Françoise Dürr is a retired French professional tennis player. She over 60 doubles titles. According to Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Bud Collins, the Women's Tennis Association, Dürr was ranked in the world top ten from 1965 through 1967, from 1970 through 1972, from 1974 through 1976, reaching a career high of World No. 3 in those rankings in 1967. She finished second to Billie Jean King in prize money earnings in 1971. Dürr reached a total of 27 Grand Slam finals – 1 in singles, 18 in women's doubles, 8 in mixed doubles, she won 12 of them. Dürr is best known for winning the singles title at the 1967 French Championships, she defeated Maria Bueno in Lesley Turner Bowrey in the final. In addition to her singles championship, Dürr won seven Grand Slam women's doubles titles and four Grand Slam mixed doubles titles, she was the runner-up in eleven Grand Slam women's doubles events and four Grand Slam mixed doubles events. Dürr won eight doubles titles at the French Championships.
The first of Dürr's record-tying five consecutive women's doubles titles was in 1967. This record is shared with Martina Navratilova and Gigi Fernández, like Dürr, achieved it with separate partners. Dürr teamed with Ann Haydon-Jones to win the titles in 1968 and 1969 and with Gail Sherriff Chanfreau in 1967, 1970, 1971. Dürr was the runner-up in women's doubles in 1965 with Janine Lieffrig, in 1973 with Betty Stöve, in 1979 with Virginia Wade. Dürr teamed with Jean-Claude Barclay to win the mixed doubles title in 1968, 1971, 1973, they were runners-up in 1969, 1970, 1972. In total, Dürr reached 15 finals at the French Open. Dürr won two doubles titles at the US Open, she won the women's doubles title in 1969 in 1972 with Stöve. Dürr was the runner-up in that event in 1971 in 1974 with Stöve. Dürr was the runner-up in mixed doubles in 1969, teaming with Dennis Ralston, she won the Wimbledon mixed doubles title in 1976 with Tony Roche. She was the runner-up in women's doubles at Wimbledon in 1965 with Lieffrig, 1968 with Jones, 1970 with Wade, 1972 with Judy Tegart Dalton, 1973 and 1975 with Stöve.
Additionally, Dürr was a singles semifinalist at the Championships in 1970. Dürr was a participant at the Australian Championships and Australian Open, as she appeared there three times, in 1965, 1967, 1969, she reached the singles quarterfinals in 1965 and 1967 and the doubles semifinals with Jones in 1969. Dürr and Betty Stöve won the 1979 WTA Tour Championships in doubles against Sue Barker and Ann Kiyomura, beating them 7–6, 7–6 in the final, she played the French Open ladies doubles event a last time in 1984, reaching the second round before retiring from Grand Slam competition. Dürr played for France on the France Fed Cup team 14 times, finishing her career with a 31–17 record, she played 27 ties, with a 16 -- a 15 -- 9 doubles record. Dürr was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2003 for her extraordinary career in doubles and for winning the French Championships in singles. Junior Singles Champion of France, 1959 and 1960. French Singles Champion in the National Championship, 1962, 1964, 1965 and 1966.
French National Champion in Ladies Doubles 8 times between 1961 and 1970 with various partners. French National Champion 5 times in Mixed Doubles between 1964 and 1970 partnered by Jean-Claude Barclay. Winner of the Wimbledon Ladies Plate in 1963. South African Singles champion, 1965. Dürr defeated Judy Tegart in the final to win the 1966 British Grass Court Championship at Queens Club London. German Open Singles champion, 1967. Swiss Open Singles champion, 1969. Italian Open Doubles champion with Ann Jones, 1969. Losing finalist with Ann Jones in the 1969 Pacific Southwest Doubles Championship to King and Casals 6–8, 8–6, 11–9. Italian Open Doubles losing finalist with Virginia Wade 1970. Winners King and Casals 6–2, 3–6, 9–7. Losing finalist in the Swiss Open in Gstaad in 1970 6–2, 5–7, 6–2 to Rosemary Casals. Doubles Champion with Rosemary Casals Gstaad 1970 defeated Helga Niessen and Betty Stöve 6–2, 6–2. British Indoor singles champion at the Albert Hall, London, 1970. Winner in singles against Wimbledon and French Open champion Evonne Goolagong Cawley 6–4, 6–2) at the Canadian Open, 1971.
