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Galactose

Galactose sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar, about as sweet as glucose, about 65% as sweet as sucrose. It is a C-4 epimer of glucose. A galactose linked with a glucose comprise lactose. Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose found in hemicellulose, forming the core of the galactans, a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates; the word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman in the mid 19th century and is derived from Greek galaktos and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose. The etymology is comparable to that of the word lactose in that both contain roots meaning "milk sugar". Lactose is a disaccharide of galactose plus glucose. Galactose exists in both cyclic form; the open-chain form has a carbonyl at the end of the chain. Four isomers are cyclic, two of them with a pyranose ring, two with a furanose ring. Galactofuranose occurs in bacteria and protozoa, is recognized by a putative chordate immune lectin intelectin through its exocyclic 1,2-diol. In the cyclic form there are two anomers, named alpha and beta, since the transition from the open-chain form to the cyclic form involves the creation of a new stereocenter at the site of the open-chain carbonyl.

In the beta form, the alcohol group is in the equatorial position, whereas in the alpha form, the alcohol group is in the axial position. Galactose is a monosaccharide; when combined with glucose, through a condensation reaction, the result is the disaccharide lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzymes lactase and β-galactosidase; the latter is produced by the lac operon in Escherichia coli. In nature, lactose is found in milk and milk products. Various food products made with dairy-derived ingredients can contain lactose. Galactose metabolism, which converts galactose into glucose, is carried out by the three principal enzymes in a mechanism known as the Leloir pathway; the enzymes are listed in the order of the metabolic pathway: galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, UDP-galactose-4’-epimerase. In human lactation, glucose is changed into galactose via hexoneogenesis to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose. However, most lactose in breast milk is synthesized from galactose taken up from the blood, only 35±6% is made from galactose from de novo synthesis.

Glycerol contributes some to the mammary galactose production. Glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for humans, it is more stable than galactose and is less susceptible to the formation of nonspecific glycoconjugates, molecules with at least one sugar attached to a protein or lipid. Many speculate that it is for this reason that a pathway for rapid conversion from galactose to glucose has been conserved among many species; the main pathway of galactose metabolism is the Leloir pathway. The Leloir pathway consists of the latter stage of a two-part process that converts β-D-galactose to UDP-glucose; the initial stage is the conversion of β-D-galactose to α-D-galactose by mutarotase. The Leloir pathway carries out the conversion of α-D-galactose to UDP-glucose via three principal enzymes: Galactokinase phosphorylates α-D-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate, or Gal-1-P. Galactosemia is an inability to properly break down galactose due to a genetically inherited mutation in one of the enzymes in the Leloir pathway.

As a result, the consumption of small quantities is harmful to galactosemics. Galactose is found in dairy products, sugar beets, other gums and mucilages, it is synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues. Chronic systemic exposure of mice and Drosophila to D-galactose causes the acceleration of senescence, it has been reported that high dose exposure of D-galactose can cause reduced sperm concentration and sperm motility in rodent and has been extensively used as an aging model. Two studies have suggested a possible link between galactose in ovarian cancer. Other studies show no correlation in the presence of defective galactose metabolism. More pooled analysis done by the Harvard School of Public Health showed no specific correlation between lactose-containing foods and ovarian cancer, showed statistically insignificant increases in risk for consumption of lactose at 30 g/day. More research is necessary to ascertain possible risks; some ongoing studies suggest galactose may have a role in treatment of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

This effect is to be a result of binding of galactose to FSGS factor. Galactose is a component of the antigens present on blood cells that determine blood type within the ABO blood group system. In O and A antigens, there are two monomers of galactose on the antigens, whereas in the B antigens there are three monomers of galactose. A disaccharide composed of two units of galactose, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, has been recognized as a potential allergen present in mammal meat. Alpha-gal allergy may be triggered by lone star tick bites. In 1855, E. O. Erdmann noted. Galactose was first isolated and s

James J. Connolly

James Joseph Connolly was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives for Pennsylvania. James Connolly was born in Pennsylvania, he was a member of the Republican State committee, served as financial secretary of the Republican city committee of Philadelphia. He was elected in 1920 as a Republican to the six succeeding Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1934 and 1936. After his term in Congress, he was engaged in the real-estate business, Vice President of Philadelphia Transportation Co. and Transit Investment Corporation. United States Congress. "James J. Connolly". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

List of schools in Cumbria

This is a list of schools in Cumbria, England. George Hastwell School, Walney James Rennie School, Carlisle Mayfield School, Whitehaven Sandgate School, Kendal Sandside Lodge School, Ulverston Barrow-in-Furness Sixth Form College, Barrow-in-Furness Carlisle College, Carlisle Furness College, Barrow-in-Furness Kendal College, Kendal Lakes College West Cumbria, Workington Newton Rigg College, part of Askham Bryan College, Penrith Casterton, Sedbergh Preparatory School, Casterton/Sedbergh Hunter Hall School, Penrith Austin Friars St Monica's School, Carlisle Lime House School, Carlisle Sedbergh School, Sedbergh Windermere School, Windermere Appletree School, Kendal Eden Park Academy, Carlisle Kirby Moor School, Brampton Oversands School, Witherslack Underley Garden School, Kirkby Lonsdale Whinfell School, Kendal Wings School, Whassett

HornĂ¡ Lehota, Brezno District

Horná Lehota is a village and municipality in Brezno District, in the Banská Bystrica Region of central Slovakia. In historical records, the village was first mentioned in 1406, it belonged to the castle of Slovenská Ľupča. Samo Chalupka, writer The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1708-1923 Lutheran church records: 1784-1927 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia http://www.e-obce.sk/obec/hornalehota/horna-lehota.html https://web.archive.org/web/20061117040130/http://www.hornalehota.sk/index.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20060429155953/http://www.nizketatry.sk/obce/hlehota/hlehota.html Surnames of living people in Horna Lehota

Hodkovce

Hodkovce is a village and municipality in Košice-okolie District in the Kosice Region of eastern Slovakia. The village was first mentioned in 1318; the village lies at an altitude of 323 metres and covers an area of 7.573 km². It has a population of about 250 people. Hodkovce has a single Roman Catholic temple, built in 1832 in classicistic style with baroque motives; the temple contains a few relics from the nineteenth century. Anna, Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus. List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Kosice, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1761-1907 Greek Catholic church records: 1870-1902 Surnames of living people in Hodkovce

Soul II Soul discography

British musical group Soul II Soul has released five studio albums, two compilation albums, two live albums, twenty-three singles. Soul II Soul released their debut album Club Classics Vol. One in April 1989 and it peaked at number 1 on the UK Albums Chart, it peaked at number 14 on the US Top 200 Album chart and earned a 2x platinum certification in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America. The album's top singles, "Keep On Movin'" and "Back to Life", reached number one on the Billboard R&B chart and were certified platinum by the RIAA. Second album, Vol. II: 1990 – A New Decade, was released in May 1990, their subsequent releases after their debut album were not as successful in the US, but their second release peaked at number 1 on the UK Albums chart. The first and second single, "Get a Life" and "A Dream's a Dream", charted in the top ten on the UK Singles Chart; the group's third album, Volume III Just Right, was released in April 1992 and reached number three on the UK Albums Chart.

The lead single "Joy" reached number 4 in the UK and the follow-up single "Move Me No Mountain" charted at number 31. In November 1993, a greatest hits compilation titled Volume IV The Classic Singles 88–93 was released. After a three-year hiatus working on solo projects, the group reunited to record their fourth studio album, Volume V Believe, released in July 1995; the album reached number thirteen in the UK. Two singles were released from the album: "Love Enuff" and "I Care"; the first two singles charted in top twenty in UK. A final studio album, Time for Change, was released in September 1997 following their split; as of 2016, they have sold over ten million records worldwide