The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. The word "bamboo" comes from the Kannada term bambu, introduced to English through Indonesian and Malay. In bamboo, as in other grasses, the internodal regions of the stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross-section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement; the dicotyledonous woody xylem is absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 4 cm an hour. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, as a versatile raw product.
Bamboo has a higher specific compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete, a specific tensile strength that rivals steel. Bamboos have long been considered the most primitive grasses because of the presence of bracteate, indeterminate inflorescences, "pseudospikelets", flowers with three lodicules, six stamens, three stigmata. Following more recent molecular phylogenetic research, many tribes and genera of grasses included in the Bambusoideae are now classified in other subfamilies, e.g. the Anomochlooideae, the Puelioideae, the Ehrhartoideae. The subfamily in its current sense belongs to the BOP clade of grasses, where it is sister to the Pooideae; the bamboos comprise three clades classified as tribes, these correspond with geographic divisions representing the New World herbaceous species, tropical woody bamboos, temperate woody bamboos. The woody bamboos do not form a monophyletic group. Altogether, more than 1,400 species are placed in 115 genera. Most bamboo species are native to moist tropical and warm temperate climates.
However, many species are found in diverse climates, ranging from hot tropical regions to cool mountainous regions and highland cloud forests. In the Asia-Pacific region they occur across East Asia, from north to 50 °N latitude in Sakhalin, to south to northern Australia, west to India and the Himalayas. China, Korea and Australia, all have several endemic populations, they occur in small numbers in sub-Saharan Africa, confined to tropical areas, from southern Senegal in the north to southern Mozambique and Madagascar in the south. In the Americas, bamboo has a native range from 47 °S in southern Argentina and the beech forests of central Chile, through the South American tropical rainforests, to the Andes in Ecuador near 4,300 m. Bamboo is native through Central America and Mexico, northward into the Southeastern United States. Canada and continental Europe are not known to have any native species of bamboo; as garden plants, many species grow outside these ranges, including most of Europe and the United States.
Some attempts have been made to grow bamboo on a commercial basis in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa in Rwanda. In the United States, several companies are growing and distributing species such as Phyllostachys nigra and Phyllostachys edulis; the two general patterns for the growth of bamboo are "clumping" and "running". Clumping bamboo species tend to spread as the growth pattern of the rhizomes is to expand the root mass similar to ornamental grasses. "Running" bamboos, need to be controlled during cultivation because of their potential for aggressive behavior. They spread through their rhizomes, which can spread underground and send up new culms to break through the surface. Running bamboo species are variable in their tendency to spread; some can send out runners of several metres a year, while others can stay in the same general area for long periods. If neglected, over time, they can cause problems by moving into adjacent areas. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants on Earth, with reported growth rates up to 91 cm in 24 hours.
However, the growth rate is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions, as well as species, a more typical growth rate for many cultivated bamboos in temperate climates is in the range of 3–10 cm per day during the growing period. Growing in regions of warmer climates during the late Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia; some of the largest timber bamboo can grow over 30 m tall, be as large as 25–30 cm in diameter. However, the size range for mature bamboo is species-dependent, with the smallest bamboos reaching only several inches high at maturity. A typical height range that would cover many of the common bamboos grown in the United States is 4.5–12 m, depending on species. Anji County of China, known as the "Town of Bamboo", provides the optimal climate and soil conditions to grow and process some of the most valued bamboo poles available worldwide. Unlike all trees, individual bamboo culms emerge from the ground at their full diameter and grow to their full height in a single growing season of three to four months.
During this time, each new shoot grows
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody, but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line, provide added interest and variety, give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill; the amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to little or none. The word agrément is used to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation. In the Baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody unornamented the first time and decorate it with additional flourishes and trills the second time. A harpsichord player performing a simple melodic line was expected to be able to improvise harmonically and stylistically appropriate trills and appoggiaturas.
