Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Théodore André Monod was a French naturalist and humanist scholar. Early in his career, Monod was made professor at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle and founded the Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire in Senegal, he became a member of the Académie des sciences d'outre-mer in 1949, member of the Académie de marine in 1957 and member of the Académie des sciences in 1963. In 1960 he was one of the founders of the World Academy of Science, he began his career in Africa with the study of monk seals on Mauritania's Cap Blanc peninsula. However, he soon turned his attention to the Sahara desert, which he would survey for more than sixty years in search of meteorites. Though he failed to find the meteorite he sought, he discovered numerous plant species as well as several important Neolithic sites, his most important find was the Asselar man, a 6,000-year-old skeleton of the Adrar des Ifoghas that many scholars believe to be the first remains of a distinctly black person. In the early 1960s he discovered the caravan wreck site at Ma'adin Ijafen.
Monod, the son of Wilfred Monod, attended the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen. His father was a pastor of l'Oratoire du Louvre, which Theodore attended, he subsequently became the founding president of the Francophone Unitarian Association, the first Unitarian religious organization established in France and sponsored a spin-off of the AUF known as the Fraternal Assembly of Christian Unitarians. Monod was politically active, taking part in pacifist and antinuclear protests until only some months before his death, he wrote several books that adumbrated the emerging environmentalist movement. He described himself as a Christian anarchist. Monod was the great-grandson of Frédéric Monod, he shared a common ancestor with biologist Jacques Monod, the musician Jacques-Louis Monod, the politician Jérôme Monod and director Jean-Luc Godard. The scientific bibliography of Théodore Monod includes more than 700 works on topics from his thesis subject, the Gnathiidae, to the subject that he held close to his heart until his death: the Scaridae, which he published on in 1994 in collaboration with Canadian research scientist Andrea Bullock.
Works released by Actes Sud: Méharées, rééd. 1989. L'Émeraude des rééd. 1992. L'Hippopotame et le philosophe, rééd. 1993. Désert lybique, éditions Arthaud, 1994. Majâbat Al-Koubrâ, Actes Sud, 1996. Maxence au désert, Actes Sud, Arles, 1995. Tais-toi et marche... exploration journal from El Ghallaouya-Aratane-Chinguetti, Actes Sud, 2002. 1960 Patrons's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society for his work in the Sahara. This article began as a translation of the corresponding article at the French Wikipedia, accessed 17 December 2005. Obituary at monachus-guardian.org webAfriqa — Théodore Monod, fondateur-directeur de l'IFAN Théodore Monod "Un exceptionel naturtaliste eclectique", Autres Temps, 2001, vol. 70 issue 70, pp. 25–38
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match
Clichy-sous-Bois (French pronunciation: . The vast majority of its population is made up of African heritage, the BBC described it as one of France's "most notorious" immigrant banlieues, it is in this city. Clichy-sous-Bois is not served by any motorway, major road, or railway and therefore remains one of the most isolated of the inner suburbs of Paris; the commune has an area of 3.95 km2 with 1.1 km2 of woods. The woods are remnants of the Bondy wood; the commune is 15 kilometres from central Paris. The name of Clichy-sous-Bois comes from Roman Cleppius, seventh century Clippiacum superius, twelfth century Clichiacum. Flint tools from the Neolithic have been found here. Clichy en Aulnois belonged to the lords of Livry in the early Middle Ages. Subject to the Knights Templar in the 13th century, Clichy subsequently passed into possession of the Knights Hospitaller order; until the 16th century, it was a hunting resort of the French kings. In the 18th century, it belonged to the Duc d'Orléans. In 1820, the village had about 150 inhabitants.
On 20 May 1869, a part of the territory of Clichy-sous-Bois was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Livry-Gargan and a small part of the territory of Gagny to create the commune of Le Raincy. In 1870, Clichy was affected by the Franco-Prussian war. Clichy-sous-Bois has a high unemployment rate compared to the rest of the country, about 20% and 40% of the people under 25 years old; the suburban riots of October 2005 originated in Clichy-sous-Bois after the death of two young boys, escaping a police control. The riots spread to other communes of the department, to every major urban area in France; as of 2015 the youth unemployment rate was 40%. As of 2009 33% of the commune's residents were foreign nationals, higher than both the departmental average and the French national average. Clichy-sous-Bois is not served directly by any station of the Paris Métro, RER, or suburban rail network; the closest station to Clichy-sous-Bois is Le Raincy – Villemomble – Montfermeil station on Paris RER line E.
