitol began in 1866, it would take 37 years to build the capitol, first the east wing, the west wing, the central building, using Kansas limestone. In fall 1864 a stockade fort named Fort Simple, was built in the intersection of 6th and Kansas Avenues to protect Topeka, should Confederate forces in Missouri decide to attack the city.
It was abandoned by April 1865 and demolished in April 1867. State officers first used the state capitol in 1869, moving from Constitution Hall, what is now 427-429 S. Kansas Avenue. Besides being used as the Kansas statehouse from 1863 to 1869, Constitution Hall is the site where anti-slavery settlers convened in 1855 to write the first of four state constitutions, making it the "Free State Capitol." The National Park Service recognizes Constitution Hall - Topeka as headquarters in the operation of the Lane Trail to Freedom on the Underground Railroad, the chief slave escape passage and free trade road. Although the drought of 1860 and the ensuing period of the Civil War slowed the growth of Topeka and the state, Topeka kept pace with the revival and period of growth Kansas enjoyed from the close of the war in 1865 until 1870. In the 1870s, many former slaves known as Exodusters, settled on the east side of Lincoln Street between Munson and Twelfth Streets; the area was known as Tennessee Town.
The first African American Kindergarten west of the Mississippi was organized in Tennessee Town by Dr. Charles Sheldon, pastor of the Central Congregational Church in 1893. Lincoln College, now Washburn University, was established in 1865 in Topeka by a charter issued by the State of Kansas and the General A
The Topeka Zoo is a medium-sized zoo in Topeka, Kansas in the United States. It is located within Gage Park, just off I-70 in the north central portion of the city. Despite its size, it houses over 250 animals in a number of exhibits, including one of the first indoor tropical rain forests in the United States, it is one of the most popular attractions in Topeka, with over 200,000 visitors a year. The Topeka Zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Aquariums; the Gage Family donated 80 acres to the city of Topeka in 1899 to use for a public park. Over the years, the park has accumulated playgrounds, a swimming pool, a fishing lake, a mini train, a rose garden, a carousel; the zoo was opened in the park in 1933. Additional exhibits were constructed over the years, in 1963 the city hired its first zoo director, Gary K. Clarke; the first major facility at the zoo was constructed in 1966 to house large mammals. Clarke went on to get many of the current exhibits constructed, including Gorilla Encounter, the temporary Koala Exhibit, Lions Pride, the Tropical Rainforest, Discovering Apes.
The zoo lost its accreditation with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums in 2001, due to mismanagement, poor conditions for some of the animals being exhibited, the deaths of several animals. In 2003, after a major overhaul of the zoo and the addition of several new exhibits, the Topeka Zoo regained its accreditation. In 2011, the City hired a new zoo director by the name of Brendan Wiley. After this hire, the general demeanor of the citizens toward the zoo has been more positive. Kansas CarnivoresKansas Carnivores, opened in 2009, features cougars and North American river otters in side-by-side exhibits. Black Bear WoodsBlack Bear Woods was built in 1997, features animals from North America. Units house Virginia opossum, Harris hawk, red-tailed hawk. Bald eagles and golden eagles live in tall flight pens. A coyote inhabits. Four black bears live in a spacious enclosure with trees to climb, they can be viewed from a ground level window. Waterbird LagoonWaterbird Lagoon features three ponds. Waterfowl such as trumpeter swans live in these ponds.
Many wild waterfowl visit these ponds such as mallard ducks, wood ducks, herons. Jungle CatsThe Jungle Cats exhibit features rare Sumatran tigers in thickly planted, side-by-side exhibits. Both yards have water features. 3 Sumatran tigers cubs were born in May 2014. Tropical RainforestThe Tropical Rainforest was the first indoor rainforest exhibit in the United States. Birds, such as scarlet macaws, Bali mynah, roseate spoonbills, scarlet ibis, are free roaming, as well as Hoffman's two-toed sloth, indian flying foxes. Individual exhibits house three-banded Armadillo, Red-footed tortoise, greater mouse-deer. Animals and ManThe Animals and Man building features exhibits for small animals, such as Black-and-white ruffed lemur and African crested porcupines; this building serves as the indoor house for the zoo's hippopotamus and Asian elephants, giraffe. They all have large outdoor yards, the giraffes share theirs with East African crowned cranes. Camp CowabungaFormerly Lion's Pride, this exhibit have three lions in a spacious exhibit, African Wild Dogs in an adjoining yard, Patas monkey in an exhibit spanning the entrance to Camp Cowabunga.