Dürr and Casals defeated Goolagong and Bowrey 6–3, 6–3 to win the Canadian Open Doubles Championship of 1971. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–3, 3–6, 6–3 in the 1971 US Clay Courts International Tennis Championship at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Winner against Lesley Hunt 6–3, 6–3 in the 1971 Swiss Open in Gstaad. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–3, 6–0 in the 1971 Benson and Hedges New Zealand International Grass Court Championships in Christchurch. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–4, 6–2 in the 1971 Clay Court International Championship at Lake Bluff, Illinois. Losing finalist 6–1, 5–7, 7–5 to Billie Jean King in the 1971 Embassy British Indoor Championship at Wembley, London. Losing finalist 6–2, 3–6, 6–2 to Rosemary Casals in the 1971 Philadelphia Indoor Championship Singles. Losing finalist 6–3, 7–5 to Virginia Wade in the 1972 USA Indoor Championship in Boston, Massachusetts. Losing finalist 6–2, 6–7, 6–3 to Rosemary Casals in the 1972 Longbeach CA Singles Championship. Losing finalist 6–7
Serena Jameka Williams is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association ranked her world No. 1 in singles on eight separate occasions between 2002 and 2017. She reached the No. 1 ranking for the first time on July 8, 2002. On her sixth occasion, she held the ranking for 186 consecutive weeks, tying the record set by Steffi Graf. In total, she has been No. 1 for 319 weeks, which ranks third in the "Open Era" among female players behind Graf and Martina Navratilova. Williams holds the most Grand Slam titles in singles and mixed doubles combined among active players, her 39 major titles puts her joint-third on the all-time list and second in the Open Era: 23 in singles, 14 in women's doubles, two in mixed doubles. She is the most recent female player to have held all four Grand Slam singles titles and the third player to achieve this twice, after Rod Laver and Graf, she is the most recent player to have won a Grand Slam title on each surface in one calendar year. She is together with her sister Venus, the most recent player to have held all four Grand Slam women's doubles titles simultaneously.
Her total of 23 Grand Slam singles titles marks the record for the most Grand Slam tournament wins in the Open Era, is second on the all-time list behind Margaret Court. She has won an all-time record of 13 Grand Slam singles titles on hard court. Williams holds the Open Era record for most titles won at the Australian Open and shares the Open Era record for most titles won at the US Open with Chris Evert, she holds the all-time record for the most women's singles matches won at majors with 335 matches. Williams has won 14 Grand Slam doubles titles, all with her sister Venus, the pair are unbeaten in Grand Slam doubles finals; as a team and Venus have the third most women's doubles Grand Slam titles, behind the 18 titles of Natasha Zvereva and the record 20 titles won by Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver. Williams is a five-time winner of the WTA Tour Championships in the singles division, she has won four Olympic gold medals, one in women's singles and three in women's doubles—an all-time record shared with her sister, Venus.
The arrival of the Williams sisters has been credited with ushering in a new era of power and athleticism on the women's professional tennis tour. She is ranked at No.11 in the world by the WTA. Earning $29 million in prize money and endorsements, Williams was the highest paid female athlete in 2016, she repeated this feat in 2017 when she was the only woman on Forbes' list of the 100 highest paid athletes with $27 million in prize money and endorsements. She has won the'Laureus Sportswoman of the Year' award four times, in December 2015, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan, to Oracene Price and Richard Williams, is the youngest of Price's five daughters: half-sisters Yetunde and Isha Price, full older sister Venus, she has at least seven paternal half-siblings. When the children were young, the family moved to Compton, where Williams started playing tennis at the age of four, her father home-schooled her sister, Venus. While he and subsequently her mother have been the official coaches, other mentors who helped her learn the game included Richard Williams, a Compton man who shared her father's name and would go on to found The Venus and Serena Williams Tennis/Tutorial Academy.
When Williams was nine and her family moved from Compton to West Palm Beach, Florida, so that she could attend the tennis academy of Rick Macci. Macci did not always agree with Williams's father, but respected that "he treated his daughters like kids, allowed them to be little girls". Richard stopped sending his daughters to national junior tennis tournaments when Williams was 10, since he wanted them to go and to focus on school work. Experiences of racism drove this experience, as Richard Williams had heard white parents talk about the Williams sisters in a derogatory manner during tournaments. At that time, Williams had a 46–3 record on the United States Tennis Association junior tour and was ranked number one among under-10 players in Florida. In 1995, when Williams was in the ninth grade, her father pulled his daughters out of Macci's academy and, from on, took over all coaching at their home; when asked in 2000 whether having followed the normal path of playing on the junior circuit would have been beneficial, Williams responded: "Everyone does different things.
I think for Venus and I, we just attempted a different road, it worked for us." Williams is a baseline player, her game is built around taking immediate control of rallies with her powerful and consistent serve, return of serve, forceful groundstrokes from both her forehand and backhand swings. Williams's forehand is considered to be among the most powerful shots in the women's game, as is her double-handed backhand. Williams strikes her backhand groundstroke using an open stance, uses the same open stance for her forehand. Williams's aggressive play, a "high risk" style, is balanced in part by her serve, which most say is the greatest in women's tennis history, she projects great pace and placement with her serves. What makes her serve more deadly is her ball placement and her ability to place powerful shots with gr
Venus Ebony Starr Williams is an American professional tennis player, ranked world No. 36 in the WTA singles rankings. She is regarded as one of the all-time greats of women's tennis and, along with younger sister Serena Williams, is credited with ushering in a new era of power and athleticism on the women's professional tennis tour. Williams has been ranked world No. 1 by the Women's Tennis Association on three occasions, for a total of 11 weeks. She first reached the No. 1 ranking on February 25, 2002, the first African American woman to do so in the Open Era, the second all time since Althea Gibson. Williams' seven Grand Slam singles titles are tied for 12th on the all-time list, 8th on the Open Era list, more than any other active female player except Serena, she has reached 16 Grand Slam finals, most at Wimbledon in 2017. She has won 14 Grand Slam Women's doubles titles, all with Serena. Williams has two Mixed Doubles titles, her five Wimbledon singles titles tie her with two other women for eighth place on the all-time list, but gives her sole possession of No. 4 on the Open Era List, trailing only the nine titles of Martina Navratilova and the seven of Serena and Steffi Graf.