This station is located in the neighboring commune of Le Raincy, 3.2 km from the town center of Clichy-sous-Bois. There is a T4 Tramway stop at Gargan, 1.1 km from the town centre. The tramway terminates at the Bondy station for RER-E2, only 3 stops to Paris Gare du Nord The only direct transport in and out of Clichy-sous-bois is by bus. Due to the lack of a rail link, it was claimed the time on public transport to the city centre can be 1.5 hours but this predates the tramway opened November 2006. A branch of the T4 Tramway under construction and scheduled to open in 2017, will pass through the heart of Clichy-sous-Bois; as of 2007 the unemployment rate was around 20%. It was close to 50% in the housing estates defined by The Economist as "the worst." As of 2007 there is no police station in Clichy. As of 2007 there was a plan to establish one in 2010. By 2015 a police station had been established. In 2007 the voting turnout for the presidential election in Clichy was 82%; the voter registration had increased by less than 20%.
There are twelve preschool sites, eleven elementary school sites. As of 2016 there are about 2,500 students in Clichy's four secondary schools; the following junior high schools are in the commune: Collège Romain-Rolland Collège Louise-Michel Collège Robert-Doisneau The construction of this junior high relieved Louise-Michel, which saw its student population decline from about 1,200 in 2004 to over 500 in 2012. The sole senior high school/sixth form college in Clichy is Lycée Alfred-Nobel; as of 2007 the lycée has 1,100 students. It has an agreement with the Institut d'études politiques de Paris which allows applicants from the school to gain entrance to the university without taking the entrance examination; as of 2007 three students from the lycée had been admitted. Roberto Alagna, tenor Mamadou Samassa, footballer Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department INSEE Official website 48°54′35″N 2°32′53″E aerial photos pictures of clichy sous bois
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
The RER E is one of the five lines in the RER system serving Paris, France. The line runs from the western terminus Haussmann - Saint-Lazare to the eastern termini Chelles - Gournay and Tournan, it is operated by SNCF. RER E is the newest line in the system: the line opened in 1999 and the last expansion was in 2003; the line's construction leaves Gare Montparnasse as the only mainline terminus in Paris not directly connected to the RER system, with the Montparnasse main line being connected to the RER at Versailles-Chantiers and the LGV Atlantique at Massy Palaiseau. RER E opened on 14 July 1999 between Haussmann - Chelles - Gournay; the construction included a 2 km tunnel between Haussmann -- Magenta. The line was first extended with a new branch from Noisy-le-Sec to Villiers-sur-Marne on 30 August 1999; this branch was extended to Tournan on 14 December 2003. On 13 December 2015, Rosa Parks station opened in the 19th arrondissement of Paris. RER E is to be extended from Haussmann - Saint-Lazare to La Défense, from where it will take over the branch of RER A to Nanterre and Poissy.
It would take over a section of SNCF tracks to reach Mantes-la-Jolie. Partial revenue service is expected to begin in 2018, full service in 2020. An eight kilometre tunnel will be dug between Haussmann -- La Défense. An intermediate station at Porte Maillot will offer a transfer to RER C; the extension is expected to reduce the load on central sections of RER B and RER A by 10-15%. Additionally, transfers will be shifted away from current transfer hub Châtelet. Like all the other RER lines, each train is named after the route; the first letter designates the destination, the second indicates whether the train will call at every station or not. T corresponds to Tournan. Regular names of services of trains departing from Paris are, among others, TAVA, VOHE, COHI. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER RATP's English-language website RATP's interactive map of the RER RATP's interactive map of the Paris métro RATP official website Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
Livry-Gargan is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15.6 km from the center of Paris. Livry-Gargan is twinned with the communities of: Almuñécar, Spain Cerveteri, Italy Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany Haringey, United Kingdom On 20 May 1869, a part of the territory of Livry-Gargan was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Clichy-sous-Bois and a small part of the territory of Gagny to create the commune of Le Raincy. Livry-Gargan is not served by any station of RER, or suburban rail network; the closest station to Livry-Gargan is Sevran – Livry station on Paris RER line B. This station is located in the neighboring commune of Sevran, 1.9 km from the town center of Livry-Gargan. Schools include: 9 preschools 9 elementary schools Junior high schools: LÉON-JOUHAUX, SEGPA du collège, ÉDOUARD-HERRIOT, LUCIE-AUBRAC Senior high schools: Lycée André Boulloche, Lycée Henri Sellier Gregory Arnolin, footballer Karim Cheurfi, perpetrator of the 2017 shooting of Paris police officers Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department INSEE Official website