Regions of Ivory Coast
The regions of Ivory Coast are the second-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. There are 31 regions, each region is subdivided into two or more departments, the third-level division in Ivory Coast. Two to four regions are combined to make up the first-level subdivision; the two autonomous districts of Ivory Coast are not divided into regions. The first 16 regions were established in 1997. In 2000, four of the regions were divided to create three more regions, bringing the total to 19. Prior to the 2011 reorganisation of the subdivisions of Ivory Coast, the 19 regions were the first-level subdivision of the country. In the reorganisation, districts were created and replaced regions as the first-level subdivisions and the 19 regions were reorganized into 30. In 2012, one region was divided to create a 31st region; the executive of each region is headed by a prefect, appointed by the council of ministers of the national government. For departments that house regional capitals, the prefect of the department is the same individual as the prefect of the region, though the two offices of prefect remain distinct.
The legislative body of the region is the Regional Council, elected and headed by a President. The government of each region is responsible for designing and implementing programmes to improve the economic and cultural life of the region. Regions are responsible for coordinating and harmonising the activities of their departmental governments and for implementing public interest projects established by the district or the national government. Precise distinctions in the jurisdiction of regions as compared to districts has yet to be established; the governments of the non-autonomous districts have not yet begun to function. Apart from governors for the two autonomous districts, no district governor has yet been nominated. There are 31 regions of Ivory Coast. Two areas of the country, the autonomous districts of Abidjan and Yamoussoukro, are not divided into regions; the regions are as follows, with the date of creation in parentheses: The 14 districts and the 31 regions are listed below, with their regional seats and populations at the 2014 census.
Before a reorganization in 2011, the regions were the first-level subdivisions of Ivory Coast. The 19 regions that existed prior to the reorganisation were as follows, with their creation date in parentheses: As is the case now, regions were further divided into departments. From 1997 to 2011, departments were the second-level administrative subdivisions. ISO 3166-2:CI
United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire
The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire was a peacekeeping mission whose objective was "to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003". The two main Ivorian parties here are the Ivorian Government forces who control the south of the country, the New Forces, who control the north; the UNOCI mission aims to control a "zone of confidence" across the centre of the country separating the two parties. The Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary-General is Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane from Niger, she has succeeded Bert Koenders from the Netherlands in 2013 who himself succeeded Choi Young-jin from South Korea in 2011. The mission ended on 30 June 2017; the approved budget for the period July 2016 - June 2017 is $153,046,000. The last UN Security Council Resolution is 2284; the mission was authorized by Security Council Resolution 1528 on 27 February 2004 to take over from MINUCI from 4 April 2004. The mandate was subsequently extended several times, including 31 October 2008, 31 January 2010, 27 May 2010, 20 December 2010, most on 27 July 2011.
In February 2006, following an appeal by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, the United Nations Security Council agreed to strengthen the ONUCI forces by sending a battalion from United Nations Mission in Liberia with 800-soldiers to Ivory Coast. As of November 2006, the mission consisted of about 8,000 uniformed soldiers from a total of 41 countries, they have included, from 56th and 57th Battalions, East Bengal Regiment. They were deployed alongside 4,000 French soldiers of the Operation Licorne intervention. On 29 July 2008, the day before UNOCI's mandate was set to expire, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend its mandate to 31 January 2009 so that the peacekeepers could "support the organization of free, open and transparent elections". A presidential election is planned after numerous delays arising from postwar issues. In January 2006, supporters of President Laurent Gbagbo attacked the base of the United Nations peacekeepers after the Ivorian Popular Front withdrew from the Ivorian Civil War peace process.
About 1,000 protesters invaded the UN base at Guiglo. In the aftermath of the 2010 presidential election, incumbent president Gbagbo said UNOCI troops should leave the country. However, the UN refused to do so, upon which Gbagbo's aides said UN troops would be treated as "rebels" should they stay in the country, where they are protecting the internationally recognised though domestically disputed winner of the election. On 30 March United Nations Security Council Resolution 1975 was issued which, in particular, urged all Ivorian parties to respect the will of the people and the election of Alassane Ouattara as President of Ivory Coast, as recognised by the Economic Community of West African States, the African Union and the rest of the international community and reiterated that UNOCI could use "all necessary measures" in its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of attack. Heavy fighting broke out on 31 March 2011 as forces of Alassane Ouattara advanced on Abidjan from several directions.
The United Nations peacekeepers took control of Abidjan's airport when Gbagbo's forces abandoned it and United Nations forces were reported to be carrying out protective security operations in the city. The UN peacekeeping mission said its headquarters were fired on by Gbabgo's special forces on 31 March, returned fire in an exchange lasting about three hours. UN convoys have come under attack by Gbagbo loyalists four times since 31 March, with three peacekeepers injured in one of the attacks; the peacekeepers had exchanged fire with Gbagbo loyalists in several parts of the city. On 4 April 2011 UN and French helicopters began firing on pro-Gbagbo military installations, a French military spokesman said the attacks were aimed at heavy artillery and armoured vehicles. Eyewitnesses reported seeing two UN Mi-24P attack helicopters firing missiles at the Akouédo military camp in Abidjan. UN helicopters were flown by Ukrainian Ground Forces crews seconded to the United Nations; the attacks sparked protests by a Gbagbo spokesperson, who said that such actions were "illegal and unacceptable."
