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Gaia philosophy

Gaia philosophy is a broadly inclusive term for related concepts that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life. This set of theories holds that all organisms on a life-giving planet regulate the biosphere in such a way as to promote its habitability. Gaia concept draws a connection between the survivability of a species and its usefulness to the survival of other species. While there were a number of precursors to Gaia theory, the first scientific form of this idea was proposed as the Gaia hypothesis by James Lovelock, a UK chemist, in 1970; the Gaia hypothesis deals with the concept of biological homeostasis, claims the resident life forms of a host planet coupled with their environment have acted and act like a single, self-regulating system. This system includes the near-surface rocks, the soil, the atmosphere. Today many scientists consider such ideas to be unsupported by, or at odds with, the available evidence.

These theories are however significant in green politics. There are some mystical and religious predecessors to the Gaia philosophy, which had a Gaia-like conceptual basis. Many religious mythologies had a view of Earth as being a whole, greater than the sum of its parts. Lewis Thomas believed. Isaac Newton wrote of the earth, "Thus this Earth resembles a great animall or rather inanimate vegetable, draws in æthereall breath for its dayly refreshment & vitall ferment & transpires again with gross exhalations, And according to the condition of all other things living ought to have its times of beginning youth old age & perishing."Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a paleontologist and geologist, believed that evolution unfolded from cell to organism to planet to solar system and the whole universe, as we humans see it from our limited perspective. Teilhard influenced Thomas Berry and many Catholic humanist thinkers of the 20th century. Buckminster Fuller is credited with making the idea respectable in Western scientific circles in the 20th century.

Building to some degree on his observations and artifacts, e.g. the Dymaxion map of the Earth he created, others began to ask if there was a way to make the Gaia theory scientifically sound. Oberon Zell-Ravenheart in 1970 in an article in Green Egg Magazine, independently articulated the Gaia Thesis. Many believe; as the above claims are not testable, they are outside the bounds of current science. This does not mean; as one can postulate tests that could be applied, given enough time and space these ideas should be seen as scientific hypotheses. These are conjectures and can only be considered as social and maybe political philosophy. According to James Kirchner there is a spectrum of Gaia hypotheses, ranging from the undeniable to radical. At one end is the undeniable statement that the organisms on the Earth have radically altered its composition. A stronger position is that the Earth's biosphere acts as if it is a self-organizing system which works in such a way as to keep its systems in some kind of equilibrium, conducive to life.

Today many scientists consider. An stronger claim is that all lifeforms are part of a single planetary being, called Gaia. In this view, the atmosphere, the seas, the terrestrial crust would be the result of interventions carried out by Gaia, through the coevolving diversity of living organisms; the most extreme form of Gaia theory is that the entire Earth is a single unified organism with a intelligent mind that arose as an emergent property of the whole biosphere. In this view, the Earth's biosphere is consciously manipulating the climate in order to make conditions more conducive to life. Scientists contend that there is no evidence at all to support this last point of view, it has come about because many people do not understand the concept of homeostasis. Many non-scientists instinctively and incorrectly see homeostasis as a process that requires conscious controlThe more speculative versions of Gaia, including versions in which it is believed that the Earth is conscious and intelligent, are considered outside the bounds of what is considered science.

Buckminster Fuller has been credited as the first to incorporate scientific ideas into a Gaia theory, which he did with his Dymaxion map of the Earth. The first scientifically rigorous theory was the Gaia hypothesis by a UK chemist. A variant of this hypothesis was developed by Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist, in 1979, her version is sometimes called the "Gaia Theory". Her model is more limited in scope than the one. Whether this sort of system is present on Earth is still open to debate; some simple homeostatic mechanisms are accepted. For example, when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rise, plants are able to grow better and thus remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Other biological effects and feedbacks exist, but the extent to which these mechanisms have stabilized and modified the Earth's overall climate is not known; the Gaia hypothesis is sometimes viewed from sig

Kiso Valley

The Kiso Valley is a geographical area that centers on the valley of the upper portions of the Kiso River in the southwestern part of Nagano Prefecture in Japan. It is a v-shaped valley with length of 60 km that follows the river as it flows from north by northwest to south by southwest into Gifu Prefecture. Through much of Japan's history, the Kiso Valley was used to connect the former Mino and Shinano provinces. However, it came to be known as a difficult route because of its steep climbs; the Shoku Nihongi recorded that the Kiso no Yamamichi was opened in 702. The same route was again mentioned in a 713 article, but it was called the Kisoji no Michi; the Kisoji would follow the same path. However the official Tōsandō did not run through the Kiso Valley. During Japan's Middle Ages, the Nakasendō, an old trade route, ran through the valley, which led to the creation of eleven post stations along the route. Since the Meiji period, the Chūō Main Line and Route 19 have been cutting through the valley.

The following communities are part of the Kiso Valley: Nagano PrefectureKiso District Ōtaki, Nagano Shiojiri Matsumoto Gifu PrefectureNakatsugawa, including Magome-juku, another former post town

Colin Bucksey

Colin Bucksey is a British-born American film and television director. Since the 1970s, Bucksey has accumulated a number of credits in British TV, directing episodes of Crown Court, Armchair Thriller, Educating Marmalade and Bergerac, he moved into American TV, directing episodes of Miami Vice, Crime Story, Midnight Caller, Sliders, Nash Bridges, Lexx, NCIS: Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Numb3rs, Breaking Bad, The 4400, Burn Notice, Better Call Saul and others. More he directed Fargo episodes "The Six Ungraspables" and "Buridan's Ass," the latter episode which earned him a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie, or a Dramatic Special. Bucksey directed the film Dealers, starring Paul McGann and Rebecca De Mornay. Bucksey married Verity Lambert in 1973, they divorced in 1987. He is now married to Sally Bucksey, they have been married for 26 years, have two children: Alfred and Theodore. 1992 – Notorious Colin Bucksey on IMDb

Maquon Township, Knox County, Illinois

Maquon Township is one of twenty-one townships in Knox County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 556 and it contained 269 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 36.09 square miles, of which 35.87 square miles is land and 0.22 square miles is water. Maquon Rapatee at 40.715039°N 90.158176°W / 40.715039. Farmington Central Community Unit School District 265 Knoxville Community Unit School District 202 Spoon River Valley Community Unit School District 4 Illinois's 18th congressional district State House District 74 State Senate District 37 "Maquon Township, Knox County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-02-25. United States Census Bureau 2009 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas Illinois State Archives Township Officials of Illinois

Barrel of Monkeys

Barrel of Monkeys is a toy game released by Lakeside Toys in 1965. It was created by Leonard Marks and Milton Dinhofer in 1961, in 1964, Herman Kesler partnered to sell it to Lakeside Toys. Lakeside Toys released it in 1965 and today it is produced by the Milton Bradley Company within the Hasbro corporation. Milton Bradley's editions consist of a toy barrel in either blue, red, orange, gray or green; the barrel contains 12 monkeys but can hold 24, their color corresponding to the barrel's color. The instructions state, "Dump monkeys onto table. Pick up one monkey by an arm. Hook other arm through a second monkey's arm. Continue making a chain. Your turn is over when a monkey is dropped." In addition to these basic instructions, the barrel contains instructions for playing alone or with two or more players. Time magazine ranked Barrel of Monkeys at #53 on their 2011 All-Time 100 Greatest Toys list. In 1961, a greeting cards salesman, Leonard Marks, was in a small mom-and-pop shop to sell his line of cards.

As he waited for Robert Gilbert, the shop owner, he fiddled with an open box of snow-tire-replacement chain links. Marks was so interested in playing, he hadn't realized; when he told Gilbert that the links would make a great toy, Gilbert referred Marks to Milton Dinhofer, a successful toy inventor in the area. Marks knew Dinhofer from his high school days and reached out to his old acquaintance. Dinhofer asked Marks to make a plastic sample of the hooks for their meeting. Milton Dinhofer was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a successful importer who had two toy successes to his credit, he created the first full-size wearable toy space helmet which made the covers of both The Saturday Evening Post and Collier's magazine. He designed and brought to market Sip-n-See. Sip-n-See was the first mass-produced twisted plastic sold over 6 million units; the straws had different characters on them, it was the s-shaped arms of his cowboy straw that inspired the shape of the monkeys's arms.

When Marks met Dinhofer at his home in Roslyn, New York, he brought a pile of red, s-shaped hooks made from 1/4" plastic rod. Dinhofer imagined monkeys having arms positioned like his cowboy character's. Marks and Dinhofer agreed to form a partnership that night, it was decided that Dinhofer would design the toy, Marks would sell it. It took Dinhofer three months to go from sketch to functional monkey, he made a sketch for a face and one for a body. Once, achieved, Dinhofer hired A. Santore of A. S. Plastic Model Company to carve a sample under his supervision. Dinhofer searched for a beryllium-mold maker, quite a challenge and expensive as working with plastic was still new; the initial run of monkeys were in many assorted colors, but their shape was just like those Lakeside released in 1965. Before Lakeside, the prototype was called Chimp to Chimp. Four of its monkeys were yellow, four were green and four were red; the twelve monkeys allowed three to twelve-year-olds to link them without needing to stand on stools.

The Chimp to Chimp prototype came in flat expensive packaging which the Woolworth chain offered to carry in their stores. But Woolworth's stipulated that Marks and Dinhofer would have to provide 13 weeks of television advertising which neither could afford. No other buyers were found, it seemed the game would never come to market. In 1964, Herman Kesler agreed to join the partnership and pitch Barrel of Monkeys to Lakeside Toys where he had connections. In November of that year, Kesler met with Zelman Levine, the CEO and President of Lakeside Toys at the Essex House in New York City. Present were Lakeside's vice president, James R. Becker, who would become president, Stanley Harfenist, Lakeside's future General Manager, in the process of bringing Gumby to Lakeside. Kesler dropped the monkeys on the table and began to link them together. Becker said it was during the meeting that he brought up the phrase, "more fun than a barrel of monkeys." Levine approved the toy and took all the samples back with him to his headquarters in Minneapolis.

Barrel of Monkeys was released in 1965 as a Lakeside toy allowing Marks and Kesler to receive ongoing royalties. The game was first packaged in a cardboard tube like Lakeside's successful game Pick-Up-Sticks, but with a plastic monkey attached to the lid; the monkeys broke off the packaging, and, in 1966, a two-piece plastic barrel was introduced. In April of 1967, the game was # 2 on Hobby World's Toy Hit Parade chart. Lakeside Toys was sold to Leisure Dynamics, Inc. in 1969. Leisure was sold to Coleco Industries in 1985, Coleco was sold to Hasbro Inc. in 1988 The current Hasbro version is sold with ten newly-designed monkeys in the barrel. Unlike the mono-colored Giant Barrel of Monkeys, the original version included 12 plastic monkeys in three colors; these Monkeys have been used for modeling of polyhedral structures, including virus particles and other protein structures In brief, a pair of monkeys can hook around each other in more than eighty different ways, forming quite stable links. The links may be either asymmetrical.

Repetition of an asymmetric link generates a helix. A symmetric link is self-limiting, so that the structure cannot grow further unless a new link is used to join symmetric pairs, it is possible to generate structures with point, line, 2D

Pure Chewing Satisfaction

Pure Chewing Satisfaction is the second studio album by Lard, released in 1997. All songs written by Biafra/Jourgensen/Barker / Rieflin except. "War Pimp Renaissance" - 4:19 "I Wanna Be a Drug-Sniffing Dog" - 3:17 "Moths" - 4:57 "Generation Execute" - 5:42 "Faith Hope and Treachery" - 3:56 "Peeling Back the Foreskin of Liberty" - 5:11 "Mangoat" - 5:05 "Sidewinder" - 4:59 Rev. Al Jourgensen - guitars, programming, production Rev. Paul Gordon Barker - bass, programming, production Ayatollah Jello Biafra - "Mr. Microphone", production William Rieflin - drums Jeff Ward - drums Rey Washam - drums Mike Scaccia - guitar