The Chaulukya dynasty known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada. At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh; the medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, they are known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature. Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty around 940 CE, his successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE; the Chaulukyas soon recovered, the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period.
After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was weakened by internal rebellions. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s. Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas; the dynasty used the self-designation "Chaulukya" in all but four of its records. The four exceptions are: "Chaulukika" in the Kadi grant of Mularaja "Saulkika" in a grant of Chamundaraja "Chaulakya" in the Sambhar inscription of Jayasimha "Chaullakya" in the Jalor inscription of KumarapalaHemachandra, a Jain scholar in the Chaulukya court used the terms "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya", his Dvyasraya Mahakavya mentions the variants "Chulakya", "Chalukka", "Chulukka". The Chaulukya court poet Someshvara describes the dynasty as "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya"."Solanki" or "Solankhi" is a vernacular form of the term. The word "Chaulukya" is thought to be a variant of the word "Chalukya". Several other dynasties were known by the name "Chalukya", including the Chalukyas of Vatapi, Vemulavada, Kalyani and Lata.
These dynasties are sometimes thought to be branches of the same family, but the relationship between all of them is not certain. Unlike the Chalukyas of Kalyani and Vengi, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat never claimed a shared descent or any other association with the earliest Chalukya dynasty — the Chalukyas of Vatapi. Moreover, they never used the term "Chalukya" to describe themselves. However, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat shared a myth of origin with the Chalukyas of Vengi. According to this legend, the progenitor of the dynasty was created by Brahma; the version of the legend mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti inscription of Kumarapala is as follows: the deities once asked the creator god Brahma to protect them from the danavas. Brahma created a hero from his chuluka, filled with Ganges water; this hero was named "Chulukya", became the progenitor of the dynasty. A variation of this legend is mentioned by Abhayatilaka Gani in his commentary on Hemachandra's Dvyashraya-Kavya. According to this version, Brahma produced the hero to support the earth, after his other creations disappointed him.
These stories are of no historical value, as it was customary for contemporary royal houses to claim mythical and heroic origins. The Kumarapala-Bhupala-Charita of Jayasimha Suri presents Chulukya as a historical warrior, whose capital was Madhupadma. Mularaja was his descendant, with nearly a hundred generations separating the two; this account may be historical: Madhupadma has been identified variously as a location outside Gujarat, including present-day Mathura. C. V. Vaidya theorized. G. H. Ojha opposed this theory, pointing out that an inscription of the Lata Chalukya ruler Kirtiraja describes his family as "Chalukya", while an inscription of his grandson Trilochanapala describes the family as "Chaulukya". According to Asoke Majumdar, while these similar-sounding names suggest a common origin for all these dynasties, there is no concrete evidence to draw any definitive conclusion. Majumdar theorized that the Chaulukyas were connected to the Sulikas or the Chulikas, a tribe mentioned in several ancient records.
This tribe is described as living on the northern frontier of ancient India. However, Majumdar admitted. In the period, the Chaulukyas were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. According to the Agnikula myth mentioned in a 16th-century recension of the legendary text Prithviraj Raso, four Rajput clans including the Chaulukyas were born from a fire-pit on Mount Abu. A section of colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest that these clans were foreigners who came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. In addition, the Chaulukya rulers have been called "Gurjararāja" and "Gurjareśvara". Based on this legend, D. R. Bhandarkar and others theorized that the Chaulukyas were a branch of Gurjaras, whom they believed to be a tribe of foreign origin. Bhandarkar and Augustus Hoernle believed that the name of the "Lata" region changed to "Gurjaratra" during the Chaulukya reign because they were Gurjaras.