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon defended the actions, saying that "the mission has taken this action in self-defence and to protect civilians." He noted that Gbagbo’s forces had fired on United Nations patrols and attacked the organization’s headquarters in Abidjan “with heavy-caliber sniper fire as well as mortars and rocket-propelled grenades,” wounding four peacekeepers. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that Russia intends to look into the legitimacy of the use of force by UN peacekeepers; the position of the Russian government was that any foreign interference would only lead to increasing violence. On 9 April, pro-Gbagbo forces were reported to have fired on the Golf Hotel, where Ouattara was located; the attackers used both sniper rifles and mortars. The following day, United Nations and French forces carried out further air strikes against Gbagbo's remaining heavy weapons, using Mi-24 and Aérospatiale Gazelle attack helicopters; the attack was reported to have caused heavy damage to the presidential palace.
On 11 April, UN forces arrested him. The final assault was assisted by French forces using helicopters and armoured vehicles, although the actual capture was made by Ouattara's troops. Gbagbo, his wife and about 50 members of his entourage were captured unharmed and were taken to the Golf Hotel, Ouattar
Haut-Sassandra Region is one of the 31 regions of Ivory Coast and is one of two regions in Sassandra-Marahoué District. The region's seat is Daloa; the region's area is 17,761 km², its population in the 2014 census was 1,430,960, making it the most populous region of Ivory Coast. Haut-Sassandra is divided into four departments: Daloa, Issia and Zoukougbeu; the region is traversed by a northwesterly line of equal longitude. Haut-Sassandra Region was created in 1997 as a first-level administrative region of the country. In 2000, Gagnoa Department was split off from Haut-Sassandra and combined with Oumé Department from Marahoué Region to form Fromager Region; as part of the 2011 administrative reorganisation of the subdivisions of Ivory Coast, Haut-Sassandra was converted into a second-level administrative region and became part of the new first-level Sassandra-Marahoué District. No territorial changes were made to Haut-Sassandra as a result of the reorganisation
Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan, it borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south. Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé; the area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011.
In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is market-based and still relies on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant; the official language is French, with local indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims and various indigenous religions. Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies.
The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, Lower Guinea. There was a Pepper Coast known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory. Other names included the Côte de Dents "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory. One can find the name Cote de Dents used in older works, it was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire; the coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and, thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast.
It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated into other languages, which the post-independence government considered troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, since officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings. Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" is still used in English by various media outlets and publications; the first human presence in Ivory Coast has been difficult to determine because human remains have not been well preserved in the country's humid climate. However, newly found weapon and tool fragments have been interpreted as a possible indication of a large human presence during the Upper Paleolithic period, or at the minimum, the Neolithic period.
The earliest known inhabitants of Ivory Coast have left traces scattered throughout the territory. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present indigenous inhabitants, who migrated south into the area before the 16th century; such groups included the Kotrowou, Zéhiri, Ega and Diès. The first recorded history appears in the chronicles of North African traders, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves and other goods; the southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centres around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Districts of Ivory Coast
The districts of Ivory Coast are the first-level administrative subdivisions of the country. The districts were created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities. There are 14 districts, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan; the remaining 12 districts are further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions, the departments. Departments are subdivided into 510 sub-prefectures; the lowest level of administrative organisation, which exist in limited numbers, is the commune. Although they are not divided into regions, the autonomous regions do contain departments, sub-prefectures, communes; each district is meant to be headed by a governor, appointed by the council of ministers of the national government. However, apart from governors for the two autonomous districts, no district governor has yet been nominated.
Districts have been given four primary responsibilities: to administer major development projects in the district. Precise distinctions in the jurisdiction of districts as compared to regions has yet to be established; because of the lack of district governors, the governments of the non-autonomous districts have not yet begun to function. The following is the list of districts, district capitals and each district's regions: Prior to September 2011, Ivory Coast's first-level administrative subdivisions were 19 regions. In 2011, the regions were reorganized into the 14 districts; the following is a summary of how the districts were constructed from the former regions: The largest city and the political capital and their surrounding areas were split to form autonomous districts. Abidjan was part of Lagunes Region and Yamoussoukro was part of Lacs Region. Of the 19 regions, the northern regions of Denguélé, Vallée du Bandama, Zanzan were re-designated as districts with no change in territory; the old Agnéby region and what remained of Lagunes Region were merged to form the new Lagunes District.
The old Bafing and Worodougou Regions were merged to form the new Woroba District. The Department of Fresco was transferred from the former Sud-Bandama Region to the Bas-Sassandra Region to form the new Bas-Sassandra District, while the remainder of Sud-Bandama Region merged with Fromager Region to form the new Gôh-Djiboua District; the old Dix-Huit Montagnes and Moyen-Cavally Regions merged to form the new Montagnes District. The old Haut-Sassandra and Marahoué Regions merged to form the new Sassandra-Marahoué District; the old N'Zi-Comoé Region and what remained of Lacs Region were merged to form the new Lacs District. The old Moyen-Comoé and Sud-Comoé Regions were merged to form the new Comoé District. ISO 3166-2:CI Districts of the Ivory Coast Carte du nouveau découpage administratif de la Côte-d'Ivoire
An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni