click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Galatama

Galatama was a semi professional football league in Indonesia, established in 1979 by the Indonesian Football Association, PSSI. Prior to the establishment of the competition, an amateur football league named Perserikatan had existed since 1931. Both Perserikatan and Galatama existed and run in parallel until 1994 when they were both merged to form a new, unified league called Liga Indonesia; until 1979, the Perserikatan was the only national-level competition in Indonesia. The competition is an amateur competition. Starting in 1979, Football Association of Indonesia started a semi-professional league, named Liga Sepak Bola Utama, shortened to Galatama. Galatama is one of the pioneers of professional and semi-professional football league in Asia alongside the Hong Kong League. Throughout its history, Galatama always operated in a single-division format except for the 1983 and 1990 seasons, when it was divided into two divisions; until the 1982 season, Galatama allowed the recruitment of foreign players.

One of the most famous foreign players in the competition is Fandi Ahmad. He led his club to win the Galatama title and he became an honorary citizen of Surabaya as an award for his performance with Niac Mitra. Fandi Ahmad and other foreign players were forced to ply their trade outside of Indonesia because of the foreign players ban imposed in Galatama. After a few seasons, the popularity of Galatama is starting to decline; the cause of the decline is blamed on the banning of foreign players, match-fixing allegations, referee bribery scandals. The declining popularity of the league amongst the Indonesian football fans forced many of the league's member clubs to withdraw one by one. In 1994, Galatama and Perserikatan were merged into the professional Liga Indonesia

A–Z Series

The A–Z Series is a series of singles by alternative rock band Ash. Consisting of 26 singles, each represented by a letter of the alphabet, the singles were first released on a fortnightly basis from 12 October 2009 until 27 September 2010 on 7" vinyl and through digital download. Along with the 26 primary singles the series includes 21 B-sides, 13 remixes, 7 acoustic tracks and 2 live tracks which were sporadically released in various formats; the series was released in various other formats, including two compilation CDs Volume 1 released on 19 April 2010 and Volume 2 released on 11 October 2010, a compilation of all 26 tracks on three vinyl LPs was released on 6 November 2012 through Noyes Records and a compact cassette featuring 15 of the band's favourite tracks from the series was released for Cassette Store Day, titled Letters from Alphabet City. The series spawned 6 radio singles; the band's final conventional record, Twilight of the Innocents, was released on 29 June 2007. In an interview with News of the World and vocalist Tim Wheeler spoke of this release and how it contributed towards the band's desire to release in a different way concerning the lack of support from their at-the-time record label Infectious—parented by Warner Music Group.

We spent two years of our lives on that record but the label didn't support it all. It made us wary of putting ourselves in that position again. Right now, I can't see us returning to that way of working and putting out our music."From this the band members themselves formed Atomic Heart Records, setting up headquarters in New York City, calling their new studio Atomic Heart. Band members Tim and Mark both moved to New York; the announcement itself of the band's boycott on the album format came at the time of release for Twilight of the Innocents, which the band called "their final album"—sparking rumours over the possibility of Ash splitting up. Upon entering the studio, the band recorded "Survivor" titled "Ichiban", "Coming Around Again" a cover of Carly Simon, a Beach Boys cover of "Do You Wanna Dance?". Soon after several early titles of tracks surfaced on the band's official website, including "Survivor"—now titled "Ichiban", "Prypiat", written for Twilight of the Innocents, however wasn't finished in time to make the album, "Return of White Rabbit" which at the time Tim Wheeler joked about being their comeback single, "Nouvelle Adventures" which features both Tim and Mark on bass guitar, "No Face", "Daedalus", as well as "Hospital Song" and "Lay Down Your Arms" which were both intended for Twilight of the Innocents.

Soon after more titles were leaked, including "Space Shot" and "Tracer". In NME, vocalist and guitarist Tim Wheeler stated "We wanted to be the first people to do it like this" saying, "I think it'll be great for our fans waiting every two weeks knowing they're going to get a song and wondering what it'll be like. It'll be fun". Bassist Mark Hamilton spoke of the merits of releasing in an alternative way; that was one of the reasons. We had the freedom when launching our own label as well, to try something different, so we're going to give it a go. I think if it works, a lot of people might copy it." Each single is assigned a specific colour and letter A–Z, prequel track "Return of White Rabbit" features the upside down stylized as ʁ, representing the rabbit. The front of each single shows the letter followed by the band's logo below, whilst on the back the track name is shown. "Each colour represents the way I hear each song," Wheeler stated in interview with News of the World "I've got a book of Pantone tints and I've tried to match every track as as possible to the colour that's in my head when I think of the song."

The coloured artwork has been used for the promotion of their A–Z Tour, with each colour representing a place and a letter of the alphabet the band through their forum and the assistance of their webmaster have allowed fans to create their own avatars and use emoticons in the A–Z style. All of the artwork for the series was created by Post 98 Design and Modo Productions, with the exception of the cassette Letters from Alphabet City, created by Elisa Dalla Tor and handmade "Return of White Rabbit" and "War with Me" CD singles which were created by the band; the 26 singles of the A–Z Series were released once every two weeks through both digital download and 7" limited edition vinyl. The opening to the series was a free download "Return of White Rabbit", released on 18 May 2009, promoting the track were three music videos, an animated one created by Big Button, a home-made one — following the'White Rabbit' around New York City, a live footage video, filmed by fans at Thekla in Bristol; the first single to be announced for release was "True Love 1980", opening the series on 12 October 2009, with subscription to the series itself opening on 5 October 2009.

The band in October 2009 confirmed that only the first half of the A–Z Series were "set in stone", with mastering taking place, the artwork and release dates confirmed, however the second half of the series would at the time be decided once the series had been launched, with the

Gakhwangjeon Hall

Gakhwangjeon Hall is a hall of worship at Hwaeomsa, a Buddhist temple in Gurye, Jeollanam-do, South Korea. It overlooks the northwest end of the courtyard. In addition to being one of the largest Buddhist halls in South Korea, Gakhwangjeon Hall is registered as National Treasure 67 by the Cultural Heritage Administration; the largest edifice of Hwaeomsa from the Unified Silla period until the mid-Joseon Dynasty was Jangnyukjeon Hall, a multi-story wooden structure whose inner stone walls were inscribed with the Flower Garland Sutra. Jangnyukjeon Hall was destroyed in 1593 when the temple was burned to the ground by the Japanese during the Imjin War; the restoration of Hwaeomsa was begun in 1630 by the monk Byeogam Gakseong but at that time the cost of rebuilding Jangnyukjeon Hall was beyond the temple's means. From 1699 to 1702 the monk Gyepa Seongneung, one of Gakseong's disciples, oversaw the reconstruction of the hall, subsequently renamed Gakhwangjeon Hall; the majority of the funding was contributed by Lady Hwagyeong, a consort of King Sukjong, several noblemen holding senior positions in the government bureaucracy.

Gakhwangjeon Hall was one of the most important feats of mid-Joseon Buddhist architecture. Constructed from wood onto a stone base, the hall is two stories in height and measures seven bays across, it underwent a major renovation in the Japanese colonial period, during which the hall was disassembled and rebuilt. The hall's inner sanctum contains seven altar statues executed in 1703 by the influential sculptor Saengnan, they include the seated Buddha triad of Sakyamuni, Amitābha and Prabhutaratna, representing the Buddhas of the Three Periods, attended by standing Bodhisattva statues of Avalokiteśvara, Samantabhadra and Ksitigarbha. Altar paintings of the three Buddhas were completed in 1860, although one mistakenly depicts Bhaisajyaguru instead of Prabhutaratna. During the Unified Silla period Hwaeomsa was a leading Buddhist monastery of the Flower Garland school, its principle edifice was Jangnyukjeon Hall, a multi-story wooden structure whose inner sanctum had stone plates engraved with the entire Flower Garland Sutra attached to the walls.

This building was lost however when Japanese soldiers burned Hwaeomsa to the ground in 1593 during the Imjin War. The temple was restored from 1630 to 1636 by the monk Byeogam Gakseong, responsible for rebuilding some of the most important monasteries of the Joseon Dynasty. Gakseong was the senior-most figure in the Righteous Monk Army and had close ties with the Joseon throne, both of which were assumed by successive generations of his disciples. At Hwaeomsa he erected Daeungjeon Hall and several other essential structures but the poor state of the post-war economy made the cost of rebuilding Jangnyukjeon Hall prohibitive. Records from Hwaeomsa and other monks tell that the reconstruction of Jangnyukjeon Hall was Gakseong's dying wish, his cause was taken up by a disciple, the eminent monk and man of letters Baegam Seongchong. After a spell as abbot of Yungmusa Seongchong appears to have moved to Hwaeomsa sometime in the 1690s and wrote An Appeal for Alms to Sculpt Icons for and Rebuild Jangnyukjeon Hall of Hwaeomsa, Gurye to help solicit contributions.

