Pamphilus de amore
Pamphilus de amore is a 780-line, twelfth-century Latin comedic play composed in France but Spain. It was'one of the most influential and important of all the many pseudo-Ovidian productions concerning the "arts of Love"' in medieval Europe, and'the most famous and influential of the medieval elegiac comedies in Spain'; the main protagonists are Galatea. Pamphilus seeks to woo Galatea through the mediation of a procuress. According to Thomas Jay Garbaty,'The Latin original abounds in all aspects of medieval rhetoric as outlined by Geoffrey de Vinsauf, in his Poetria Nova repetitio, oxymoron, alliteration, it is obvious that the author sacrificed much dramatic tension and liveliness for elegance of style'. Pamphilus de amore gave rise to the word pamphlet, in the sense of a small work issued by itself without covers, because the poem was popular and copied and circulated on its own, forming a slim codex; the word came into Middle English ca 1387 as panflet. Pamphilus swiftly became read: it was quoted and anthologised in England, France and Italy in the early thirteenth century.
It is first attested in the Netherlands c. 1250, in Germany c. 1280. It is attested in Castile by c. 1330. It remained popular in England into the late fifteenth century, it was translated into Old Norse in the thirteenth century, as Pamphilus ok Galathea, into French by Jean Brasdefer as Pamphile et Galatée. John Gower and Geoffrey Chaucer knew the poem, Chaucer drawing on it in The Franklin's Tale and Troilus and Criseyde. Alphonse Baudouin, Pamphile, ou l'Art d'étre aimé, comédie latine du Xe siècle Jacobus Ulrich, Codici Turicensi Gustave Cohen, La "Comédie" latine en France au 12e siècle, 2 vols Adolfo Bonilla and San Martín, Una comedia latina del siglo XII:.
HMS Leith (U36)
HMS Leith was a Grimsby-class sloop of the Royal Navy that served in the Second World War. Leith was ordered on 1 November 1932 under the 1931 Programme, she was laid down at Devonport Dockyard on 6 February 1933, launched on 9 September 1933 and commissioned on 10 July 1934. She was assigned to the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy, manned by the Chatham Port Division. Leith arrived at Auckland on 13 November 1934, was deployed in the Pacific and locally in New Zealand waters, she was recommissioned in December 1936 in order to continue to serve with the New Zealand Division and was again in July 1939. She had an active career in the Pacific, making numerous visits to Colonial possessions, on one occasion taking Salote Tupou III, Queen of Tonga on a visit to outlying islands; the outbreak of the Second World War saw Leith still in the Pacific. In September 1939 she sailed to Singapore to carry out contraband control duty on the China Station. During the passage she called at Australia. Leith was deployed at Penang to carry out contraband control, to carry out surveillance on enemy ships in Dutch East Indies ports.
She was recalled from these duties in November and was ordered to sail to the UK to carry out convoy defence duties in Home Waters. She sailed from Penang on 7 November, travelling via the Mediterranean, she arrived at Gibraltar, where she was diverted to go to Freetown to join as an escort for an Atlantic convoy. She joined Convoy SL 14 at Freetown on 26 December, escorting it to the UK. On arrival Leith was deployed to escort convoys. On 10 January she was diverted to join the sloops HMS Aberdeen and Bideford, the destroyers Vidette, Wanderer and Witch in escorting the inbound Convoy HG 14 into Liverpool. Leith took passage for a refit at Penarth; the following day she was taken in hand by a commercial shipyard. After the completion of the refit in February she was nominated to serve with the Western Approaches Command, she joined the command at Liverpool on 2 February. On 11 February she joined the outbound Convoy OG 18 with HMS Bideford, the destroyers HMS Active and Versatile. Leith and Bideford were detached on 17 February and joined the inbound Convoy HG 19, until 27 February.
This pattern of convoy escort duties was followed throughout March to July. In July she was transferred to the Rosyth Escort Force for convoy defence in the North Western Approaches and North Sea, she was soon withdrawn from operational service to attend to a fault in her No 1 Boiler. She was repaired at Belfast. After post-repair trials she resumed services with the Western Approaches Command on 12 August with the 41st Escort Group based at Liverpool. Here she covered the final stages of convoys between Freetown. On 28 August she picked up 27 survivors from the Finnish merchant Elle, sunk north-east of Ireland by German submarine U-101. In October she deployed with the sloop HMS Folkestone and the Flower-class corvettes Bluebell and Heartsease for the defence of the Atlantic convoys during the journey to the dispersal point of the outward convoys and for the final stage of the passage of the inward convoys. On 13 October she joined the outbound Convoy OB 228 from Liverpool to its dispersal point.
On 16 October U-93 attacked Leith. She forced her to submerge. Leith carried out an unsuccessful search for her attacker with HMS Heartsease; the escorts were detached from the convoy on 17 October and sailed to join the inbound Convoy SC 7. On 18 October she rescued 19 survivors from the Estonian merchant Nora, torpedoed and sunk on 13 October by U-103. Together with the sloops HMS Scarborough and Fowey and the corvettes Bluebell and Heartsease they attempted unsuccessfully to fight off the wolf pack attacks of a number of U-boats. Leith rescued survivors from three torpedoed merchant ships including Assyrian and Soesterberg before joining the inbound Convoy HX 79 which had come under heavy U-boat attack. Leith brought them into port, she made a full transatlantic crossing and return in November, escorting an outbound and inbound convoy, before returning to her usual pattern in December, covering the Freetown and Gibraltar convoys. On 9 December she was part of the escort for convoy OG 47 on its way to Gibraltar.
The convoy came under attack on 20 December by the Italian submarine Mocenigo, which sank the merchant Manchester General. Leith was detached from the convoy on its arrival on 25 December and sailed with an inbound convoy to Liverpool on 29 December. On her arrival she returned covering the convoys through the Western Approaches throughout January to April 1941. On 17 April she began a refit at Avonmouth which lasted until May, when she was nominated for convoy defence based in Newfoundland. Leith sailed to join the Newfoundland Escort Force based at St. John's on 6 June, she deployed with them into August. She returned in August to redeploy with the Western Approaches Command. On 20 August she deployed with the destroyers HMS Gurkha and Lance, the corvette HMS Zinnia and the other corvettes of the 5th Escort Group in the defence of the outward Convoy OG 71, consisting of 21 ships from Liverpool on passage to Gibraltar; the Norwegian destroyer HMNoS Bath had been sunk the previous day, along with three merchants.
The convoy continued to be attacked after the reinforcements arrived, despite constant anti-submarine operations. HMS Zinnia and four other merchants were sunk on 22 August; the rest of the convoy arrived at Gibraltar on 25 August. Leith returned to Liverpool in September, escorting Convoy HG 72. In October Leith was at Belfast, before joining the 43rd Escort Group for escort of convoys between UK and Freetown, being based at Lo
Glenlee is a steel-hulled three-masted barque, built in 1896 for Glasgow owners, trading as a cargo ship. From 1922 she was a sail training ship in the Spanish Navy, she is now a museum ship at the Riverside Museum on Pointhouse Quay, known as The Tall Ship at Glasgow Harbour. Glenlee was built by Anderson Rodger & Company at their Bay Shipyard in Port Glasgow for the Glen-line of the Glasgow shipping company Archibald Sterling & Co. Ltd. and was launched on 3 December 1896. She has a hull length of 245.5 ft, beam of 37.5 ft and depth of 22.5 ft, the over-all length with the spike bowsprit is 282 ft. She has 1,613 GRT and 1,490 NRT. Rigged only with double topgallant sails over double top sails, she was not equipped with royal sails to save costs concerning gear and seamen; as with many baldheaded sailing ships the square sails were a little wider than the sails of a standard rigging to gain sail area for a better propulsion. On 13 December 1896, just ten days after she was launched rigged and seaworthy, her maiden voyage brought her in ballast to Liverpool and from there with a general cargo to Portland, Oregon.
For 23 years she traded as a bulk cargo carrier under the Red Ensign via Cape of Good Hope to Australia, returning via Cape Horn, firstly under the ownership of Archibald Sterling and Co, Glasgow as Islamount of Islamount Sailing Ship Co Ltd and with the Flint Castle Shipping Co Ltd, Liverpool. Islamount was renamed the Clarastella in 1919 when she changed hands to the Star of Italy Italian Shipping Company of Milan who registered her in Genoa; the new owner had her equipped with two auxiliary diesel engines. In 1922 the ship came into the hands of the Officers' Military Navy School as Galatea to be used as a sail training ship. During this period the ship underwent a lot of changes to her superstructure. A flying bridge was installed on the poop deck, a flying jibboom was attached to the spike bowsprit, many other changes such as the installation of accommodation facilities for 300 cadets. In April 1931 she became part of the Spanish Republican Navy. At the time of the coup of July 1936 she was at sea and reached Ferrol, a harbour, taken by the Nationalist faction.
After more than 47 years of service as a sail and on as a stationary training ship she was first laid up in A Graña, her Spanish port of registry. In 1981 the underwater hull was re-plated at the drydock in Ferrol. Galatea was de-rigged down to a hulk and was towed to Seville to be used as a floating museum, but left forgotten; some sources reported that the ship was sunk in the harbour by removing her bronze sea cock valve, but salvaged by the Spanish Navy. In any case, the ship was in such poor condition that it was decided to scrap her. In 1990 a British naval architect discovered the ship and in 1993 she was rescued from being scrapped and subsequently bought by the Clyde Maritime Trust at auction for ₧5000,000 or £40,000. After making the hull seaworthy the ship was returned to Glasgow months in tow from Seville. After preliminary works in dry-dock such as the removal of the unnecessary propellers, the check and repair of all the plates below the waterline and new paint, a six-year-long process of restoration began including a new cut wooden figurehead, a complete set of new rigging including the re-assembling and re-stepping of her original masts and re-crossing of the old yards, as well as many other replacements and repairs.
Her old masts and many of the old yards, which still existed somewhere in Spain, were given back by the Spanish when they realized that the old ship would be renewed to her original "Cape Horn status", painted grey again with "gun ports". Her propellors are now situated in the courtyard by the yard arm of the City Of Glasgow College, Nautical Faculty by the River Clyde. Except for the hull a new ship had to be rebuilt. All the changes made to the ship by the Spanish and previous owners had to be removed, such as all the cabins built for the trainees and a lot of scrap iron ballast in the frames of the holds. First of all she was given back her original name, Glenlee, by the Lord Provost of Glasgow on 6 July 1993 when the ship arrived in Glasgow for the first time since her launch in 1896 at her old and new port of registry - Glasgow Harbour. Glenlee is now recognised as part of the National Historic Fleet; as a museum ship and tourist attraction, Glenlee offers educational programmes, events including exhibitions and is a venue for the West End Festival and volunteering opportunities.
Since June 2011, the ship has been open at Glasgow's new Riverside Museum. Glenlee - the Tallship official website Glenlee at Clyde-Built Database Glenlee at the Clyde Maritime Centre, Glasgow Glenlee in times as Islamount square-rigger site of the Glenlee, a well-documented site of its restoration history Glenlee on sailing-ships.oktett.net The Tall Ship, Glenlee - Clyde Waterfront Heritage
Galatea was the unsuccessful Scottish challenger of the sixth America's Cup race in 1886 against American defender Mayflower. Galatea, a gaff cutter, was designed by John Beavor-Webb and built in 1885 for owner Lieutenant William Henn, R. N. of the Royal Northern Yacht Club. The all-metal Galatea had a steel frame, a lead-filled steel keel, a riveted steel-planked hull, painted white; the deck was teak. Galatea was launched in May 1885. After a series of losses in British races, the owner and his wife sailed to New York in the summer of 1886. Galatea lost both races in the September 1886 America's Cup in New York to the American defender Mayflower. During these 1886 voyages, Galatea had a monkey named Peggy on board as a mascot; the monkey became ill and died and was buried in Brooklyn, NY. Following his defeat, he challenged General Paine of the Mayflower to a private rematch, in the spring of 1887 was defeated again. Won the Queen's Jubilee Cup Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron Regatta in Halifax N.
S. 20 August 1887. From 1888 until 1894, Mr. and Mrs. Henn lived aboard Galatea in Britain. Following Lt. Henn's death in 1894, Mrs. Henn continued to live aboard the yacht until her death in 1911. In January 1912, the Galatea was broken up. Media related to Galatea at Wikimedia Commons America's Cup's Ac-clopaedia The 19th Century Yacht Photography of J. S. Johnston
Galatea of the Spheres
Galatea of the Spheres is a painting by Salvador Dalí made in 1952. It depicts Gala Dalí, Salvador Dalí's wife and muse, as pieced together through a series of spheres arranged in a continuous array; the name Galatea refers to a sea nymph of Classical mythology renowned for her virtue, may refer to the statue beloved by its creator, Pygmalion. Measuring 65.0 x 54.0 cm, the painting depicts the bust of Gala composed of a matrix of spheres suspended in space. It represents a synthesis of Renaissance art and atomic theory and illustrates the ultimate discontinuity of matter, the spheres themselves representing atomic particles. Dalí had been interested in nuclear physics since the first atomic bomb explosions of August 1945, described the atom as his "favourite food for thought". Recognising that matter was made up of atoms which did not touch each other, he sought to replicate this in his art at the time, with items suspended and not contacting each other, such as in The Madonna of Port Lligat.
This painting was symbolic of his attempt to reconcile his renewed faith in Catholicism with nuclear physics. His friend, painter Antoni Pitxot, recalled that Dalí held in high regard the depth of perspective in the painting and the spheres he had painted. Dalí wished for this painting to be displayed on an easel, owned by French painter Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, in a suite of three rooms called the Palace of the Winds in the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres, it remains on display there to this day. It was transported to and exhibited at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne in 2009, along with many other Dalí paintings in the Liquid Desire exhibition. Galatea of the Spheres
LMS Jubilee Class 5699 Galatea
London Midland and Scottish Railway Jubilee Class No. 5699 Galatea is a preserved British steam locomotive. 5699 was built at Crewe in April 1936 and named Galatea after HMS Galatea, which in turn was named after the Galatea of mythology. From new it was allocated to Newton Heath shed in Manchester where it was to remain until October 1937 when it was transferred to Millhouses in Sheffield, it was to remain here for the whole duration of the Second World War as it was not transferred again until November 1944 when it was re-allocated to Derby. Further transfers were to follow in 1946 when it was to be transferred to Nottingham and Holbeck, Leeds. British Railways took over operation of Britain's railway network in 1948, it was renumbered from LMS number 5699 to British Railways number 45699 and in May was transferred to Bristol Barrow Road. On 16 August 1953, Galatea was derailed whilst hauling a passenger train at Wilnecote; the derailment was caused by a combination of defects on the locomotive itself, the condition of the track.
Despite the locomotive ending up on its side, only two people were reported injured and it was hardly damaged. Its final shed allocation was at Shrewsbury and it was to remain here until November 1964 when it was withdrawn from service. After withdrawal it was stored at Eastleigh Works in December 1964 and remained there until January of the following year when it was moved by rail to Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, Wales; the locations of 5699 Galatea on particular dates. Galatea was rescued in April 1980 from Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, South Wales by the late Brian Oliver and was moved to The Severn Valley Railway to provide a spare boiler for preserved sister engine 45690 Leander. 45699 was at Tyseley Locomotive Works until 2002 when it was sold to the West Coast Railway Company and moved to Steamtown Carnforth where it was given a complete rebuild. This included the manufacturing of a new middle driving wheel after the original was cut through after a shunting accident at Barry Island.
45699 returned to steam in April 2013 on test runs around the Hellifield circle. When 45699 emerged on its first test run it was wearing the identity of its fellow class member No. 5690 Leander. Galatea made its railtour debut on 19 May 2013 working a private charter from King's Lynn to Norwich, it is as of 2018 operating on the main line working steam specials and is still wearing its British Railways maroon livery. Jubilees detail Railuk database
Mount Galatea is the highest peak of the Kananaskis Range, a subrange of the Canadian Rockies in the province of Alberta. It is located in the upper Spray Lakes Valley of the Kananaskis Country system of provincial parks; the mountain was named in 1922 after the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Galatea, involved in the Battle of Jutland during the First World War. Fresh-Oxygen - route beta, photos