Ornamentation may be indicated by the composer. A number of standard ornaments are indicated with standard symbols in music notation, while other ornamentations may be appended to the score in small notes, or written out as sized notes. A composer will have his or her own vocabulary of ornaments, which will be explained in a preface, much like a code. A grace note is a note written in smaller type, with or without a slash through it, to indicate that its note value does not count as part of the total time value of the bar. Alternatively, the term may refer more to any of the small notes used to mark some other ornament, or in association with some other ornament's indication, regardless of the timing used in the execution. In Spain, melodies ornamented upon repetition were called "diferencias", can be traced back to 1538, when Luis de Narváez published the first collection of such music for the vihuela. A trill known as a "shake", is a rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above it.
In simple music, trills may be diatonic. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, above the staff. At a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: In Baroque music, the trill is sometimes indicated with a + sign above or below the note. In the late 18th century, when performers play a trill, it always start from the upper note. However, " Koch expressed no preference and observed that it was scarcely a matter of much importance whether the trill began one way or the other, since there was no audible difference after the initial note had been sounded." Clive Brown writes that "Despite three different ways of showing the trills, it seems that a trill beginning with the upper note and ending with a turn was envisaged in each case."Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn, or some other variation. Such variations are marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. There is a single tone trill variously called trillo or tremolo in late Renaissance and early Baroque.
Trilling on a single note is idiomatic for the bowed strings. A mordent is a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above or below, the indicated note again; the upper mordent is indicated by a short thick tilde. As with the trill, the exact speed with which a mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but, at a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: Confusion over the meaning of the unadorned word mordent has led to the modern terms upper and lower mordent being used, rather than mordent and inverted mordent. Practice and nomenclature vary for all of these ornaments. In the Baroque period, a mordant was what came to be called an inverted mordent and what is now called a lower mordent. In the 19th century, the name mordent was applied to what is now called the upper mordent. Although mordents are now thought of as a single alternation between notes, in the Baroque period a mordant may have sometimes been executed with more than one alternation between the indicated note and the note below, making it a sort of inverted trill.
Mordents of all sorts might in some periods, begin with an extra inessential note, rather than with the principal note as shown in the examples here. The same applies to trills, which in the Baroque and Classical periods would begin with the added, upper note. A lower inessential note may or may not be chromatically raised to ma
The chanter is the part of the bagpipe upon which the player creates the melody. It consists of a number of finger-holes, in its simpler forms looks similar to a recorder. On more elaborate bagpipes, such as the Northumbrian bagpipes or the Uilleann pipes, it may have a number of keys, to increase the instrument's range and/or the number of keys it can play in. Like the rest of the bagpipe, they are decorated with a variety of substances, including metal, ivory, or plastic mountings. Chanters come in two main types and non-parallel bored; this refers to the shape of the internal bore of the chanter. On the Great Highland Bagpipe, the internal bore is conical: it is this that gives the chanter its exceptional volume; the Northumbrian pipes, on the other hand, have a parallel bore, giving them a much sweeter and quieter tone. Although the majority of chanters are unkeyed, some make extensive use of keys to extend the range and/or the number of accidentals the chanter can play; the most common pipe featuring this arrangement is the Northumbrian smallpipe.
Another variant of the chanter is the two-piped chanter. The chanter pipes may be designed to be played separately, one with each hand, or the two chanters may be played in unison. One chanter may provide a drone accompaniment to the other, or the two chanters may play in a harmony of thirds and sixths. In pipes of the Carpathian basin up to five separate chanter bores may be placed in parallel within a single chanter assembly, providing both melodic and rhythmic possibilities: in the simplest case, one pipe is used to play the melody while the second provides a variable drone, while more complex pipes may separate certain individual notes into separate, stopped pipes; because of the accompanying drone or drones, the lack of modulation in bagpipe melody, stable timbre of the reed sound, in many bagpipe traditions the tones of the chanter are tuned using just intonation, although bagpipe tuning is variable across traditions. On the Great Highland bagpipe, tuning of the individual notes of the chanter is done using tape to cover the finger holes as needed.
It was done with wax, as was done with other woodwind instruments. The practice chanter is used as a practice instrument for the Great Highland Bagpipe, it is somewhat similar in appearance, though smaller than the bagpipe chanter, has a top piece so it can be blown directly from the mouth. It is used as a first instrument so that learners can learn the finger technique before learning the mechanics of controlling the bag, it is exclusively made of hardwood or plastic. The practice chanter of today may be a descendant of the hornpipe or "stock-and-horn", a historical reed pipe of Scotland with a capped double reed and bell made of horn, played by shepherds, among others
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names boxwood; the boxes are native to western and southern Europe, southwest and eastern Asia, Madagascar, northernmost South America, Central America and the Caribbean, with the majority of species being tropical or subtropical. Centres of diversity occur in Cuba and Madagascar, they are slow-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees, growing to 2–12 m tall. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, leathery; the flowers are yellow-green, monoecious with both sexes present on a plant. The fruit is a small capsule 0.5 -- 1.5 cm long. The genus splits into three genetically distinct sections, each section in a different region, with the Eurasian species in one section, the African and Madagascan species in the second, the American species in the third; the African and American sections are genetically closer to each other than to the Eurasian section. Buxus'Green Velvet' Buxus microphylla var. koreana'Winter Gem' Box plants are grown as hedges and for topiary.
In Britain and mainland Europe, box is subject to damage from caterpillars of Cydalima perspectalis which can devastate a box hedge within a short time. This is a introduced species first noticed in Europe in 2007 and in the UK in 2008 but spreading. There were 3 UK reports of infestation in 2011, 20 in 2014 and 150 in the first half of 2015. Owing to its fine grain it is a good wood for fine wood carving, although this is limited by the small sizes available, it is resistant to splitting and chipping, thus useful for decorative or storage boxes. It was used for wooden combs; as a timber or wood for carving it is "boxwood" in all varieties of English. Owing to the high density of the wood, boxwood is used for chess pieces, unstained boxwood for the white pieces and stained boxwood for the black pieces, in lieu of ebony; the fine endgrain of box makes it suitable for woodblock printing and woodcut blocks, for which it was the usual material in Europe. In the 16th century, boxwood was used to create intricate decorative carvings.
High quality wooden spoons have been carved from box, with beech being the usual cheaper substitute. Boxwood was once called dudgeon, was used for the handles of dirks, daggers, with the result that such a knife was known as a dudgeon. Although one "in high dudgeon" is indignant and enraged, while the image of a dagger held high, ready to plunge into an enemy, has a certain appeal, lexicographers have no real evidence as to the origin of the phrase. Due to its high density and resistance to chipping, boxwood is a economical material, has been used to make parts for various stringed instruments since antiquity, it is used to make tailpieces, chin rests and tuning pegs, but may be used for a variety of other parts as well. Other woods used for this purpose are ebony. Boxwood was a common material for the manufacture of recorders in the eighteenth century, a large number of mid- to high-end instruments made today are produced from one or other species of boxwood. Boxwood was once a popular wood for other woodwind instruments, was among the traditional woods for Great Highland bagpipes before tastes turned to imported dense tropical woods such as cocuswood and African blackwood.
General Thomas F. Meagher decorated the hats of the men of the Irish Brigade with boxwood during the American Civil War, as he could find no shamrock. Boxwood blight Cydalima perspectalis – box tree moth Box / Royal Horticultural Society American Boxwood Society Revision of the genus Buxus in Madagascar
A reed is a thin strip of material that vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument. Most woodwind instrument reeds are made from synthetic material. Tuned reeds are made of metal or synthetics. Musical instruments are classified according to the number of reeds; the earliest types of single-reed instruments used idioglottal reeds, where the vibrating reed is a tongue cut and shaped on the tube of cane. Much single-reed instruments started using heteroglottal reeds, where a reed is cut and separated from the tube of cane and attached to a mouthpiece of some sort. By contrast, in an uncapped double reed instrument, there is no mouthpiece. Single reeds are used on the mouthpieces of saxophones; the back of the reed is flat and is placed against the mouthpiece, the rounded top side tapers to a thin tip. These reeds are rectangular in shape except for the thin vibrating tip, curved to match the curve of the mouthpiece tip. All single reeds are shaped but vary in size to fit each instrument's mouthpiece.
Reeds designed for the same instrument vary in thickness. Hardness is measured on a scale of 1 through 5 from softest to hardest; this is not a standardized scale and reed strengths vary by manufacturer. The thickness of the tip and heel and the profile in between affect the playability. Cane of different grades if cut with the same profile respond differently due to natural differences in cane fiber density; the cane used to make reeds for saxophone and other single-reed instruments grows in the southern coastal regions of France, Spain—and in the last 30 years, in the area of Cuyo in Argentina. After growers cut the cane, they lay it out in direct sunlight for about a month to dry, they rotate the cane to ensure and complete drying. Once dry, growers store the cane in a warehouse; as reed production requires it, workers pull the cane from the warehouse and take it to the factory—to the cutting department, which cuts it into tubes and grades the tubes by diameter and wall density. They cut the tubes into splits, make those into reed blanks.
They profile the blanks into reeds using blades or CNC machines. A machine grades completed completed reeds for strength. Double reeds are used on the oboe, oboe d'amore, English horn, bass oboe, bassoon, sarrusophone, bagpipes and shehnai, they are not used in conjunction with a mouthpiece. However, in the case of the crumhorn and Rauschpfeife, a reed cap that contains an airway is placed over the reeds and blown without the reeds coming in contact with the player's mouth. Reed strengths are graded from hard to soft; the making of double reeds begins in the same way as. The cane is collected from Arundo donax, dried and cut down to manageable sizes for reed-making. Similar to single reed production, the cane is separated into various diameters; the most common diameters for American-style oboe reeds are as follows: 9.5–10 mm, 10–10.5 mm, 10.5–11 mm. Many American oboists prefer a specific diameter at one time of the year and a different diameter at other times, depending on the season and the weather.
They split the tubes into three equal parts, picking out the pieces that are not warped. A reed made from a piece of warped tube cane won't vibrate on both sides, affecting the sound. After the cane is split, the pieces are gouged in a gouging machine to remove many cane layers to drastically decrease thickness; this eases the scraping process for the reed-maker, helps maintain sharper knives. Reed makers not only learn to master reed making, but learn how to sharpen knives with great skill; the gouged pieces of cane soaked and "shaped" on a shaper with razor blades and allowed to dry before the final steps. The shaped piece of cane is re-soaked and tied onto a "staple" for oboe reeds and formed on a mandrel for bassoon reeds. Bassoon reeds are wrapped with nylon thread or cotton thread, depending on the musician's preference. Oboe reeds are most tied with nylon thread. Finishing both bassoon and oboe reeds requires the reed-maker to scrape along the cane section of the reed with a scraping knife to specific dimensions and lengths depending on the reed style and the musician's preference.
Bassoon and oboe reeds are finished when the reeds play in tune or can make a sufficient "crow"-like noise. Quadruple reed instruments have two on top and two on bottom. Examples of this include an archetypal instrument from India, the Shehnai, as well as the Pi from Thailand, the Cambodian Sralai. Having four reeds instead of two produces a different tone and set of harmonics. There are two types of free reeds: framed and unframed. Framed free reeds are used on ancient Asian instruments such as the Chinese shēng, Japanese shō, Laotian khene, modern European instruments such as the harmonium or reed organ, concertina, bandoneón, Russian bayan; the reed is made from cane, brass or steel, is enclosed in a rigid frame. The pitch of the framed free reed is fixed; the ancient bullroarer is an unframed free reed made of a stone or wood board tied to a rope, swung around through the air to make a whistling sound. Another primitive unframed free-reed instrument is the leaf, used in some traditional Chinese music ensembles.
A leaf or long blade of grass is st
Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: Phragmites australis Trin. Ex Steud. – cosmopolitan Phragmites japonicus Steud. – Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East Phragmites karka Trin. Ex Steud. – tropical Africa, southern Asia, some Pacific Islands Phragmites mauritianus Kunth – central + southern Africa, Mauritius The cosmopolitan common reed has the accepted botanical name Phragmites australis. Trin. Ex Steud. About 130 other synonyms have been proposed, some have been used. Examples include. Arundo phragmites L. and Phragmites vulgaris Crép.. Recent studies have characterised morphological distinctions between the introduced and native stands of Phragmites australis in North America; the Eurasian phenotype can be distinguished from the North American phenotype by its shorter ligules of up to 0.9 millimetres as opposed to over 1.0 millimetre, shorter glumes of under 3.2 millimetres against over 3.2 millimetres, in culm characteristics.
Phragmites australis subsp. Americanus – the North American genotype has been described as a distinct subspecies, subsp. Americanus, Phragmites australis – the Eurasian genotype is sometimes referred to as subsp. Australis, but this is a synonym. Phragmites australis subsp. Altissimus Clayton is an accepted subspecies of P. australis. Phragmites australis var. marsillyanus Kerguélen is an accepted variety of Phragmites australis. In North America, the status of Phragmites australis was a source of debate, it was considered an exotic species and invasive species, introduced from Europe. However, there is evidence of the existence of Phragmites as a native plant in North America long before European colonization of the continent, it is now known. Americanus are markedly less vigorous than European forms; the recent marked expansion of Phragmites in North America may be due to the more vigorous, but similar-looking European subsp. Australis. Phragmites lowers the local plant biodiversity. Phragmites forms dense thickets of vegetation, unsuitable habitat for native fauna.
Phragmites displaces native plants species such as wild rice and native wetland orchids. Phragmites has a high above ground biomass that blocks light to other plants allowing areas to turn into Phragmites monoculture quickly. Decomposing Phragmites increases the rate of marsh accretion more than would occur with native marsh vegetation. Phragmites australis subsp. Australis is causing serious problems for many other North American hydrophyte wetland plants, including the native Phragmites australis subsp. Americanus. Gallic acid released by Phragmites is degraded by ultraviolet light to produce mesoxalic acid hitting susceptible plants and seedlings with two harmful toxins. Phragmites is so difficult to control that one of the most effective methods of eradicating the plant is to burn it over 2-3 seasons; the roots grow so strong that one burn is not enough. Ongoing research suggests that goats could be used to control the species. Since 2017, over 80% of the beds of Phragmites in the Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area have been damaged by the invasive "roseau cane scale", Nipponaclerda biwakoensis, threatening wildlife habitat throughout the affected regions of the WMA.
While considered a noxious weed, in Louisiana the reed beds are considered critical to the stability of the shorelines of wetland areas and waterways of the Mississippi Delta, the die-off of reed beds is believed to accelerate coastal erosion. Phragmites australis, common reed forms extensive stands, which may be as much as 1 square kilometre or more in extent. Where conditions are suitable it can spread at 5 metres or more per year by horizontal runners, which put down roots at regular intervals, it can grow in damp ground, in standing water up to 1 metre or so deep, or as a floating mat. The erect stems grow to 2–6 metres tall, with the tallest plants growing in areas with hot summers and fertile growing conditions; the leaves are long for 20 -- 50 centimetres and 2 -- 3 centimetres broad. The flowers are produced in late summer in about 20 -- 50 cm long; the numerous long, sharp pointed spikelets appear greyer due to the growth of long, silky hairs. These help disperse the minute seeds, it is a helophyte common in alkaline habitats, it tolerates brackish water, so is found at the upper edges of estuaries and on other wetlands which are inundated by the sea.
A study demonstrated that Phragmites australis has similar greenhouse gas emissions to native Spartina alterniflora. However, other studies have demonstrated that it is associated with larger methane emissions and greater carbon dioxide uptake than native New England salt marsh vegetation that occurs at higher marsh elevations. Common reed is suppressed where it is grazed by livestock. Under these conditions it either grows as small shoots within the grassland sward, or it disappears altogether. In Europe, common reed is invasive, except in damp grasslands where traditional grazing has been abandoned. Common reed is important (together