Lathi is a town with municipality in Amreli district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Famously known by Bhagvanji Jagjivan sharma after Kavi kalapi. Lathi is located at 21.72°N 71.38°E / 21.72. It has an average elevation of 141 metres. Popular Shree Bhurakhiya Hanumanji Mandir is located 10 km easterly to Lathi, in Bhurakhiya, Gujarat 365220; as of 2001 India census, Lathi had a population of 20,964. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Lathi has an average literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, female literacy is 55%. In Lathi, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age; the rulers belonged to the Guhilot/Gahlot dynasty. The ancestor of the family was founding Thakore saheb of Sejakpur, his fourth son, Thakore Saheb Sarangji, founded the predecessor state of Arthila and his descendants ruled there for four generations till Mandalika III of Junagadh conquered and sacked Arthila and slew Thakore Saheb Dudoji, the ruling chieftain.
The Gohils of Arthila withdrew to Lathi which they held till the merger of the State in 1948. Lathi ranks as a Fourth Class state in Kathiawar; the Chief maintains a military force of 25 infantry and 10 guns. There is stirring tale of Hamirji Gohil, The 16 year old newly married chieftain of Lathi, Who sacrificed his life in 1299 defending the Somnath temple from the attack of Alauddin Khalji. Hamirji gohil's cenotaph still stands at the entrance to the fabled somnath temple. Hamirji had said, "Bhale koi aave na aave maari saathe, pan hoon jais Somnath ni sakhate". Thakore Saheb DUDOJI BHIMAJI, 5th Thakore Saheb of Arthila and 1st Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb LIMSHAJI DUDOJI, 2nd Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb KANOJI LIMSHAJI, 3rd Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb RAMSINHJI KANOJI, 4th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb BHOJRAJJI RAMSINHJI, 5th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb LAKHAJI I BHORAJJI, 6th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb VISAJI LAKHAJI, 7th Thakore Saheb of Lathi.
Thakore Saheb HAMIRJI II VISAJI, 8th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb ARJANJI HAMIRJI, 9th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb LAKHAJI II ARJANJI, 10th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb SANGHJI I LAKHAJI, 11th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb BHOJRAJJI II SANGHJI, 12th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb SURSINHJI I BHJOJRAJJI, 13th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri JIJIBAWA SURSINHJI, 14th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri BHOJRAJJI III JIJIBAWA, 15th Thakore Saheb of Lathi Thakore Saheb Shri LAKHAJI III JIJIBAWA, 16th Thakore Saheb of Lathi 1750/-. Thakore Saheb Shri SURSINHJI II LAKHAJJI, 17th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri LUNSHAHJI SURSINHJI, 18th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri JIJIBAWA II LUNSHAHJI, 19th Thakore Saheb Shri of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri LAKHAJI IV JIJIBAWA, 20th Thakore Saheb of Lathi. Thakore Saheb Shri AMARSINHJI LAKHAJI, 21st Thakore Saheb Shri of Lathi Thakore Saheb Shri TAKHATSINHJI LAKHAJI, 22nd Thakore Saheb of Lathi -/1878.
Thakore Saheb Shri SURSINHJI III TAKHTSINHJI, 23rd Thakore Saheb of Lathi 1878/1900. Thakore Saheb Shri PRATAPSINHJI SURSINHJI, Thakore Saheb of Lathi 1900/1918. Thakore Saheb Shri PRAHLADSINHJI PRATAPSINHJI, Thakore Saheb of Lathi 1918/- to Independence of India, where monarchy was abolished. Bhagvanji Jagjivan Sharma Air Marshal JanakKumarsinhji Gohil of Lathi IGP Pravinsinhji Gohil of Lathi Late Thakursaheb of Lathi Bhupendrasinhji Gohil Late Dr. Keshavsinhji Harisinhji Gohil Founder of Shree Kalapi Memorial Foundation Trust. Dr. Lavkumarsinhji Keshavsinhji Gohil President of Shree Kalapi Memorial Foundation Trust who have conducted more than 356 Free Medical Health camp at free of cost
Dungarpur State was a princely state during the British Raj. Its capital was the city of Dungarpur in the southernmost area of present-day Rajasthan State in India. In 1901 the total population of Dungarpur State was 100,103, while that of the town was 6094 Dungarpur is the seat of elder branch of Sisodiyas of Udaipur, while the younger branch is the seat of the Maharana of Mewar. Dungarpur State was founded in 1197 by Samant Singh, the eldest son of the ruler of Mewar, Karan Singh, they are descendants of Bappa Rawal, eighth ruler of the Guhilot Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty. The chiefs of Dungarpur, who bear the title of Maharawal, are descended from Mahup, eldest son of Karan Singh, chief of Mewar in the 12th century, claim the honours of the elder line of Mewar. Mahup, disinherited by his father, took refuge with his mother's family, the Chauhans of Bagar, made himself master of that country at the expense of the Bhil chiefs. While his younger brother Rahup founded a separate Sisodia dynastyThe town of Dungarpur, the capital of the state, was founded towards the end of the 14th century by his descendant Rawal Bir Singh, who named it after Dungaria, an independent Bhil chieftain whom he had caused to be assassinated.
After the death of Rawal Udai Singh of Bagar at the Battle of Khanwa in 1527, where he fought alongside Rana Sanga against Babar, his territories were divided into the states of Dungarpur and Banswara. Successively under Mughal and British Raj control by treaty in 1818, where it remained 15-gun salute state The Maharawals belonged to the Guhil dynasty, Ahra Guhilot clan 1497 – 1527: Udai Singh 1527 – 1549: Prithviraj 1549 – 1580: Askaran 1580 – 1606: Sesmal 1606 – 1609: Karam Singh II 1609 – 1657: Punja Raj 1657 – 1661: Girdhar Das 1661 – 1691: Jaswant Singh 1691 – 1702: Khuman Singh 1702 – 1730: Ram Singh 1730 – 1785: Shiv Singh 1785 – 1790: Vairisal 1790 – 1808: Fateh Singh 1808 – 1844: Jaswant Singh II 1844 – 1898: Udai Singh II 13 Feb 1898 – 15 Nov 1918: Bijay Singh 15 Nov 1918 – 15 Aug 1947: Lakshman Singh The last princely ruler of Dungarpur was HH Rai-i-Rayan Maharawal Shri Lakshman Singh Bahadur, awarded KCSI and GCIE, after independence became a Member of the Rajya Sabha twice, in 1952 and 1958, a member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly in 1962 and 1989.
List of Rajput dynasties and states Mewar Residency Dungarpur district Media related to Dungarpur State at Wikimedia Commons
Rajput is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted; the term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is anachronistically used to describe the earlier lineages that emerged in northern India from 6th century onwards. In the 11th century, the term "rajaputra" appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials; the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the membership of this class became hereditary, although new claims to Rajput status continued to be made in the centuries. Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.
The Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found in north, west and east India. These areas include Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. In Pakistan they are found on the eastern parts of the country, Punjab and Dera Ismail Khan in K. P.. The origin of the Rajputs has been a much-debated topic among the historians. Colonial-era writers characterised them as descendants of the foreign invaders such as the Scythians or the Hunas, believed that the Agnikula myth was invented to conceal their foreign origin. According to this theory, the Rajputs originated when these invaders were assimilated into the Kshatriya category during the 6th or 7th century, following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. While many of these colonial writers propagated this foreign-origin theory in order to legitimise the colonial rule, the theory was supported by some Indian scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar; the Indian nationalist historians, such as C. V. Vaidya, believed the Rajputs to be descendants of the ancient Vedic Aryan Kshatriyas.
A third group of historians, which includes Jai Narayan Asopa, theorized that the Rajputs were Brahmins who became rulers. However, recent research suggests that the Rajputs came from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds; the root word "rajaputra" first appears as a designation for royal officials in the 11th century Sanskrit inscriptions. According to some scholars, it was reserved for the immediate relatives of a king. Over time, the derivative term "Rajput" came to denote a hereditary political status, not very high: the term could denote a wide range of rank-holders, from an actual son of a king to the lowest-ranked landholder. Before the 15th century, the term "Rajput" was associated with people of mixed-caste origin, was therefore considered inferior in rank to "Kshatriya"; the term Rajput came to denote a social class, formed when the various tribal and nomadic groups became landed aristocrats, transformed into the ruling class. These groups ranks; the early medieval literature suggests that this newly formed Rajput class comprised people from multiple castes.
