Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, north of Egypt, the earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC, Cyprus was placed under British administration based on Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders, following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. On 15 July 1974, a coup détat was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis and these events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.
The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, as well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, another nearly 4% of the islands area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean, on 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, and her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus, as with many ancient Greek deities, there is more than one story about her origins. According to Hesiods Theogony, she was born when Cronus cut off Uranuss genitals and threw them into the sea, according to Homers Iliad, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. In Plato, these two origins are said to be of hitherto separate entities, Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos, Aphrodite had many lovers—both gods, such as Ares, and men, such as Anchises. She played a role in the Eros and Psyche legend, and was lover and surrogate mother of Adonis. Many lesser beings were said to be children of Aphrodite, Aphrodite is known as Cytherea and Cypris after the two cult sites and Cyprus, which claimed to be her place of birth. Myrtle, doves and swans were sacred to her, the ancient Greeks identified her with the Ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor. Aphrodite had many names such as Acidalia and Cerigo, each used by a different local cult of the goddess in Greece.
The Greeks recognized all of these names as referring to the single goddess Aphrodite, despite the differences in what these local cults believed the goddess demanded of them. The Attic philosophers of the 4th century, drew a distinction between a celestial Aphrodite of transcendent principles, and a separate, common Aphrodite who was the goddess of the people, hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós sea-foam, interpreting the name as risen from the foam. Michael Janda, accepting this as genuine, claims the birth myth as an Indo-European mytheme. Likewise, Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- very and *dʰei- to shine and it has been argued that etymologies based on comparison with Eos are unlikely since Aphrodites attributes are entirely different from those of Eos or the Vedic deity Ushas. A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have suggested in scholarship. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a demon that appears in Middle Babylonian.
Hammarström looks to Etruscan, comparing prϑni lord, an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις and this would make the theonym in origin an honorific, the lady. Hjalmar Frisk and Robert Beekes reject this etymology as implausible, especially since Aphrodite actually appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru, the medieval Etymologicum Magnum offers a highly contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite from the compound habrodíaitos, she who lives delicately, from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a characteristic of Greek obvious from the Macedonians. Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, Cytherea
Pygmalion and Galatea (play)
Pygmalion and Galatea, an Original Mythological Comedy is a blank verse play by W. S. Gilbert in three acts based on the Pygmalion story. It opened at the Haymarket Theatre in London on 9 December 1871, Pygmalion was Gilberts greatest success to that date and is said to have earned him £40,000 during his lifetime. Pygmalion and Galatea was so popular that other Pygmalions were rushed to the stage, in January 1872, Ganymede and Galatea opened at the Gaiety Theatre. This was a version of Franz von Suppés Die schöne Galathee, coincidentally with Arthur Sullivans brother, Fred Sullivan. In March 1872, William Broughs Pygmalion, or, The Statue Fair was revived, and in May of that year, a visiting French company produced Victor Massés Galathée. Gilbert created several blank verse fairy comedies at the Haymarket Theatre for John Baldwin Buckstone and starring William Hunter Kendal and his wife Madge Robertson Kendal, in the early 1870s. These plays, influenced by the work of James Planché, are founded upon the idea of self-revelation by characters under the influence of some magic or some supernatural interference.
The first was The Palace of Truth in 1870, an adapted from a story by Madame de Genlis. Pygmalion and Galatea, a satire of sentimental, romantic attitudes toward myth, was one of seven plays that Gilbert produced in 1871. They established that his capabilities extended far beyond burlesque and won him artistic credentials as a writer of wide range, in Gilberts Pygmalion story, the sculptor is a married man. He sculpts many copies in the image of wife and his wife at first encourages his interest in one of these statues, Galatea. Cynisca is often away, and she doesnt want her husband to be bored, when the statue comes to life, matters become complex, as she falls in love with her creator. Galatea is born so innocent that she appears wayward and disrupts the lives she touches during her one day in the flesh. Under the fire of Cyniscas jealousy, and seeing the difficulty in which she has placed Pygmalion, Galatea decides that her original state was happier, and turns back into a statue. Pygmalion, an Athenian Sculptor – W. H.
Kendal Leucippus, a Soldier – Mr. Howe Chrysos, to do so had been the regular proceeding in burlesque, and the age almost expected it, but Gilberts is not the usual hearty cockney vulgarity. In Pygmalion and Galatea, still more, in Gretchen, the vulgarity is cynical and bitter. The play is, from one side and aggressively disagreeable and its characters are low and selfish. Pygmalion – an antique poetic conception – is reduced here to snobbishness and priggishness and his sister, his wife, his kinsmen, and his friends are insufferable
Theocritus, the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of Theocritus beyond what can be inferred from his writings and we must, handle these with some caution, since some of the poems commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. Theocritus was from Sicily, as he refers to Polyphemus, the cyclops in the Odyssey and he probably lived in Alexandria for a while, where he wrote about everyday life, notably Pharmakeutria. It is speculated that Theocritus was born in Syracuse, lived on the island of Kos and he says, Bucolic muses, once were ye scattered, but now one byre, one herd is yours. The second epigram is anonymous, and runs as follows, The Chian is another, I, who wrote these songs, am of Syracuse, a man of the people, the son of Praxagoras and famed Philina. I never sought after a strange muse, the last line may mean that he wrote nothing but bucolic poems, or that he only wrote in Doric. The assertion that he was from Syracuse appears to be upheld by allusions in the Idylls, the information concerning his parentage bears the stamp of genuineness, and disposes of a rival theory based upon a misinterpretation of Idyll 7—which made him the son of one Simichus.
Some persons attribute to him the following, Daughters of Proetus, Hymns, Dirges, Elegies, the first of these may have been known to Virgil, who refers to the Proetides at Eclogue 6.48. The spurious poem 21 may have one of the Hopes, and poem 26 may have been one of the Heroines, elegiacs are found in 8. 33—60. The other classes are all represented in the collection which has come down to us. The distinction between these is that the scenes of the former are laid in the country and those of the latter in a town, the most famous of the Bucolics are 1,6,7 and 11. In Idyll 1 Thyrsis sings to a goatherd about how Daphnis, in the poem, a series of divine figures from classical mythology, including Hermes and Aphrodite herself, interrogate the shepherd about his lovesickness. Finally, the goddess of love, appears to taunt Daphnis for his hubris, “‘Thou indeed, didst boast that thou wouldst bend Love. Hast not thou, in thine own person, been bent by grievous love. ”The failure of these figures to comfort Daphnis in his dying moments thematizes classical beliefs about the folly of mortals who challenge the gods.
In Idyll 11 Polyphemus is depicted as in love with the sea-nymph Galatea, in Idyll 6, he is cured of his passion and naively relates how he repulses the overtures now made to him by Galatea. The monster of Homers Odyssey has been written up to date after the Alexandrian manner and has become a gentle simpleton, Idyll 7, the Harvest Feast, is the most important of the bucolic poems. The scene is laid in the isle of Kos, the poet speaks in the first person and is called Simichidas by his friends. Other poets are introduced under feigned names, Theocritus speaks of himself as having already gained fame, and says that his songs have been brought by report even unto the throne of Zeus
In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents. Cultus, the outward religious formulas of cult, often centers upon the treatment of cult images, religious images cover a wider range of all types of images made with a religious purpose, subject, or connection. In many contexts cult image specifically means the most important image in a temple, kept in an inner space, as opposed to what may be many other images decorating the temple. The term idol is often synonymous with cult image, but may be used especially of an image believed not just to depict or represent a deity or spirit. Sometimes the image is believed to have its own powers, to grant wishes or otherwise affect the world, in cultures where idolatry is not viewed negatively, the word idol is not generally seen as pejorative, such as in Indian English. Cult of images is the practice of worshipping or venerating religious or cult images representing divine figures, common in a number of ancient religions, the practice continues most prominently today in Hinduism.
Assertions by others outside the group concerned that such beliefs are held by the group are however common. Cult images were a presence in Ancient Egypt, and still are in modern-day Kemetism. A common example of an image in ancient Egypt was the Apis Bull. The term is confined to the relatively small images, typically in gold. These images usually showed the god in their sacred barque or boat, the Parthenon contained a cult image of Athena, the Greek goddess of civilization and the noble side of war. This cult image, known as Athena Parthenos, was created by Phidias and this cult image was used for religious sacrifices at this Athenian temple. Hinduism allows for many forms of worship and therefore it neither prescribes nor proscribes worship of images, in Hinduism, a murti typically refers to an image that expresses a Divine Spirit. Meaning literally embodiment, a murti is a representation of a divinity, made usually of stone, wood, or metal, hindus consider a murti worthy of serving as a focus of divine worship only after the divine is invoked in it for the purpose of offering worship.
The depiction of the divinity must reflect the gestures and proportions outlined in religious tradition, members of Abrahamic religions identify cult images as idols and their worship as idolatry, the worship of hollow forms. The avoidance of such a degrading paradox was expressed in the early Christian idea of miraculous icons that were not made by human hands, acheiropoietoi. Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians make an exception for the veneration of image of saints, the word idol entered Middle English in the 13th century from Old French idole adapted in Ecclesiastical Latin from the Greek eidolon. Greek eidos was employed by Plato and the Platonists to signify perfect immutable forms, the local tribes, of the Arabian peninsula, came to this centre of commerce to place their idols in the Kaaba, in the process being charged tithes
Aphrodite of Knidos
The Aphrodite of Knidos was one of the most famous works of the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles of Athens. It and its copies are referred to as the Venus Pudica type. Variants of the Venus Pudica are the Venus de Medici and the Capitoline Venus, the statue became famous for its beauty, meant to be appreciated from every angle, and for being the first life-size representation of the nude female form. It was especially shocking as it was commissioned as the statue for a temple. It depicted the goddess Aphrodite as she prepared for the bath that restored her purity, discarding her drapery with one hand. Her hands are placed in a motion that simultaneously shields her womanhood, Lucian said that she wore a slight smile that just revealed her teeth, although most copies do not preserve this. According to an apocryphal account by Pliny, Praxiteles received a commission from the citizens of Kos for a statue of the goddess Aphrodite. Praxiteles created two versions—one fully draped, and the other completely nude, the shocked citizens of Kos rejected the nude statue and purchased the draped version.
The design and appearance of the version is today unknown as it didnt survive, nor did it appear to have merited attention. The rejected nude was purchased by some citizens of Knidos and set up in an open air temple that permitted viewing of the statue from all sides and it quickly became one of the most famous works by Praxiteles for the bold depiction of Aphrodite as proudly nude. Praxiteles was alleged to have used the courtesan Phryne as a model for the statue, the statue became so widely known and copied that in a humorous anecdote the goddess Aphrodite herself came to Knidos to see it. The statue became a tourist attraction in spite of being an image. Nicomedes I of Bithynia offered to pay off the debts of the city of Knidos in exchange for the statue. This story is recorded in the dialogue Erotes, traditionally misattributed to Lucian of Samosata, possibly the statue was removed to Constantinople and was lost in a fire during the Nika riots. For a time in 1969, the archaeologist Iris Love thought she had found the surviving fragments of the original statue.
The prevailing opinion of archaeologists is that the fragment in question is not of the Knidia, probably the most faithful replica of the statue is the Colonna Venus conserved in the Museo Pio-Clementino, part of the collections of the Vatican Museums. The Kaufmann Head, found at Tralles, purchased from the C. M, Kaufmann collection and conserved in the Musée du Louvre, is thought to be a very faithful Roman reproduction of the head of the Knidian Aphrodite. The Venus Felix at the Vatican Museums, a variation of the type
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context. It is left to the audience to make the connection, where the connection is directly and explicitly stated by the author, in the arts, a literary allusion puts the alluded text in a new context under which it assumes new meanings and denotations. It is not possible to predetermine the nature of all the new meanings, Literary allusion is closely related to parody and pastiche, which are text-linking literary devices. In a wider, more informal context, an allusion is a passing or casually short statement indicating broader meaning and it is an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication, such as In the stock market he met his Waterloo. In the most traditional sense, allusion is a term, though the word has come to encompass indirect references to any source. In literature, allusions are used to link concepts that the reader already has knowledge of, in the field of film criticism, a film-makers intentionally unspoken visual reference to another film is called an homage.
It may even be sensed that real events have allusive overtones, Allusion is bound up with a vital and perennial topic in literary theory, the place of authorial intention in interpretation, William Irwin observed, in asking What is an allusion. Without the hearer or readers comprehending the authors intention, an allusion becomes merely a decorative device. Allusion is a device, a figure of speech that uses a relatively short space to draw upon the ready stock of ideas. Thus, an allusion is understandable only to those with knowledge of the covert reference in question. The origin of allusion is in the Latin verb ludere, lusus est to play with, recognizing the point of allusions condensed riddle reinforces cultural solidarity between the maker of the allusion and the hearer, their shared familiarity with allusion bonds them. Addressing such issues is an aspect of hermeneutics, William Irwin remarks that allusion moves in only one direction, If A alludes to B, B does not allude to A. The Bible does not allude to Shakespeare, though Shakespeare may allude to the Bible, Irwin appends a note, Only a divine author, outside of time, would seem capable of alluding to a text.
This is the basis for Christian readings of Old Testament prophecy, Allusion differs from the similar term intertextuality in that it is an intentional effort on the authors part. The success of an allusion depends in part on at least some of its audience getting it, allusions may be made increasingly obscure, until at last they are understood by the author alone, who thereby retreats into a private language. In discussing the richly allusive poetry of Virgils Georgics, R. F. Thomas distinguished six categories of allusive reference, which are applicable to a wider cultural sphere. A type of literature has grown round explorations of the allusions in such works as Alexander Popes The Rape of the Lock or T. S. Eliots The Waste Land. In Hellenistic Alexandria, literary culture and a literary canon known to readers and hearers made a densely allusive poetry effective
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology, andrew Stewart assesses him as, A careful, pedestrian writer. interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless, or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, and to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids, while at the temple of Ammon, in Macedonia, he appears to have seen the alleged tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. Crossing over to Italy, he had something of the cities of Campania.
He was one of the first to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Pausanias Description of Greece is in ten books, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. He begins his tour in Attica, where the city of Athens, subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris. He famously leaves out key portions of Greece such as Crete, the project is more than topographical, it is a cultural geography. Pausanias digresses from description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them and his work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece. He is not a naturalist by any means, though he does from time to comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape. He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the boars in the oak woods of Phelloe. Pausanias is most at home in describing the art and architecture of Olympia.
Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of gods, holy relics, Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary. Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not even mentioned. While he never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he criticizes the myths. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned and they bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance, when he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so
Robert von Ranke Graves was an English poet, novelist and classicist. He produced more than 140 works, Irish literature deeply affected Graves White Goddess theories, specifically the genre aisling. He earned his living from writing, particularly historical novels such as I, King Jesus, The Golden Fleece. He was a prominent translator of Classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts, his versions of The Twelve Caesars and The Golden Ass remain popular, for their clarity, Graves was awarded the 1934 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for both I, Claudius and Claudius the God. Graves was born into a family in Wimbledon, part of Surrey. Gravess mother was from a recently ennobled German family, the eldest daughter of Heinrich von Ranke, a professor of medicine at the University of Munich and she was a greatniece of the German historian Leopold von Ranke. At school, Graves was enrolled as Robert von Ranke Graves and in Germany his books are published under that name but before and during the First World War, the name caused him difficulties.
In August 1916 an officer who disliked him spread the rumour that he was a spy, the problem resurfaced in a minor way in the Second World War, when a suspicious rural policeman blocked his appointment to the Special Constabulary. Gravess eldest half-brother, Philip Perceval Graves, achieved note as a journalist and his brother, Charles Patrick Graves, was a writer. Among the masters his chief influence was George Mallory, who introduced him to contemporary literature, in his final year at Charterhouse, he won a classical exhibition to St Johns College, Oxford but did not take his place there until after the war. At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Graves enlisted almost immediately and he published his first volume of poems, Over the Brazier, in 1916. He developed a reputation as a war poet and was one of the first to write realistic poems about experience of frontline conflict. In years, he omitted his war poems from his collections, at the Battle of the Somme, he was so badly wounded by a shell-fragment through the lung that he was expected to die and was officially reported as having died of wounds.
He gradually recovered and, apart from a spell back in France. One of Gravess friends at this time was the poet Siegfried Sassoon, in 1917, Sassoon rebelled against the conduct of the war by making a public antiwar statement. Graves feared Sassoon could face a court martial and intervened with the authorities, persuading them that Sassoon was suffering from shell shock. As a result, Sassoon was sent to Craiglockhart, a hospital in Edinburgh. Graves suffered shell shock, or neurasthenia as it was called, but he was never hospitalised for it, I thought of going back to France
Walters Art Museum
The Walters Art Museum, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Maryland, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934. It holds collections established during the mid-19th Century, located across the back alley, a block south of the Walters mansion on West Monument Street/Mount Vernon Place, on the northwest corner of North Charles Street at West Centre Street. The following year, The Walters reopened its original building after a dramatic three-year physical renovation and replacement of internal utilities. The Archimedes Palimpsest was on loan to the Walters Art Museum from a collector for conservation. This was one of the largest and most comprehensive such releases made by any museum, the Walters collection of ancient art includes examples from Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Near East. In 1911, Henry Walters purchased almost 100 gold artifacts from the Chiriqui region of western Panama in Central America, the museum owns the oldest surviving Chinese wood-and-lacquer image of the Buddha. It is exhibited in a gallery dedicated solely to this work, the Museum holds one of the largest and finest collections of Thai bronze and banner paintings in the world.
Islamic art in all media is represented at the Walters, the Walters Museum owns an array of Islamic manuscripts. Walters Art Museum, MS W.613 contains five Mughal miniatures from a very important Khamsa of Nizami made for the Emperor Akbar, Henry Walters assembled a collection of art produced during the Middle Ages in all the major artistic media of the period. This forms the basis of the Walters medieval collection, for which the Museum is best known internationally. Considered one of the best collections of art in the United States, the Museums holdings include examples of metalwork, stained glass, icons. Sculpted heads from the royal Abbey of St. Denis are rare surviving examples of sculptures that are directly connected with the origins of Gothic art in 12th Century France. An ivory casket covered with scenes of jousting knights is one of about a dozen such objects to survive in the world, many of these works are on display in the Museums galleries. Works in the collection are the subject of active research by the curatorial and conservation departments of the museum.
The collection of European Renaissance and Baroque art features holdings of paintings, furniture, metal work, the museum has one of ten surviving examples of the Sèvres pot-pourri vase in the shape of a ship from the 1750s and 1760s. William and Henry Walters collected works by late 19th Century French academic masters, Henry Walters was particularly interested in the courtly arts of 18th Century France. The museum’s collection of Sèvres porcelain includes a number of pieces that were made for members of the Royal Bourbon Court at Versailles Palace outside of Paris. Portrait miniatures and the examples of works, especially snuffboxes and watches, are displayed in the Treasury, along with some exceptional 19th-