SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gait

Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate. Most animals use a variety of gaits, selecting gait based on speed, the need to maneuver, energetic efficiency. Different animal species may use different gaits due to differences in anatomy that prevent use of certain gaits, or due to evolved innate preferences as a result of habitat differences. While various gaits are given specific names, the complexity of biological systems and interacting with the environment make these distinctions'fuzzy' at best. Gaits are classified according to footfall patterns, but recent studies prefer definitions based on mechanics; the term does not refer to limb-based propulsion through fluid mediums such as water or air, but rather to propulsion across a solid substrate by generating reactive forces against it. Due to the rapidity of animal movement, simple direct observation is sufficient to give any insight into the pattern of limb movement.

In spite of early attempts to classify gaits based on footprints or the sound of footfalls, it was not until Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey began taking rapid series of photographs that proper scientific examination of gaits could begin. Milton Hildebrand pioneered the classification of gaits; the movement of each limb was partitioned into a stance phase, where the foot was in contact with the ground, a swing phase, where the foot was lifted and moved forwards. Each limb must complete a cycle in the same length of time, otherwise one limb's relationship to the others can change with time, a steady pattern cannot occur. Thus, any gait can be described in terms of the beginning and end of stance phase of three limbs relative to a cycle of a reference limb the left hindlimb. Gaits are classed as "symmetrical" and "asymmetrical" based on limb movement, it is important to note. In a symmetrical gait, the left and right limbs of a pair alternate, while in an asymmetrical gait, the limbs move together.

Asymmetrical gaits are sometimes termed "leaping gaits", due to the presence of a suspended phase. The key variables for gait are the forelimb-hindlimb phase relationship. Duty factor is the percent of the total cycle which a given foot is on the ground; this value will be the same for forelimbs and hindlimbs unless the animal is moving with a specially trained gait or is accelerating or decelerating. Duty factors over 50 % are considered a "walk". Forelimb-hindlimb phase is the temporal relationship between the limb pairs. If the same-side forelimbs and hindlimbs initiate stance phase at the same time, the phase is 0. If the same-side forelimb contacts the ground half of the cycle than the hindlimb, the phase is 50%. Gait choice can have effects beyond immediate changes in limb movement and speed, notably in terms of ventilation; because they lack a diaphragm and salamanders must expand and contract their body wall in order to force air in and out of their lungs, but these are the same muscles used to laterally undulate the body during locomotion.

Thus, they cannot move and breathe at the same time, a situation called Carrier's constraint, though some, such as monitor lizards, can circumvent this restriction via buccal pumping. In contrast, the spinal flexion of a galloping mammal causes the abdominal viscera to act as a piston and deflating the lungs as the animal's spine flexes and extends, increasing ventilation and allowing greater oxygen exchange. Any given animal uses a restricted set of gaits, different species use different gaits. All animals are capable of symmetrical gaits, while asymmetrical gaits are confined to mammals, who are capable of enough spinal flexion to increase stride length. Lateral sequence gaits during walking and running are most common in mammals, but arboreal mammals such as monkeys, some opossums, kinkajous use diagonal sequence walks for enhanced stability. Diagonal sequence walks and runs are most used by sprawling tetrapods such as salamanders and lizards, due to the lateral oscillations of their bodies during movement.

Bipeds are a unique case, most bipeds will display only three gaits - walking and hopping - during natural locomotion. Other gaits, such as human skipping, are not used without deliberate effort. While gaits can be classified by footfall, new work involving whole-body kinematics and force-plate records has given rise to an alternative classification scheme, based on the mechanics of the movement. In this scheme, movements are divided into running. Walking gaits are all characterized by a'vaulting' movement of the body over the legs described as an inverted pendulum. In running, the kinetic and potential energy fluctuate in-phase, the energy change is passed on to muscles, bones and ligaments acting as springs. Speed governs gait selection, with quadrupedal mammals moving from a walk to a run to a gallop as speed increases; each of these gaits has an optimum speed, at which the minimum calories per meter are consumed, costs increase at slower or faster speeds. Gait transitions occur near the speed where the cost of a fast walk becomes higher than the cost of a slow run.

Unrestrained animals will move at the optimum speed

Fukuoka Tower

Fukuoka Tower is a 234-metre tall tower located in the Momochihama area of Fukuoka, Japan. It is the tallest seaside tower in Japan; the highest observation deck at 123m has a 360degree view of the surrounding area, the most popular time to visit is at sunset. Fukuoka Tower was finished in 1989, taking a total of 14 months to build at a cost of ¥6,000,000,000, it was designed by Nikken Sekkei. It was built on reclaimed land out of Hakata Bay. Fukuoka Tower has a triangular cross-section, covered with 8000 half-mirrors, giving it the appearance of a skyscraper; because of this, it has been given the nickname "Mirror Sail". The half-mirrors reflect the sky when viewed from outside the structure but allow visitors to see outside while riding elevators to the top; the space between the base and the observation decks is hollow and thus unoccupied. There are three observation decks: one at 116 metres, a café/lounge deck at 120 metres, the highest at 123 metres above the ground. Above this level rises a 111-metre television mast.

The underground weight of Fukuoka Tower is 25,000 tons. Its weight above ground, by contrast, is only 3,500 tons; the tower is designed to wind speeds up to 65 m/s. The strongest recorded earthquake in the area has been the strongest winds 49 m/s; the tower is located at Sawara-ku, Fukuoka. The tower appears in the Japanese film SpaceGodzilla. In a battle between the titular monsters, Godzilla destroys the tower. List of tallest buildings in Japan Fukuoka Tower HP Fukuoka Tower HP Kyushu.com Profile

József Keresztessy (fencer)

József Keresztessy master of fencing, founder of the sword fencing in Hungary. He was born in Hungary, he got a job at the Fencing Institution in Pest under the direction of Ignác Friedrich. Here he was the assistant in fencing. After practising through six years he was getting a diploma about becoming a master of fencing. After getting this document he started to teach in the National Fencing Institute in Pest. During the Hungarian Revolution he was a member of Lajos Aulich’s company, he took part in the battles of Buda, as a soldier of György Klapka, at the Battles of Komárom. His room of fencing was opened in 1851. Kenyeres Ágnes, eds.. "Keresztessy József". Magyar életrajzi lexikon 1000-1990. Arcanum Adatbázis Kft. Retrieved 2012-07-23. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter http://epa.oszk.hu/00000/00030/01995/pdf/01995.pdf | Vasárnapi Ujság - 39. Évfolyam, 22. Szám, 1892. Május 29