Thus, the Rajput identity is not the result of a shared ancestry. Rather, it emerged when different social groups of medieval India sought to legitimize their newly acquired political power by claiming Kshatriya status; these groups started identifying as Rajput in different ways. Scholarly opinions differ on when the term Rajput acquired hereditary connotations and came to denote a clan-based community. Historian Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, based on his analysis of inscriptions, believed that by the 12th century, the term "rajaputra" was associated with fortified settlements, kin-based landholding, other features that became indicative of the Rajput status. According to Chattopadhyaya, the title acquired "an element of heredity" from c. 1300. A study by of 11th-14th century inscriptions from western and central India, by Michael B. Bednar, concludes that the designations such as "rajaputra", "thakkura" and "rauta" were not hereditary during this period. During its formative stages, the Rajput class was quite assimilative and absorbed people from a wide range of lineages.
However, by the late 16th century, it had become genealogically rigid, based on the ideas of blood purity. The membership of the Rajput class was now inherited rather than acquired through military achievements. A major factor behind this development was the consolidation of the Mughal Empire, whose rulers had great interest in genealogy; as the various Rajput chiefs became Mughal feduatories, they no longer engaged in major conflicts with each other. This decreased the possibility of achieving prestige through military action, made hereditary prestige more important; the word "Rajput" thus acquired its present-day meaning in the 16th century. During 16th and 17th centuries, the Rajput rulers and their bards sought to legitimize the Rajput socio-political status on the basis of descent and kinship, they fabricated genealogies linking the Rajput families to the ancient dynasties, associated them with myths of origins that established their Kshatriya status. This led to the emergence of what Indologist Dirk Kolff calls the "Rajput Great Tradition", which accepted only hereditary claims to the Rajput identity, fostered a notion of eliteness and exclusivity.
The legendary epic poem Prithvira
The Jat people are a traditionally agricultural community native to the Indian subcontinent, comprising what is today Northern India and Pakistan. Pastoralists in the lower Indus river-valley of Sindh, Jats migrated north into the Punjab region, Delhi and the western Gangetic Plain in late medieval times. Of Hindu and Sikh faiths, they now live in the Indian states of Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh. Traditionally involved in peasantry, the Jat community saw radical social changes in the 17th century, when the Hindu Jats took up arms against the Mughal Empire during the late 17th and early 18th century; the Hindu Jat kingdom reached its zenith under Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur. The Jat community of the Punjab region played an important role in the development of the martial Khalsa Panth of Sikhism. By the 20th century, the landowning Jats became an influential group in several parts of North India, including Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and Delhi.
Over the years, several Jats abandoned agriculture in favour of urban jobs, used their dominant economic and political status to claim higher social status. Jats are classified as Other Backward Class in seven of India's thirty-six States and UTs, namely Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. However, only the Jats of Rajasthan – excluding those of Bharatpur district and Dholpur district – are entitled to reservation of central government jobs under the OBC reservation. In 2016, the Jats of Haryana organized massive protests demanding to be classified as OBC in order to obtain such affirmative action benefits; the Jats are a paradigmatic example of community- and identity-formation in early modern Indian subcontinent. "Jat" is an elastic label applied to a wide-ranging, traditionally non-elite, community which had its origins in pastoralism in the lower Indus valley of Sindh. At the time of Muhammad bin Qasim's conquest of Sind in the 8th century, Arab writers described agglomerations of Jats in the arid, the wet, the mountainous regions of the conquered land.
The Islamic rulers, though professing a theologically egalitarian religion, did not alter either the non-elite status of Jats or the discriminatory practices against them, put in place in the long period of Hindu rule in Sind. Between the eleventh and the sixteenth centuries, Jat herders migrated up along the river valleys, into the Punjab, which had not been cultivated in the first millennium. Many took up tilling in regions such as Western Punjab, where the sakia had been introduced. By early Mughal times, in the Punjab, the term "Jat" had become loosely synonymous with "peasant", some Jats had come to own land and exert local influence. According to historians Catherine Asher and Cynthia Talbot, The Jats provide an important insight into how religious identities evolved during the precolonial era. Before they settled in the Punjab and other northern regions, the pastoralist Jats had little exposure to any of the mainstream religions. Only after they became more integrated into the agrarian world did the Jats adopt the dominant religion of the people in whose midst they dwelt.
Over time the Jats became Muslim in the western Punjab, Sikh in the eastern Punjab, Hindu in the areas between Delhi Territory and Agra, with the divisions by faith reflecting the geographical strengths of these religions. During the decline of Mughal rule in the early 18th century, the Indian subcontinent's hinterland dwellers, many of whom were armed and nomadic interacted with settled townspeople and agriculturists. Many new rulers of the 18th century came from such nomadic backgrounds; the effect of this interaction on India's social organization lasted well into the colonial period. During much of this time, non-elite tillers and pastoralists, such as the Jats or Ahirs, were part of a social spectrum that blended only indistinctly into the elite landowning classes at one end, the menial or ritually polluting classes at the other. During the heyday of Mughal rule, Jats had recognized rights. According to Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf: Upstart warriors, Marathas and the like, as coherent social groups with military and governing ideals, were themselves a product of the Mughal context, which recognized them and provided them with military and governing experience.
Their successes were a part of the Mughal success. As the Mughal empire now faltered, there were a series of rural rebellions in North India. Although these had sometimes been characterized as "peasant rebellions", such as Muzaffar Alam, have pointed out that small local landholders, or zemindars led these uprisings; the Sikh and Jat rebellions were led by such small local zemindars, who had close association and family connections with each other and with the peasants under them, who were armed. These communities of rising peasant-warriors were not well-established Indian castes, but rather quite new, without fixed status categories, with the ability to absorb older peasant castes, sundry warlords, nomadic groups on the fringes of settled agriculture; the Mughal Empire at the zenith of its power, functioned by devolving authority and never had direct control over its rural grandees. It was these zemindars who gained most from these rebellions, increasing the land under their control; the triumphant attained the ranks of minor princes, such as the Jat ruler Badan Singh of the princely state of Bharatpur.
The non-Sikh Jats came to predominate south and east of Delhi after 17
Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state; the economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹157,000. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.
There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.
The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University, it was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the Silk Road. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched
The State of Shahpura or Princely State of Shahpura was a princely state in Shahpura, Bhilwara during the era of British India. Its relations with the British were managed by the Rajputana Agency; the last ruler of Shahpura signed the accession to join the Indian Union in 1949. The Haraoti-Tonk Agency, with headquarters at Deoli, dealt with the states of Tonk and Bundi, as well as with the estate of Shahpura. In 1631 the Phulia estate jagir was renamed Shahpura; the State of Shahpura was founded in 1706. Its rulers bore the title of Maharaja; the Maharaja of Shahpura was entitled to a 9 gun salute. 1706 – 27 Dec 1729 Bharat Singh 27 Dec 1729 – 13 Jan 1769 Umaid Singh I 14 Jan 1769 – 29 May 1774 Ram Singh 29 May 1774 – 19 May 1796 Bhim Singh 19 May 1796 – 7 Jul 1827 Amar Singh 19 May 1796 – c. 1802.... -Regent 7 Jul 1827 – 5 Jun 1845 Madho Singh 5 Jun 1845 – 23 Jun 1853 Jagat Singh 5 Jun 1845 – 18.. Rani Khangarotji -Regent 15 Jul 1853 – 2 Dec 1869 Lakshman Singh 23 Jun 1853 – 21 Apr 1870 Rani Mertaniji -Regent 21 Apr 1870 – 24 Jun 1932 Sir Nahar Singh 21 Apr 1870 – 3 Mar 1876 Rani Mertaniji -Regent 24 Jun 1932 – 3 Feb 1947 Umaid Singh II 3 Feb 1947 – 15 Aug 1947 Sudharshandev Singh Rajputana Agency Media related to Shahpura State at Wikimedia Commons