The main feature is a central plaza where guests can view various artefacts from Africa, sit in a canoe used in the Zambezi, view the animals from safari tents. In the future, this area will view a new exhibit for African Elephants. Lianas ForestIn the Lianas Forest building, orangutans live behind glass in an enclosure replicating the treetops in Borneo, they have a spacious outdoor yard, meant to emulate Camp Leakey. The Treetop Conservation Center is now part of the building. A tunnel leads visitors through an outdoor enclosure which now houses sun bears that once housed gorillas. Children's ZooThe Children's Zoo was added in 1992, has domestic animals, such as sheep and goats to feed. There is a playground next to the Children's Zoo. Adventure TrailAdventure Trail was includes many family friendly experiences; the Rainbow Lorikeet aviary houses several colorful lorikeets. A playground includes many climbing structures, a place to ride tricycles, a mining sluice; the general store in this area serves as a point to purchase snacks and refreshments.
Reticulated giraffe, Konza, 2018 Reticulated giraffe, Hope, 2011 Nile River hippopotamus, Vision, 2011 Three banded armadillo, 2010, 2011, 2015 Bornean orangutan, Bumi, 2013 Golden lion tamarin, 2013 and 2014, 2015 3 Sumatran Tiger cubs, Raza and ChloJo, 2014 Hoffmann's 2-toed sloth, 2014, 2015 - They have a history of breeding sloths Greater Malayan Chevrotain, 2014, 2015 - One of 9 AZA zoos in the US to house this species in 2015. On May 6, 2010, a bobcat in the zoo escaped its cage after a vandal pried the animal's cage open; the bobcat was found several hours in some bushes not far from its cage, was tranquilized and returned to its cage without further incident. One orangutan died in 2003 of tularemia, an infectious disease carried by rabbits and some rodents but sometimes found in humans and primates. A dead rabbit was found outside of their enclosure and officials think all three primates handled the rabbit before the five orangutans took ill. In reaction, the zoo has installed a rabbit-proof fence around the orangutan area.
Official website Friends of the Topeka Zoo Topeka Capital-Journal - Topeka Zoo articles
Westboro Baptist Church
Westboro Baptist Church is an American church known for its use of inflammatory hate speech against LGBT+ people, Orthodox Christians, Muslims, Romani people, U. S. soldiers and politicians. Multiple sources describe it as a hate group and the WBC is monitored as such by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center; the church has been involved in actions against gay people since at least 1991, when it sought a crackdown on homosexual activity at Gage Park six blocks northwest of the church. In addition to conducting anti-gay protests at military funerals, the organization pickets celebrity funerals and public events. Protests have been held against Jews and Catholics, some protests have included WBC members stomping on the American flag or flying the flag upside down on a flagpole; the church has made statements such as "thank God for dead soldiers," "God blew up the troops," "thank God for 9/11," and "God hates America." The church has faced several accusations of brainwashing and has been criticised for resembling a cult.
The church is headquartered in a residential neighborhood on the west side of Topeka about 3 miles west of the Kansas State Capitol. Its first public service was held on the afternoon of November 27, 1955; the church was headed by Fred Phelps before his death in March 2014, though church representatives said the church had had no defined leader for some time before his death. The church consists of members of Phelps's extended family, in 2011, the church stated that it had about 40 members; the WBC is not affiliated with any Baptist denomination, although it describes itself as Primitive Baptist and following the five points of Calvinism. Many other Baptist churches, Baptist-affiliated seminaries, Baptist conventions, including the Baptist World Alliance and the Southern Baptist Convention, have denounced the WBC over the years. In addition, other mainstream Christian denominations have condemned the actions of the Westboro Baptist Church. Westboro Baptist Church originated as a branch of the East Side Baptist Church, established in 1931 on the east side of Topeka.
In 1954, East Side hired Fred Phelps as an associate pastor, promoted him to pastor of their new church plant, Westboro Baptist, which opened in 1955 on the west side of Topeka. Soon after Westboro was established, Phelps broke ties with East Side Baptist. Westboro Baptist began picketing Gage Park in Topeka in 1991, saying it was a den of anonymous homosexual activity. Soon, their protests had spread throughout the city, within three years the church was traveling across the country. Phelps explained in 1994 that he considered the negative reaction to the picketing to be proof of his righteousness. On August 20, 1995, a pipe bomb exploded outside the home of Shirley Phelps-Roper, the daughter of Fred Phelps; the blast damaged an SUV, a fence, part of the house, but no one was injured. In 1996, two men were arrested for the bombing, both admitted to causing the blast, they had believed that Phelps-Roper's house was that of the pastor, wanted to retaliate against Westboro's anti-gay protests at Washburn University.
One of the bombers was fined $1,751 and was sentenced to 16 days in prison plus 100 hours of community service. Fred Phelps died of natural causes on March 19, 2014, his daughter Shirley said that a funeral would not be held because Westboro does not "worship the dead". WBC pickets six locations every day, including many in Topeka and some events farther afield. On Sundays, up to 15 churches may receive pickets. By their own count, WBC has picketed in all 50 U. S. states. The group carries out daily picketing in Topeka and travels nationally to picket the funerals of gay victims of murder, gay-bashing or people who have died from complications related to AIDS; as of March 2009 the church claims to have participated in over 41,000 protests in over 650 cities since 1991. One of Westboro's followers estimated; the pickets have resulted in several lawsuits. In 1995, Phelps Sr.'s eldest grandson, Benjamin Phelps, was convicted of assault and disorderly conduct after spitting upon the face of a passerby during a picket.
In the 1990s the church won a series of lawsuits against the City of Topeka and Shawnee County for efforts taken to prevent or hinder WBC picketing, was awarded $200,000 in attorney's fees and costs associated with the litigation. In 2004, Phelps Sr.'s daughter Margie Phelps and Margie's son Jacob were arrested for trespassing, disorderly conduct and failure to obey after disregarding a police officer's order during an attempted protest. In response to pickets at funerals, Kansas passed a law prohibiting picketing at such events. In the autumn of 2007, the father of a Marine whose funeral was picketed by the WBC was awarded $5 million in damages; the award was overturned on appeal by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in a decision upheld by the Supreme Court in Snyder v. Phelps. In June 2007 Shirley Phelps-Roper was arrested in Nebraska and charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor; the arrest resulted from her allowing her ten-year-old son to step on a U. S. flag during the demonstration, illegal under Nebraska law.
The defense contended that the child's actions were protected speech, that the state law is unconstitutional. The prosecution claimed the demonstration was not intended as political speech, but as an incitement to violence, that Phelp
Fred Waldron Phelps Sr. was the American minister of the Westboro Baptist Church and a civil rights attorney who became known for his extreme views on homosexuality and protests near the funerals of gay people, military veterans, disaster victims, whose deaths, he believed, were the result of God punishing the U. S. for having "bankrupt values" and tolerating gay people. The Westboro Baptist Church, a Topeka, Kansas-based independent fundamentalist ministry that Phelps founded in 1955, has been called "arguably the most obnoxious and rabid hate group in America." Its signature slogan, remains the name of the group's principal website. In addition to funerals and his followers—mostly his own immediate family members—picketed gay pride gatherings, high-profile political events, university commencement ceremonies, live performances of The Laramie Project, functions sponsored by mainstream Christian groups with which he had no affiliation, arguing it was their sacred duty to warn others of God's anger.
He continued doing so in the face of numerous legal challenges—some of which reached the U. S. Supreme Court—and near-universal opposition and contempt from other religious groups and the general public. Laws enacted at both the federal and state levels for the specific purpose of curtailing his disruptive activities were limited in their effectiveness due to the Constitutional protections afforded to Phelps under the First Amendment. Although Phelps died in 2014, the Westboro Baptist Church remains in operation, it continues to conduct regular demonstrations outside movie theaters, government buildings, other facilities in Topeka and elsewhere, is still characterized as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. Fred Waldron Phelps Sr. was born on November 13, 1929 in Meridian, the elder of two children of Catherine Idalette and Fred Wade Phelps. His father was a railroad policeman for a devout Methodist. In 1935, Catherine Phelps succumbed to esophageal cancer at the age of 28.
Her aunt, Irene Jordan, helped care for Fred and his younger sister Martha Jean until December 1944, when the elder Phelps married Olive Briggs, a 39-year-old divorcee. Fred was an Eagle Scout, he was a member of Phi Kappa, a high school social fraternity, president of the Young Peoples Department of Central United Methodist Church and was honored as the best drilled member of the Mississippi Junior State Guard, a unit similar to the Reserve Officer Training Corps. He graduated high school at 16 years old, ranking sixth in his graduating class of 213 students, was the class orator at his commencement. After graduating from high school he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. On September 8, 1947, at the age of 17, he was ordained a Southern Baptist minister and moved to Cleveland, Tennessee, to attend Bob Jones College. A combination of Phelps' failure to retain the West Point appointment, his abandonment of his father's beloved Methodist faith, his father's remarriage to a divorcee precipitated a lifelong estrangement from his father and stepmother—and by some accounts, from his sister as well.
Phelps never spoke to his family members again, returned all of their letters, birthday cards, Christmas gifts for his children, unopened. Phelps dropped out of Bob Jones College in 1948, he became a street preacher while attending John Muir College in Pasadena. The June 11, 1951 issue of Time magazine included a story on Phelps, who lectured fellow students about "sins committed on campus by students and teachers", including "promiscuous petting, evil language, cheating, teachers' filthy jokes in classrooms, pandering to the lusts of the flesh." When the college ordered him to stop, citing a Californian law that forbade the teaching of religion on any public school campus, he moved his sermons across the street. In October 1951, Phelps met Margie Marie Simms and married her in May 1952. In 1954, his pregnant wife, their newborn son moved to Topeka, where he was hired by the East Side Baptist Church as an associate pastor; the following year, the church's leadership opened Westboro Baptist Church on the other side of town, Phelps became its pastor.
Although the new church was ostensibly nondenominational, Phelps preached a doctrine similar to that of the Primitive Baptists, who believe in scriptural literalism. Thus Christian biblical scripture is true and a predetermined number of people, who were selected for redemption before the world was created, will be saved on Judgment Day, his vitriolic preaching alienated church leaders and most of the original congregation, leaving him with a small following consisting entirely of his own relatives and close friends. Phelps was forced to support himself selling vacuum cleaners, baby strollers, insurance. In 1972, two companies sued Westboro Baptist for failing to pay for the candy being resold by the children. Phelps earned a law degree from Washburn University in 1964, founded the Phelps Chartered law firm; the first notable cases were related to civil rights. "I systematically brought down the Jim Crow laws of this town", he claimed. Phelps' daughter was quoted as saying, "We took on the Jim Crow establishment, Kansas did not take tha
Shawnee County, Kansas
Shawnee County is a county located in northeast Kansas, in the central United States of America. As of the 2010 census, the population was 177,934 making it the third-most populous county in Kansas, its most populous city, Topeka, is the state county seat. The county was one of the original 33 counties created by the first territorial legislature in 1855, it was named for the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.
S. state. In 1855, Shawnee County was established. Before the treaty of 1854, the area now known as Shawnee County was inhabited by Shawnee and Pottowatomie Indian tribes. Westward expansion brought the country its first white settler in 1830 when Frederick Choteau opened a trading post on American Chief Creek. In 1855, Shawnee became one of the first counties established by the Kansas territorial legislature with a population of 250. General H. J. Strickler, of Tecumseh, a member of the council in 1855, of the joint committee on Counties, claimed Shawnee for the name of his county. At that time, Shawnee County borders were south of the Kansas River and extended south to include Osage City and Carbondale; the legislature desired to make Topeka the county seat and moved the borders of the county to their present locations to make Topeka centrally located in the county. 1855 saw the first meeting of the Shawnee County Board of Commissioners. Tecumseh was the first county seat, the first county courthouse was opened there in 1856.
The building was never finished. Topeka was made the county seat by popular vote in 1858, a new courthouse was built at 4th Street and Kansas Avenue in 1867. In 1896, a new larger courthouse was constructed at 5th and Van Buren, with more than 50,000 residents living in the county; that building remained in use until the current courthouse at 7th and Quincy opened in 1965. Concerning the origin of the names in this county, it is understood that Shawnee County receives its name from that well known tribe of Indians. Topeka A good place to grow potatoes. Wakarusa River of big weeds. Shunganunga The race course. Menoken A fine growth. Half-Day Creek Named after a Pottawatomie chief. Mission Creek Named after an old Kaw mission on its banks. Blacksmith Creek Named after a Kaw blacksmith shop. Soldier Creek Its banks were a favorite camping ground for soldiers passing from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Riley. Shawnee County is located in the northeastern part of Kansas, in the third tier of counties west of the Missouri River and about fifty-four miles south of Nebraska.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 556 square miles, of which 544 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water, it is bordered by Jackson County on the north, Jefferson County on the north and east, Douglas County on the east, Osage County on the south, Wabaunsee County on the west, Pottawatomie County on the west. Its extent in either direction is not more than twenty-four miles; the second standard parallel south passes through the northern half of the county. When the county was formed in 1855, it was bounded by the Kansas River on the north, the southern boundary was nine miles further south, but on February 23, 1860, the legislature changed the boundaries with the southern portion being granted to Osage County, the northern boundary was moved a few miles north of the river. The present northern line was established in 1868; the Kansas River runs east across the county, just north of the center, being bordered on its north bank by the townships of Rossville, Silver Lake and Soldier, on its south bank by the townships of Dover and Tecumseh.
The city of Topeka lies to the south of the river. There is little or no current major river traffic, but it is used extensively for irrigation in the county. Major creeks emptying into the Kansas River include Cross, Mission and Shunganunga Creeks; the Wakarusa River, flowing east and northeast, empties into the Kansas River in the northeastern part of Douglas County. It has its sources in the township of Auburn, waters the southern sections of Auburn and Monmouth—the tributary creeks flowing into it on either side forming the drainage and water system of the three townships; the soil is a rich dark loam, varying from fifteen feet in some parts of the bottoms, to a uniform surface covering the upland prairie from one to three feet. The underlying formation is limestone. Beds of clay, are well distributed. Coal is found in detached and non-continuous beds, is mined in a small way for local purposes in Topeka and Menoken. Along the western border the landscape is hilly with the Flint Hills a few miles further west in Wabaunsee County.
Burnett's Mound, the highest point in the county, is situated in the southwest part of Topeka. The land is described in the government and county surveys as "bottom land, 31%. Wooded areas a