From the 2000 Wimbledon Championships to the 2001 US Open, Williams won four of the six Grand Slam singles tournaments in that span. At the 2018 US Open, Williams extended her record as the all-time leader, male or female, in Grand Slams played, with 80. With her run to the 2017 Wimbledon singles final, she broke the record for longest time between first and most recent grand slam singles finals appearances. Williams has won four Olympic gold medals, one in singles and three in women's doubles, along with a silver medal in mixed doubles, pulling with Kathleen McKane Godfree for the most Olympic medals won by a male or female tennis player, she is the only tennis player to have won a medal at four Olympic Games. At the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Williams became only the second player to win Olympic gold medals in both singles and doubles at the same Olympic Games, after Helen Wills Moody in 1924. With 49 singles titles, Williams trails only Serena among active players on the WTA Tour with most singles titles.
Her 35-match winning streak from the 2000 Wimbledon Championships to the 2000 Generali Ladies Linz tournament final is the longest since January 1, 2000. She is one of only three active WTA players to have reached the finals of all four Grand Slams, along with Serena and Maria Sharapova. Williams was born in California, to Richard Williams and Oracene Price, her talents were apparent at the age of seven when a professional local tennis player named Tony Chesta spotted Williams and identified the talent. The Williams family moved from Compton, California, to West Palm Beach, when she was ten, so that Venus and Serena could attend the tennis academy of Rick Macci, who took notice of the sisters and who would provide additional coaching, he did not always agree with Williams's father but respected that "he treated his daughters like kids, allowed them to be little girls". Richard stopped sending his daughters to national junior tennis tournaments when Williams was eleven, since he wanted them to take it slow and focus on schoolwork.
Another motivation was racial, as he had heard parents of other players disparage the Williams sisters during tournaments. At that time, Williams held a 63–0 record on the United States Tennis Association junior tour and was ranked No. 1 among the under-12 players in Southern California. In 1995, Richard pulled his daughters out of Macci's academy, from on took over all coaching at their home. Williams is a powerful baseliner who has an attacking all-court game, her game is well adapted to grass, where she feels most comfortable, reflected in her five Wimbledon singles titles. She has developed into a skilful volleyer who uses her long arm agility around the net. Williams has great court coverage and can hit winners from a defensive position. Williams holds the record for fastest serve in three of the four Grand Slam tournaments: 2007 French Open second round, 2008 Wimbledon final, 2007 U. S. Open first round – 129 mph. Williams turned professional on October 1994, at the age of fourteen. In the second round of her first professional tournament, the Bank of the West Classic in Oakland, Williams was up a set and a service break against world No. 2 Arantxa Sánchez Vicario before losing the match.
That was the only tournament Williams played in 1994. In 1995, Williams played three more events as a wild card, falling in the first round of the tournament in Los Angeles and the tournament in Toronto but reaching the quarterfinals of the tournament in Oakland, defeating No. 18 Amy Frazier in the second round for her first win over a top 20 ranked player before losing to Magdalena Maleeva. Williams played five events in 1996, falling in the first round four times but reaching the third round in Los Angeles, before losing to No. 1 Steffi Graf. Williams played 15 tour events including five Tier I tournaments, she reached the quarterfinals in three of the Tier I events – the State Farm Evert Cup in Indian Wells, the European Indoor Championships in Zürich, the Kremlin Cup in Moscow. In Indian Wells in March, Williams defeated No. 9 Iva Majoli in the third round for her first win over a player ranked in the top 10. She lost in the quarterfinals to No. 8 Lindsay Davenport in a third set tiebreak.
Her ranking broke into the top 100 on April 14, 1997. She made her debut in the main draw of a Grand Slam tournament at the French Open, reaching the second round before losing to Nathalie Tauziat, she lost in the first round of Wimbledon
Jean-Baptiste Chanfreau is a former Algerian-born French international tennis player. He competed in the Australian Open in 1969 and in the Davis Cup a number of times, from 1970 to 1973. Jean-Baptiste Chanfreau at the Association of Tennis Professionals Jean-Baptiste Chanfreau at the International Tennis Federation Jean-Baptiste Chanfreau at the Davis Cup
Jean Lovera is a French former tennis player. He competed in the Grand Slam singles events twice, both in the French Open, his best result came in 1974 when he defeated Donald Dell to advance to the second round, where he was beaten by John Yuill. Lovera designed the Court One stadium at Roland Garros. Together with his friend Daniel Lelong he introduced in 1980 the concept of inviting contemporary artist to design a poster for each edition of the French Open, he is a member of the committee of the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Jean Lovera at the Association of Tennis Professionals Jean Lovera at the International Tennis Federation
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona