Börek is a family of baked filled pastries made of a thin flaky dough such as phyllo or yufka, of Anatolian origins and found in the cuisines of the Balkans, Levant and other countries in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. A börek may be prepared in a large pan and cut into portions after baking, or as individual pastries; the top of the börek is sprinkled with sesame seeds. It may have been invented in the homeland of wheat, what is now modern Turkey, in the Anatolian Provinces of the Ottoman Empire, it become a popular element of Ottoman cuisine, or it may date back earlier to the Classical era of the eastern Mediterranean region. Börek may have its origins in Turkish cuisine and may be one of its most significant and, in fact, ancient elements of the Turkish cuisine, having been developed by the Turks of Central Asia before their westward migration to Anatolia in the late Middle Ages, or it may be a descendent of the pre-existing Eastern Roman Anatolian dish en tyritas plakountas "cheesy placenta," itself a descendant of placenta, the classical baked layered dough and cheese dish of Ancient Roman cuisine.
Cato included a recipe for placenta in his De Agri Cultura. Shape the placenta as follows: place a single row of tracta along the whole length of the base dough; this is covered with the mixture from the mortar. Place another row of tracta on top and go on doing so until all the cheese and honey have been used up. Finish with a layer of tracta...place the placenta in the oven and put a preheated lid on top of it. The word börek refers to any dish made with yufka. Tietze proposes that the word comes from the Turkic root bur-'to twist'. Sevortyan offers various alternative etymologies, all of them based on a fronted vowel /ö/ or /ü/. Tietze's proposed source "bur-" for büräk/börek is not included, because sound harmony would dictate a suffix "-aq" with a harmonised, backed /q/. Turkic languages in Arabic orthography, invariably write ك and not ق which rules out "bur-" which has a backed vowel /u/ at its core; the Tatar böregi is a cheese and mint filled alternative name for the dumpling-like dish called mantı which much resemble ravioli.
Börek is popular in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire in North Africa and throughout the Balkans. The Southern Slavic cuisines feature derivatives of the börek. Börek is part of Mizrahi and Sephardic Jewish traditions, they have been enthusiastically adopted by the Ottoman Jewish communities, have been described, along with boyos de pan and bulemas, as forming "the trio of preeminent Ottoman Jewish pastries". Turkey enjoys a wide variety of regional variations of börek among the different cultures and ethnicities composing it, including: Su böreği'water börek' is one of the most common types. Sheets of dough are boiled in large pans a mixture of feta cheese and parsley and oil is scattered between the layers; the whole thing is laid in a masonry oven to cook. It may be thought of as less saucy version of the Italian lasagna. Sigara böreği'cigarette börek' or kalem böreği'pen börek', a smaller, cylindrical variety is filled with feta cheese, potato and sometimes with minced meat or sausage.
A variety of vegetables and spices are used in böreks, such as spinach, nettle and courgette, ground black pepper. The name kalem böreği was adopted in September 2011 by some Turkish pastry organisations in order to avoid alluding to smoking. Paçanga böreği, is a traditional Sephardic Jewish specialty of Istanbul filled with pastırma or kaşar, julienned green peppers fried in olive oil and eaten as a meze. Saray böreği'palace börek' is a layered börek where fresh butter is rolled between each of the dough sheets. Talaş böreği or Nemse böreği'sawdust' or'Austrian' börek, is a small square börek filled with lamb cubes and green peas, that has starchier yufka sheets, making it puffy and crispy. Kol böreği'arm börek' is prepared in long rolls, either rounded or lined, filled with either minced meat, feta cheese, spinach or potato and baked at a low temperature. Sarıyer böreği is a smaller and a little fattier version of the "Kol böreği", named after Sarıyer, a district of Istanbul Gül böreği'rose börek' known as Yuvarlak böreği'round or spiral börek' are rolled into small spirals and have a spicier filling than other börek.
Çiğ börek or Çibörek'raw börek' is a half-round shaped börek, filled with raw minced meat and fried in oil on the concave side of the sac popular in places with a thriving Tatar community, such as Eskişehir, Polatlı and Konya. Töbörek is another Tatar variety, similar to a çiğ börek, but baked either on the convex side of the sac, or in a masonry oven instead of being fried in oil. Laz böreği, a specialty of the Rize region, is a sweet version, filled with muhallebi and served sprinkled with powdered sugar, it similar with Greek Bougatsa. Kürt Böreği is similar to Laz böreği, without the custard filling, it is called sade börek and served with fine powdered sugar. Most of the time, the word "börek" is accompanied in Turkish by a descriptive word referring to the shape, ingredients of the pastry, for the cooking methods or for or a specific region where it is prepared, as in the above kol böreği, su böreği, talaş böreği or Sarıyer böreği. In Albania, this dish is called lakror. In Kosovo and few other regions byrek is known as "pite".
The most common fillings inclu
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the Levant, the Caucasus, Maghreb, of Central and West Asia; the word baklava is first attested in English in 1650, a borrowing from Ottoman Turkish بقلاوه /bɑːklɑvɑː/. The name baklava is used in many languages with minor spelling variations. Historian Paul D. Buell argues that the word "baklava" may come from the Mongolian root baγla-'to tie, wrap up, pile up' composed with the Turkic verbal ending -v. Armenian linguist Sevan Nişanyan considers its oldest known forms to be baklağı and baklağu, labels it as being of Proto-Turkic origin. Another form of the word is recorded in Persian, باقلبا. Though the suffix -vā might suggest a Persian origin, the baqla- part does not appear to be Persian and remains of unknown origin; the Arabic name بقلاوة baqlāwa originates from Turkish, though a folk etymology, unsupported by Wehr's dictionary, connects it to Arabic بقلة /baqlah/'bean'.
Although the history of baklava is not well documented, its current form was developed in the imperial kitchens of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. The Sultan presented trays of baklava to the Janissaries every 15th of the month of Ramadan in a ceremonial procession called the Baklava Alayı. There are three proposals for the pre-Ottoman roots of baklava: the Roman placenta cake, as developed through Byzantine cuisine, the Central Asian Turkic tradition of layered breads, or the Persian lauzinaq; the oldest recipe that resembles a similar dessert is the honey covered baked layered-dough dessert placenta of Roman times, which Patrick Faas identifies as the origin of baklava: "The Greeks and the Turks still argue over which dishes were Greek and which Turkish. Baklava, for example, is claimed by both countries. Greek and Turkish cuisine both built upon the cookery of the Byzantine Empire, a continuation of the cooking of the Roman Empire. Roman cuisine had borrowed a great deal from the ancient Greeks, but placenta had a Latin, not a Greek, origin—please note that the conservative, anti-Greek Cato left us this recipe."
Shape the placenta as follows: place a single row of tracta along the whole length of the base dough. This is covered with the mixture from the mortar. Place another row of tracta on top and go on doing so until all the cheese and honey have been used up. Finish with a layer of tracta.... Place the placenta in the oven and put a preheated lid on top of it... When ready, honey is poured over the placenta. Andrew Dalby identifies this, surrounding dessert recipes in Cato, as coming from a "Greek tradition" and cites Antiphanes as quoted by Athenaeus. Several sources state that this Roman dessert continued to evolve during the Byzantine Empire into modern baklava. In antiquity the Greek word plakous was used for Latin placenta, the American scholar Speros Vryonis describes one type of plakous, koptoplakous, as a "Byzantine favorite" and "the same as the Turkish baklava", as do other writers. Indeed, the Roman word placenta is used today on the island of Lesbos in Greece to describe a baklava-type dessert of layered pastry leaves containing crushed nuts, baked and covered in honey.
Muhammad bin Hasan al-Baghdadi was a compiler from the Abbasid period who described lauzinaq, a dessert said by some to have been similar to baklava, though others say it was not like baklava. Lauzinaq, which derives from the Aramaic word for almond, refers to small pieces of almond paste wrapped in thin pastry and drenched in syrup. Al-Baghdadi's cookbook, Kitab al-Tabikh, was written in 1226 and was based on a collection of 9th century Persian-inspired recipes. According to Gil Marks, Middle Eastern pastry makers developed the process of layering the ingredients; the only original manuscript of al-Baghdadi's book survives at the Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul and according to Charles Perry, "for centuries, it had been the favorite cookbook of the Turks," though Perry notes that the manuscript has no recipe for baklava. A further 260 recipes had been added to the original by Turkish compilers at an unknown date retitling it as Kitâbü’l-Vasfi’l-Et‘ime el-Mu‘tâde, two of its known three copies can be found now at the Topkapı Palace Library in Istanbul.
Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Shirwani, the physician of the Ottoman Sultan Murad II prepared a Turkish translation of the book, adding around 70 contemporary recipes. Another recipe for a similar dessert is güllaç, a dessert found in the Turkish cuisine and considered by some as the origin of baklava, it consists of layers of filo dough. It is served with walnut and fresh pomegranate and eaten during Ramadan; the first known documentation of güllaç is attested in a food and health manual, written in 1330 that documents Mongol foods called Yinshan Zhengyao, written by Hu Sihui, an ethnic Mongol court dietitian of the Yuan dynasty. Uzbek cuisine has pakhlava, puskal or yupka or in Tatar yoka, which are sweet and salty savories prepared with 10–12 layers of dough. There are some similarities between baklava and the Ancient Greek desserts gastris, kopte sesamis, kopton found in book XIV of the Deipnosophistae. However, the recipe there is f
Ktipiti known as Tirokafteri in some regions, is a cheese spread from Greece. The preparation of the dish may vary from region to region, but ingredients most include feta cheese, hot peppers, roasted peppers, olive oil, lemon juice, yogurt, or oregano, it is eaten as part of a mezze platter, or by itself, with slices of warm pita bread. The dish has a salty taste, with mellow undertones of olive oil. List of spreads
Oregano is a flowering plant in the mint family. It is native to temperate the Mediterranean region. Oregano is a perennial herb; the flowers are purple, 3–4 mm long, produced in erect spikes. It is sometimes called wild marjoram, its close relative, O. majorana, is known as sweet marjoram. The word oregano is derived from Spanish orégano, from Latin orīganum, from Greek ὀρίγανον; this is a compound of όρος, "mountain", γάνος, "brightness", whence "brightness of the mountain". Oregano is related to the herb marjoram. Oregano has spade-shaped, olive-green leaves, it is a perennial, although it is grown as an annual in colder climates, as it does not survive the winter. Oregano is planted in early spring, the plants being spaced 30 cm apart in dry soil, with full sun. Oregano will grow in a pH range between 6.0 and 9.0, with a preferred range between 6.0 and 8.0. It prefers a hot dry climate, but does well in other environments. Many subspecies and strains of oregano have been developed by humans over centuries for their unique flavours or other characteristics.
Tastes range from astringent to more complicated and sweet. Simple oregano sold in garden stores as Origanum vulgare may have a bland taste and larger, less-dense leaves, is not considered the best for culinary use, with a taste less remarkable and pungent, it can pollinate other more sophisticated strains, but the offspring are better in quality. The related species, Origanum onites and O. syriacum, have similar flavours. A related plant is marjoram from Turkey, which differs in taste though, because phenolic compounds are missing from its essential oil; some varieties show a flavour intermediate between marjoram. Accepted subspecies: O. v. subsp. Glandulosum Ietsw. - Tunisia, Algeria O. v. subsp. Gracile Ietsw. has glossy green leaves and pink flowers. It grows well in pots or containers, is more grown for added ornamental value than other oregano; the flavor is spicy. - Central Asia, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan. O. v. subsp. Hirtum Ietsw. - is a common source of cultivars with a different aroma from those of O. v. gracile.
Growth is vigorous and hardy, with darker green hairy foliage. It is considered the best all-purpose culinary subspecies. - Greece, Turkey, Cyprus O. v. subsp. Virens Ietsw. - Morocco, Portugal, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Madeira O. v. subsp. Viridulum Nyman - widespread from Corsica to Nepal O. v. subsp. Vulgare - widespread across Europe + Asia from Ireland to China, they have a reputation for sweet and spicy tones, with little bitterness, are prized for their flavor and compatibility with various recipes and sauces. Oregano is a culinary herb, used for the flavor of its leaves, which can be more flavorful when dried than fresh, it has an aromatic and bitter taste, which can vary in intensity. Good-quality oregano may be strong enough to numb the tongue, but cultivars adapted to colder climates may have a lesser flavor. Factors such as climate and soil composition may affect the aromatic oils present, this effect may be greater than the differences between the various species of plants. Among the chemical compounds contributing to the flavour are carvacrol, limonene, pinene and caryophyllene.
Oregano's most prominent modern use is as the staple herb of Italian cuisine. Its popularity in the U. S. began when soldiers returning from World War II brought back with them a taste for the "pizza herb", eaten in southern Italy for centuries. There, it is most used with roasted, fried, or grilled vegetables and fish. Oregano combines well with spicy foods popular in southern Italy, it is less used in the north of the country, as marjoram is preferred. The herb is used in cuisines of the Mediterranean Basin, the Philippines, Latin America in Argentinian cuisine. In Turkish cuisine, oregano is used for flavoring meat for mutton and lamb. In barbecue and kebab restaurants, it can be found as a condiment, together with paprika and pepper; the dried and ground leaves are most used in Greece to add flavor to Greek salad, is added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies fish or meat grills and casseroles. Oregano oil has been used in folk medicine since ancient times. Oregano essential oil is extracted from the leaves of the oregano plant.