He brought along his student of three years, the monk Gyepa Seongneung, whom Seongchong placed in charge of rebuilding the hall. Little has survived about Seongneung's early life, it is recorded in A Chronicle of the Great Temple Hwaeomsa of Jirisan, Haedong, a history of the temple compiled by Jeong Byeongheon, that Seongneung hailed from Yecheon. Seongneung began construction work in 1699, although Seongchong himself died in 1700 before it could be completed; the reconstruction was made possible by a combination of the temple's influence, state patronage and royal interest. The principle patrons were Lady Hwagyeong, a royal consort to King Sukjong, her son Prince Yeoning, still but a young child. Records indicate that several notable members of the government were contributors; these were: the senior-most member of the bureaucracy. In light of the fact that the typical benefactors of Buddhist institutions during this period were poor farmers and women their patronage proved essential, yet odd given that by the late 17th century the Old Doctrine faction had regained political dominance at court, fostering a renewed ostracism of Buddhism.

Professor Lee Kang-geun argues that their support was part of the struggle over the royal succession. Since his birth, the Old Doctrine faction had secretly been supporting Yeoning as a possible rival to the son of Jang Okjeong, the royal consort who had for a time supplanted Queen Inhyeon. Indeed, the motives of Hwagyeong, who made the donation on behalf of her son, now appear to have been more political than religious. Alternatively, Lee suggests that it might have been Inhyeon herself, supporting the reconstruction on behalf of Hwagyeong and her son as an act of invocation for their future at court; the Old Doctrine fa

Big-eared horseshoe bat

The big-eared horseshoe bat is a bat species within the Rhinolophidae native to China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Vietnam. The big-eared horseshoe bat was described as a new species in 1844 by English zoologist Edward Blyth; the holotype had been collected by Brian Houghton Hodgson in Nepal. The species name "macrotis" is from Ancient Greek makrós meaning "long" and oûs meaning "ear", it contains many subspecies. M. hirsutus, R. m. episcopus were described as full species, but George Henry Hamilton Tate included them as subspecies of R. macrotis in a 1943 publication. In the same publication, Tate included R. m. caldwelli as a subspecies. Most R. m. siamensis has been considered a full species rather than a subspecies, known as the Thai horseshoe bat. The big-eared horseshoe bat can be differentiated from other horseshoe bats by its long ears and a tongue-shaped sella, long and broad; the big-eared horseshoe bat is found in several countries in South and Southeast Asia including Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

As of 2008, its presence was possible but not confirmed in Bhutan. It has been documented at a range of elevations from 200–1,692 m above sea level

Hidden Valley Lake, California

Hidden Valley Lake is a census-designated place and gated subdivision in Lake County, United States. The population was 5,579 at the 2010 census, up from 3,777 at the 2000 census. Today, it is a CID known as Hidden Valley Lake Association. Hidden Valley Lake, CA, was originated and developed by the USA Land Corp. from the late 1960s until 1972. During that time, a dam was constructed across Coyote Creek creating the 102 acre "Hidden Valley Lake." During that time several buildings were constructed - clubhouse, cart barn, tennis courts and campground - and the 18-Hole "Billy Bell" golf course was installed. Its original design was as a vacation/recreation retreat. From 1970-72, the Equestrian Center and Country Club were built. 3310 lots were laid out for homes. Another 695 larger lots were laid out in a nearby area called "The Ranchos." In 1972, USA Land Corp. was bought by Boise Cascade. BC offered regular homes and vacation rentals. BC promoted the leisure-time and recreational activities available at HVL throughout the Western USA.

By 1973, there were 85 homes built. Throughout the 1970s most property buyers were families who planned to build vacation homes, they made use of the campgrounds. Calpine Corp. began construction of a geothermal power plant several miles to the south. Their workers plus speculators and retirees began to buy lots and build homes in HVL. BC built a large Marina at the southeast end of Clearlake. BC provided well financially for all the leisure/recreational activities in HVL and put on low-cost activities and meals for owners: including horse, bike and paddle-boat rentals. Annual assessments were $70 per year. BC had suffered several class-action-suits. BC turned HVL over to the Hidden Valley Lake Association and its board of directors along with a $200,000 starter fund in 1974. During 1974, HVLA sold the Marina at Clearlake. Lake County agreed to assume responsibility for the drainage easements but declined to take care of the roads within HVL; the Board realized assessments had to be raised in order to have funds to maintain amenities, safety/security operations, etc.

Assessments proved inadequate due to the insufficient amount and due to lax collection practices. Thus maintenance was deferred and compromises were made based on "priorities determined by the prevailing, transitory interests of the Board…". For the remainder of the 70's and well into the 80's a majority of property owners did not live in HVL, either using it for vacations or holding the land for investment. Beginning in the early 1980s, an operational shift onto the Golf Operations occurred; the HVLA magazine, "Compass" stated in its Oct. 2007 issue, "…to better serve our golfers, to facilitate nonresident use, the day to day operation of the bar and restaurant was moved to the Hartmann Road facility in 1980." Mulligan's Bar and the Greenview Restaurant came into being. The existing water utility, Stone House Mutual Water Company, was transformed into a separate Community Services District with its own Board of Directors. Additional sewer systems were constructed and roads were re-paved. Funds put toward safety and security varied depending upon Board "…perceptions of abuse to amenities and threats of vandalism from non-property owners.".

Events and conditions throughout the 1980s - Late 1980s - Court receivership. Related to a preceding period of "several cycles of growth, internal turmoil and stagnation. Property values dropped. Assessments were increased reaching $84/yr. by 1988. In 1989, the Board attempted a 233% increase in assessments; this resulted in a consequent lesser "special" assessment. Awareness increased that HVLA was becoming too complex to run without outside help. Board began to hire paid-staff. Throughout the late 1980s and through at least to 2004, the following statements from the HVLA "Compass" Aug. 2005 are descriptive: "Very flawed budget process…". Docks & piers disappeared. Maintenance neglected. Roads deteriorated seriously. Fountains & ponds just holes.". 1450 homes.". 1720 homes.". Other events and conditions throughout the 1990s - The Association was fiscally unable to provide services to "The Ranchos" area. Owners from that area severed their relationship with HVLA. First professionally trained/certified General Manager, Jay Hutton, hired, 1992.

More young families began moving in triggered by HVL's inexpensive housing and by the desirable amenities. Three more "special" assessments. By 1999, assessments were $810/yr. Coyote Valley School and Hardester's Market complex was developed, 1992-93. Conflict had developed between Mr. Hutton and the Board, resulting in his l

Alex Nicholson (fighter)

Alexander Nicholson is an American professional mixed martial artist competing in the heavyweight division of the Professional Fighters League. A professional competitor since 2014, he has competed for the Legacy Fighting Alliance. Born and raised in Apopka, Nicholson played basketball growing up before being introduced to martial arts and boxing. In boxing, he was a Florida Golden Gloves Champion, as well as a state amateur Muay Thai champion, in which he was undefeated. After an amateur career in 2012 and 2013 where he held a record of 3-6, Nicholson made his professional MMA debut in February 2014, he amassed a record of 6 wins against 1 loss before signing with the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Nicholson made his UFC debut on February 6, 2016 at UFC Fight Night: Hendricks vs. Thompson, he lost the fight via submission in the second round. In his second fight for the promotion, Nicholson faced Devin Clark in a Middleweight bout at UFC Fight Night: McDonald vs. Lineker on July 13, 2016, he won the fight via knockout in the first round.

In his third fight for the promotion, Nicholson faced Sam Alvey at UFC Fight Night: dos Anjos vs. Ferguson on November 5, 2016, he lost the fight by unanimous decision. In his fourth fight for the promotion, Nicholson faced Jack Hermansson at UFC Fight Night: Gustafsson vs. Teixeira on May 28, 2017, he lost the fight via TKO in the first round. Subsequent to this fight, Nicholson was released from the promotion. In June 2018, Nicholson entered into the $1 million Heavyweight tournament held by Professional Fighters League, he faced |Jake Heun in the opening round at PFL 1 on June 7, 2018. He won the fight via knockout due to a flying knee in the second round. On July 19, Nicholson lost via TKO to Phillipe Lins at PFL 4. In October 2018, Nicholson defeated Jack May by TKO but lost that night via KO to Josh Copeland. In June 2019, NIcholson entered the second season of PFL's Heavyweight tournament and lost a decision to Francimar Barroso. In August, he defeated Zeke Tuinei-Wiley. On October 31, Nicholson lost a rematch against Barroso again by decision.

In December 2019, Nicholson was suspended by the Nevada State Athletic Commission for four years due to testing positive for three steroids. Nicholson made his professional boxing debut in 2015, a KO win, he fought again two months and lost via KO to Simon Kean. Alex Nicholson at UFC Professional MMA record for Alex Nicholson from Sherdog