Chuuk Lagoon previously known as Truk Lagoon, is a sheltered body of water in the central Pacific. About 1,800 kilometres north-east of New Guinea, it is located mid-ocean at 7 degrees North latitude, is part of Chuuk State within the Federated States of Micronesia; the atoll consists of a protective reef, 225 kilometres around, enclosing a natural harbour 79 by 50 kilometres, with an area of 2,130 square kilometres. It has a land area of 93.07 square kilometres, with a population of 36,158 people and a maximal height of 443 m. Weno city on Moen Island functions as the atoll's capital and as the state capital and is the largest city in the FSM with its 13,700 people. Chuuk means mountain in the Chuukese language; the lagoon was known as Truk, until 1990. Other names included Ruk, Torres and Lugulus. Chuuk Lagoon is part of the larger Caroline Islands group; the area consists of eleven major islands and forty-six smaller ones within the lagoon, plus forty-one on the fringing coral reef, is known today as the Chuuk islands, part of the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean.
This is the following list of islands and population following the 2010 census: It is not known when the islands of Chuuk were first settled, but archaeological evidence indicates that islands of Feefen and Wééné Islands had human settlements in the first and second century BC. Evidence indicates that widespread human settlements appeared in Chuuk during the 14th century AD; the first recorded sighting by Europeans was made by Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on board of the ship Florida during August or September 1528. They were visited by Spaniard Alonso de Arellano on 15 January 1565 on board of galleon patache San Lucas; as part of the Caroline Islands, Truk was claimed by the Spanish Empire, which made an effort to control the islands in the late 19th century. Chuuk lagoon was inhabited by several tribes that engaged in intermittent warfare, as well as a small population of foreign traders and missionaries. Spanish control over the islands was nominal; the Spaniards stopped to raise a flag over Chuuk in 1886, returned in 1895 as part of an attempt to assert control and negotiate peace between warring Chuukese tribes.
No permanent Spanish settlement was established, tribal violence continued until the German colonial era. The Caroline Islands were sold to the German Empire in 1899, after Spain withdrew from the Pacific in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. Chuuk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I. During World War II, Truk Lagoon was the Empire of Japan's main base in the South Pacific theatre. Truk was a fortified base for Japanese operations against Allied forces in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, serving as the forward anchorage for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Truk Lagoon was considered the most formidable of all Japanese strongholds in the Pacific. On the various islands, the Japanese Civil Engineering Department and Naval Construction Department had built roads, trenches and caves. Five airstrips, seaplane bases, a torpedo boat station, submarine repair shops, a communications center and a radar station were constructed during the war.
Protecting these various facilities were coastal defense guns and mortar emplacements. The Japanese garrison consisted of 27,856 IJN men, under the command of Vice Admiral Masami Kobayashi Vice Admiral Chuichi Hara, 16,737 IJA men, under the command of Major General Kanenobu Ishuin. Due to its heavy fortifications, both natural and manmade, the base at Truk was known to Allied forces as "the Gibraltar of the Pacific."A significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based at Truk, with its administrative center on Tonoas. At anchor in the lagoon could be found the IJN's battleships, aircraft carriers, destroyers, cargo ships, gunboats, landing craft, submarines. In particular and Musashi, the largest battleships built, were stationed at Truk for months around 1943, unable to participate in battle due to lack of air cover; some have described Truk as Japan's equivalent of the Americans' Pearl Harbor, in that it was their respective nation's largest forward naval base. In 1944, Truk's capacity as a naval base was destroyed through naval air attack.
Forewarned by intelligence a week before the US raid, the Japanese had withdrawn their larger warships to Palau. Once the American forces captured the Marshall Islands, they used them as a base from which to launch an early morning attack on February 17, 1944 against Truk Lagoon. Operation Hailstone lasted for three days, as American carrier-based planes sank twelve smaller Japanese warships and thirty-two merchant ships, while destroying 275 aircraft on the ground; the consequences of the attack made "Truk lagoon the biggest graveyard of ships in the world."The attacks for the most part ended Truk as a major threat to Allied operations in the central Pacific. The Japanese garrison on Eniwetok was denied any realistic hope of reinforcement and support during the invasion that began on February 18, 1944 assisting U. S. forces in their conquest of that island. Truk was isolated by Allied forces, as they continued their advance towards Japan, by invading other Pacific islands, such as Guam, Saipan and Iwo Ji
Tonga the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres scattered over 700,000 square kilometres of the southern Pacific Ocean; the sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu. Tonga stretches across 800 kilometres in a north-south line, it is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east, Kermadec to the southwest, New Caledonia and Vanuatu to the farther west. It is about 1,800 kilometres from New Zealand's North Island. Tonga became known in the West as the "Friendly Islands" because of the congenial reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773, he arrived at the time of the ʻinasi festival, the yearly donation of the First Fruits to the Tuʻi Tonga and so received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.
From 1900 to 1970, Tonga had British protected state status, with the United Kingdom looking after its foreign affairs under a Treaty of Friendship. The country never relinquished its sovereignty to any foreign power. In 2010, Tonga took a decisive path towards becoming a constitutional monarchy rather than a traditional absolute kingdom, after legislative reforms passed a course for the first partial representative elections. In many Polynesian languages, including Tongan, the word tonga comes from fakatonga which means "southwards", as the archipelago is the southernmost group of the islands of central Polynesia; the word tonga is cognate to the Hawaiian region of Kona, meaning leeward in the Hawaiian language. An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archaeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and inhabited Tonga around 1500–1000 BC. Scholars have much debated the exact dates of the initial settlement of Tonga, but Thorium dating confirms that the first settlers came to the oldest town, Nukuleka, by 888 BC, ± 8 years.
Not much is known before European contact because of the lack of a writing system, but oral history has survived and been recorded after the arrival of the Europeans. By the 12th century and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted; the Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht, captained by Willem Schouten, made a short visit to trade. Came other Dutch explorers, including Jacob Le Maire. Noteworthy European visitors included James Cook in 1773, 1774, 1777; the US Exploring Expedition visited in 1840. In 1845, the ambitious young warrior and orator Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom, he held the chiefly title of Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but had been baptised by Methodist missionaries with the name Siaosi in 1831. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy.
Tonga became a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship with Britain on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. The treaty posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul. Under the protection of Britain, Tonga maintained its sovereignty, remained the only Pacific nation to retain its monarchical government; the Tongan monarchy follows an uninterrupted succession of hereditary rulers from one family. The 1918 flu pandemic, brought to Tonga by a ship from New Zealand, killed 1,800 Tongans, reflecting a mortality rate of about eight per cent; the Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protection status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970, became a member of the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has always governed itself, which makes it unique in the Pacific; as part of cost-cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nukuʻalofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interests to the High Commissioner in Fiji.
The last resident British High Commissioner was Paul Nessling. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. Reverence for the monarch replaces that held in earlier centuries for the sacred paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga. Criticism of the monarch is held to be contrary to Tongan etiquette. King Tupou VI, his family, powerful nobles and a growing non-royal elite caste live in much wealth, with the rest of the country living in relative poverty; the effects of this disparity are mitigated by education and lan
Yap or Wa′ab traditionally refers to an island located in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, a part of the Federated States of Micronesia. The name "Yap" in recent years has come to refer to the state within the Federated States of Micronesia, inclusive of the Yap Main Islands and its various outer islands; the Yap Main Islands are considered to be made up of four separate islands: Yap Island proper, Gagil-Tamil and Rumung. The four are contiguous, though separated by water, are surrounded by a common coral reef, they are formed from an uplift of the Philippine Sea Plate, are referred to as "high" islands as opposed to atolls. The land is rolling hills, densely vegetated. Mangrove swamps line much of the shore, although there are beaches on the northern sides of the islands. Excluding the reef area, Yap is 24 km long, 5–10 km wide, 98 km2; the highest elevation is 178 m at Mount Taabiywol in Fanif municipality on Yap island proper. The Yapese people's indigenous cultures and traditions are strong compared to other states in Micronesia.
Colonia is the capital of the State of Yap which includes the Yap Main Islands and the Yap Neighboring Islands—the outer islands reaching to the east and south from the Yap Main Islands for some 800 km, namely the atolls of Eauripik, Faraulep, Ifalik, Ngulu, Piagailoe, Sorol and Woleai, as well as the islands of Fais and Satawal. A tributary system existed between the Neighboring Islands and the Yap Main Islands; this related to the need for goods from the high islands, including food, as well as wood for construction of seagoing vessels. In 2000 the population of Colonia and ten other municipalities totalled 11,241; the state has a total land area of 102 km2. A 13th century account states that the sultan of Egypt called to his aid the Admiral of the Dry Tree, a mystical land of the border of the Persian empire, in whose land the only currencies were millstones; the only region of which this is true is the Caroline Islands with their stone money. The first recorded sighting of Yap by Europeans came during the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Saavedra in 1528.
Its sighting was recorded by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos on 26 January 1543, who charted them as Los Arrecifes. At Yap, the Villalobos' expedition received the same surprising greeting as in Fais Island from the local people approaching the ships in canoes: "Buenos días Matelotes!" in perfect sixteenth-century Spanish evidencing previous presence of the Spaniards in the area. The original account of this story is included in the report that the Augustinian Fray Jerónimo de Santisteban, travelling with the Villalobos' expedition, wrote for the Viceroy of New Spain, while in Kochi during the voyage home. Yap appeared in Spanish charts as Los Garbanzos and Gran Carolina. From the 17th century until 1899, Yap was a Spanish colony within the Captaincy General of the Philippines of the Spanish East Indies; the Spanish used Yap Island as a prison for those captured during the Philippine Revolution. After the defeat against the United States in 1898 and subsequent loss of the Philippines, Spain sold these islands and its other minor Pacific possessions to Germany.
Yap was a major German naval communications center before the First World War and an important international hub for cable telegraphy, with spokes branching out to Guam, Rabaul and Manado. It was occupied by Japanese troops in September 1914, passed to the Japanese Empire under the Versailles Treaty in 1919 as a mandated territory under League of Nations supervision. US commercial rights on the island were secured by a special US-Japanese treaty to that effect, concluded on 11 February 1922. In World War II, Japanese-held Yap was one of the islands bypassed in the U. S. "island-hopping" strategy, although it was bombed by U. S. ships and aircraft, Yap-based Japanese bombers did some damage in return. The Japanese garrison comprised 4,423 IJA men under the command of Colonel Daihachi Itoh and 1,494 IJN men. At the end of World War II, Yap was occupied by the U. S. military victors. The U. S. held it and the rest of the Caroline Islands as a trusteeship under a United Nations mandate until 1986. In that year, Truk and Kosrae formed the independent nation of the Federated States of Micronesia.
Under a Compact of Free Association with the United States, Micronesian citizens and goods are allowed entry into the U. S. with few restrictions. American Peace Corps has been active in Yap since 1966. Other US-based non-profit organizations, including Habele, have an ongoing presence on both Yap proper and its outer islands, aimed at reducing educational disparities and inequalities in access to effective classroom instruction. Yap is known for its stone money, known as Rai, or Fei: large doughnut-shaped, carved disks of calcite, up to 4 m in diameter; the smallest can be as little as 3.5 centimetres in diameter. Many of them were brought from other islands, as far as New Guinea, but most came in ancient times from Palau, their value is based on its history. The Yapese valued the disks because the material looks like quartz, these were the shiniest objects available; the stones became legal tender and were mandatory in some payments. The value of the stones was kept high due to the difficulty and hazards involved in obt
Palau the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains 340 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, has an area of 466 square kilometers; the most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located in Melekeok State. Palau shares maritime boundaries with the Philippines and the Federated States of Micronesia; the country was settled 3,000 years ago by migrants from Insular Southeast Asia. The islands were first explored by Europeans in the 16th century, were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1574. Following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the islands were sold to Imperial Germany in 1899 under the terms of the German–Spanish Treaty, where they were administered as part of German New Guinea, although the islands were represented in the Malolos Congress of the revolutionary First Philippine Republic; the Imperial Japanese Navy conquered Palau during World War I, the islands were made a part of the Japanese-ruled South Pacific Mandate by the League of Nations.
During World War II, including the major Battle of Peleliu, were fought between American and Japanese troops as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Having voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia in 1979, the islands gained full sovereignty in 1994 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense and access to social services. Legislative power is concentrated in the bicameral Palau National Congress. Palau's economy is based on tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing, with a significant portion of gross national product derived from foreign aid; the country uses the United States dollar as its currency. The islands' culture mixes Micronesian, Melanesian and Western elements. Ethnic Palauans, the majority of the population, are of mixed Micronesian and Austronesian descent.
A smaller proportion of the population is descended from Filipino settlers. The country's two official languages are Palauan and English, with Japanese and Tobian recognized as regional languages; the name for the islands in the Palauan language, Belau derives from either the Palauan word for "village", beluu, or from aibebelau, relating to a creation myth. The name "Palau" entered the English language via the German Palau. An archaic name for the islands in English was the "Pelew Islands". Palau is unrelated to Pulau, a Malay word meaning "island" found in a number of place names in the region. Palau was settled between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE, most from Indonesia or the Philippines. Sonsorol, part of the Southwest Islands, an island chain 600 kilometers from the main island chain of Palau, was sighted by Europeans as early as 1522, when the Spanish mission of the Trinidad, the flagship of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, sighted two small islands around the 5th parallel north, naming them "San Juan".
After the conquest of the Philippines in 1565 by the Spanish Empire, the archipelago of Palau became part of the territory of the Captaincy General of the Philippines, established in 1574 as part of the Spanish East Indies with the capital based in the colonial centre in Manila. However, the Spanish presence only began to express with evangelization, began at the end of the 17th century, its dominance began to take shape in the 18th century; the conscious discovery of Palau came a century in 1697 when a group of Palauans were shipwrecked on the Philippine island of Samar to the northwest. They were interviewed by the Czech missionary Paul Klein on 28 December 1696. Klein was able to draw the first map of Palau based on the Palauans' representation of their home islands that they made with an arrangement of 87 pebbles on the beach. Klein reported his findings to the Jesuit Superior General in a letter sent in June 1697, equaling to the discovery of Palau; this map and the letter caused a vast interest in the new islands.
Another letter written by Fr. Andrés Serrano was sent to Europe in 1705 copying the information given by Klein; the letters resulted in three unsuccessful Jesuit attempts to travel to Palau from Spanish Philippines in 1700, 1708 and 1709. The islands were first visited by the Jesuit expedition led by Francisco Padilla on 30 November 1710; the expedition ended with the stranding of the two priests, Jacques Du Beron and Joseph Cortyl, on the coast of Sonsorol, because the mother ship Santísima Trinidad was driven to Mindanao by a storm. Another ship was sent from Guam in 1711 to save them only to capsize, causing the death of three more Jesuit priests; the failure of these missions gave Palau the original Spanish name Islas Encantadas. Despite these early misfortunes, the Spanish Empire came to dominate the islands. British traders became prominent visitors to Palau in the 18th century, followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century. Palau, under the name Palaos, was included in the Malolos Congress, the first revolutionary congress in the Philippines which aimed to become independent from colonialists.
Palau, at the time, was part of the Philippines. Palau had one appointed member to the Congress, becoming the only gr
Federated States of Micronesia
The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent republic associated to the United States. It consists of four states – from west to east, Chuuk and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of 2,700 km just north of the equator, they lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km southwest of the main islands of Hawaii. While the FSM's total land area is quite small, it occupies more than 2,600,000 km2 of the Pacific Ocean, giving the country the 14th largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world; the sovereign island nation's capital is Palikir, located on Pohnpei Island, while the largest city is Weno, located in the Chuuk Atoll. Each of its four states is centered on one or more main high islands, all but Kosrae include numerous outlying atolls.
The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across part of the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of thousands of small islands divided among several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the region as a whole; the FSM was a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trust Territory under U. S. administration, but it formed its own constitutional government on May 10, 1979, becoming a sovereign state after independence was attained on November 3, 1986 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Other neighboring island entities, former members of the TTPI, formulated their own constitutional governments and became the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Palau; the FSM has a seat in the United Nations and has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled over four thousand years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap Island.
Nan Madol, consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, is called the Venice of the Pacific. It is located on the eastern periphery of the island of Pohnpei and used to be the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur dynasty that united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people from about AD 500 until 1500, when the centralized system collapsed. European explorers—first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands and the Spanish—reached the Carolines in the sixteenth century; the Spanish incorporated the archipelago to the Spanish East Indies through the capital, in the 19th century established a number of outposts and missions. In 1887, they founded the town of Santiago de la Ascension in what today is Kolonia on the island of Pohnpei. Following defeat in the Spanish–American War, the Spanish sold the archipelago to Germany in 1899 under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany incorporated it into German New Guinea. During World War I, it was captured by Japan.
Following the war, the League of Nations awarded a mandate for Japan to administer the islands as part of the South Pacific Mandate. During World War II, a significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based in Truk Lagoon. In February 1944, Operation Hailstone, one of the most important naval battles of the war, took place at Truk, in which many Japanese support vessels and aircraft were destroyed. Following World War II, it was administered by the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands pursuant to Security Council Resolution 21. On May 10, 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia. Palau, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate; the FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States, which entered into force on November 3, 1986, marking Micronesia's emergence from trusteeship to independence. Independence was formally concluded under international law in 1990, when the United Nations ended the Trusteeship status pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683.
The Compact was renewed in 2004. The Federated States of Micronesia is governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers; the unicameral Congress has fourteen members elected by popular vote. Four senators—one from each state—serve four-year terms; the President and Vice President are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve four-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are filled by special elections; the president and vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. There are no formal political parties. In international politics, the Federated States of Micronesia has voted with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions; the FSM is a sovereign, self-governing state in free association with the United States of America, wholly responsible for its defense. The Division of Maritime Surveillance operates a paramilitary Maritime Wing and a small Maritime Police Unit.
The Compact of Free Association allows FSM citizens to join the U. S. military without having to obtain U. S. permanent residency or citizenship, allows for immigration and employment for Micronesians in the U. S. and establishes economic an
Tuʻi Tonga Empire
The Tuʻi Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500. It was centred in Tonga with its capital at Muʻa. Modern researchers and cultural experts attest to widespread Tongan influence, evidence of transoceanic trade and exchange of material and non-material cultural artefacts. In 950 AD, Tu'i Tonga'Aho'eitu started to expand his rule outside of Tonga. According to leading Tongan scholars, including Okusitino Mahina, the Tongan and Samoan oral traditions indicate that the first Tu'i Tonga was the son of their god Tangaloa; as the ancestral homeland of the Tu'i Tonga dynasty and the abode of deities such as Tagaloa'Eitumatupu'a, Tonga Fusifonua, Tavatavaimanuka, the Manu'a islands of Samoa were considered sacred by the early Tongan kings. By the time it comes to the 10th Tu’i Tonga Momo, his successor, ‘Tu’itatui, the empire had stretched from Tikopia in the west to Niue in the east.
Their realm contained Wallis and Futuna, Tuvalu, Nauru, parts of Fiji, parts of the Solomon Islands, Niue, Cook Islands, parts of Samoa. To better govern the large territory, the Tu’i Tongas had their throne moved by the lagoon at Lapaha, Tongatapu; the influence of the Tu’i Tonga was renowned throughout the Pacific, many of the neighboring islands participated in the widespread trade of resources and new ideas. Under the 10th Tuʻi Tonga and his son Tuʻitātui the empire was at its height of expansion, tributes for the Tu'i Tonga were said to be exacted from all tributary chiefdoms of the empire; this tribute was known as the "'Inasi " and was conducted annually at Mu'a following the harvest season when all countries that were subject to the Tu'i Tonga must bring a gift for the gods, recognized as the Tu'i Tonga. Captain Cook witnessed an Inasi ceremony in 1777, in which he noticed a lot of foreigners in Tonga the darker people that resembles African descend from Fiji, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
The finest mats of Samoa are incorrectly translated as "Tongan mats. Many fine mats came into the possession of the Tongan royal families through chiefly marriages with Samoan noblewomen, such as Tohu'ia the mother of Tu'i Kanokupolu Ngata who came from Safata,'Upolu, Samoa; these mats, including the Maneafaingaa and Tasiaeafe, are considered the crown jewels of the current Tupou line. The success of the Empire was based upon the Imperial Navy; the most common vessels were long-distance double-canoes fitted with triangular sails. The largest canoes of the Tongan kalia type could carry up to 100 men; the most notable of these were the Tongafuesia, ʻĀkiheuho, the Lomipeau, the Takaʻipōmana. It should be mentioned that the Takaʻipōmana was a Samoan kalia; the large navy allowed for Tonga to become wealthy with large amounts of trade and tribute flowing into the Royal Treasury. The Tuʻi Tonga decline began due to internal pressure. In the 13th or 14th century Samoa defeated Tu'i Tonga Talakaifaiki under the lead of the Malietoa family.
In response the falefā was created as political advisors to the Empire. The falefā officials were successful in maintaining some hegemony over other subjected islands but increased dissatisfaction led to the assassination of several rulers in succession; the most notable were, Havea I, Havea II, Takalaua, who were all known for their tyrannical rule. In AD 1535, Takalaua was assassinated by two foreigners while swimming in the lagoon of Mu'a, his successor, Kauʻulufonua I pursued the killers all the way to ʻUvea, where he killed them. Because of so many assassination attempts on the Tu'i Tonga, Kauʻulufonua established a new dynasty called Tu'i Ha'atakalaua in honor of his father and he gave his brother Mo’ungamotu’a, the title of Tu’i Ha’a Takalaua; this new dynasty was to deal with the everyday decisions of the empire, while the position of Tu’i Tonga was to be the nation's spiritual leader, though he still controlled the final say in the life or death of his people. The Tu'i Tonga "empire" at this period becomes Samoan in orientation as the Tu'i Tonga kings themselves became ethnic Samoans who married Samoan women and resided in Samoa.
Kau'ulufonua's mother was a Samoan from Manu'a, Tu'i Tonga Kau'ulufonua II and Tu'i Tonga Puipuifatu had Samoan mothers and as they married Samoan women the succeeding Tu'i Tongas - Vakafuhu, Tapu'osi, and'Uluakimata - were more "Samoan" than "Tongan."In 1610, the 6th Tu’i Ha’a Takalaua, Mo'ungatonga, created the position of Tu’i Kanokupolu for his half-Samoan son, which divided regional rule between them, though as time went on the Tu’i Kanokupolu's power became more and more dominant over Tonga. The Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty oversaw the importation and institution of many Samoan policies and titles and according to Tongan scholars this Samoanized form of government and custom continues today in the modern Kingdom of Tonga Things continued this way for a long time afterward; the first Europeans arrived in 1616, when the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire spotted Tongans in a canoe off the coast of Niuatoputapu, the famous Abel Tasman followed soon after. These visits were brief and did not change the island much at all.
The dividing line between the two moieties was the old coastal road named Hala Fonua moa. S
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st