Although oregano or its oil may be used as a dietary supplement, there is no clinical evidence to indicate that either has any effect on huma
Ancient Greek cuisine
Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality for most, reflecting agricultural hardship, but a great diversity of ingredients was known, wealthy Greeks were known to celebrate with elaborate meals and feasts. The cuisine was founded on the "Mediterranean triad" of cereals and grapes, which had many uses and great commercial value, but other ingredients were as important, if not more so, to the average diet: most notably legumes. Research suggests that the agricultural system of Ancient Greece could not have succeeded without the cultivation of legumes. Modern knowledge of ancient Greek cuisine and eating habits is derived from textual and artistic evidence; the Greeks had three to four meals a day. Breakfast consisted of barley bread dipped in wine, sometimes complemented by olives, they ate pancakes called τηγανίτης, ταγηνίτης or ταγηνίας, all words deriving from τάγηνον, "frying pan". The earliest attested references on tagenias are in the works of the 5th century BC poets Cratinus and Magnes.
Tagenites were made with wheat flour, olive oil and curdled milk, were served for breakfast. Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης, from σταίτινος, "of flour or dough of spelt", derived from σταῖς, "flour of spelt". Athenaeus in his Deipnosophistae mentions staititas topped with honey and cheese. A quick lunch was taken around early afternoon. Dinner, the most important meal of the day, was taken at nightfall. An additional light meal was sometimes taken in the late afternoon. Ἀριστόδειπνον / aristodeipnon "lunch-dinner", was served in the late afternoon instead of dinner. Men and women took their meals separately; when the house was too small, the men ate the women afterwards. Slaves waited at dinners. Aristotle notes that "the poor, having no slaves, would ask their wives or children to serve food." Respect for the father, the breadwinner was obvious. The ancient Greek custom of placing terra cotta miniatures of their furniture in children's graves gives us a good idea of its style and design; the Greeks ate while seated on chairs.
The tables, high for normal meals and low for banquets, were rectangular in shape. By the 4th century BC, the usual table was round with animal-shaped legs. Loaves of flat bread could be used as plates. Dishes became more refined over time, by the Roman period plates were sometimes made out of precious metals or glass. Cutlery was not used at the table: use of the fork was unknown. Knives were used to cut the meat. Spoons were used for broths. Pieces of bread could be used to spoon the food or as napkins to wipe the fingers; as with modern dinner parties, the host could invite friends or family. The symposium, traditionally translated as "banquet", but more "gathering of drinkers", was one of the preferred pastimes for Greek men, it consisted of two parts: the first dedicated to food rather simple, a second part dedicated to drinking. However, wine was consumed with the food, the beverages were accompanied by snacks such as chestnuts, toasted wheat, or honey cakes, all intended to absorb alcohol and extend the drinking spree.
The second part was inaugurated with a libation, most in honor of Dionysus, followed by conversation or table games, such as kottabos. The guests would recline on couches. Dancers and musicians would entertain the wealthy banqueters. A "king of the banquet" was drawn by lots. With the exception of courtesans, the banquet was reserved for men, it was an essential element of Greek social life. Great feasts could only be afforded by the rich; the banquet became the setting of a specific genre of literature, giving birth to Plato's Symposium, Xenophon's work of the same name, the Table Talk of Plutarch's Moralia, the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus. The syssitia were mandatory meals shared by social or religious groups for men and youths in Crete and Sparta, they were referred to variously as pheiditia, or andreia. They served as a military mess. Like the symposium, the syssitia was the exclusive domain of men — although some references have been found to substantiate all-female syssitia. Unlike the symposium, these meals were hallmarked by temperance.
Cereals formed the staple diet. The two main grains were barley. In ancient Greece, bread was served with accompaniments known as opson ὄψον, sometimes rendered in English as "relish"; this was a generic term which referred to anything which accompanied this staple food, whether meat or fish, fruit or vegetable. Wheat grains were softened by soaking either reduced into gruel, or ground into flour and kneaded and formed into loaves or flatbreads, either plain or mixed with cheese or honey. Leavening was known. Do
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising