China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Japanese science fiction
Science fiction is an important subgenre of modern Japanese literature that has influenced aspects of contemporary Japanese pop culture, including anime, video games and cinema. Both Japan's history of technology and mythology play a role in the development of its science fiction; some early Japanese literature, for example, contain elements of proto-science fiction. The early Japanese tale of "Urashima Tarō" involves traveling forwards in time to a distant future, was first described in the Nihongi, it was about a young fisherman named Urashima Taro who visits an undersea palace and stays there for three days. After returning home to his village, he finds himself three hundred years in the future, where he is long forgotten, his house in ruins, his family long dead; the 10th-century Japanese narrative The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter may be considered proto-science fiction. The protagonist of the story, Kaguya-hime, is a princess from the Moon, sent to Earth for safety during a celestial war, is found and raised by a bamboo cutter in Japan.
She is taken back to the Moon by her real extraterrestrial family. A manuscript illustration depicts a round flying machine similar to a flying saucer. However, science fiction in the standard sense did not begin until the Meiji Restoration and the importation of Western ideas; the first science fiction of any influence to be translated into Japanese were the novels of Jules Verne. The translation of Around the World in Eighty Days was published in 1878-1880, followed by his other works with immense popularity; the word kagaku shōsetsu was coined as a translation of "scientific novel" as early as 1886. Shunrō Oshikawa is considered as the ancestor of Japanese science fiction, his debut work Kaitei Gunkan, published in 1900, described submarines and predicted a coming Russo-Japanese war. During the period between the world wars, Japanese science fiction was more influenced by American science fiction. A popular writer of the era was Jūza Unno, sometimes called "the father of Japanese science fiction."
The literary standards of this era, the previous, tended to be low. Prior to World War II, Japanese if saw science fiction as worthwhile literature. Instead, it was considered a form of trivial literature for children. A character considered to be the first full-fledged superhero is the Japanese Kamishibai character Ōgon Bat, who debuted in 1930, eight years before Superman. Another similar Japanese Kamishibai superhero was Prince of Gamma, who debuted in the early 1930s years before Superman. Manga artist Osamu Tezuka, who debuted in 1946, was a major influence on the science fiction authors. Lost World and Nextworld are known as Tezuka's early SF trilogy. Avant-garde author Kōbō Abe wrote works that are within science fiction genre, he had close relationship with SF authors, his Inter Ice Age 4 is considered the first Japanese full-length science fiction novel. The era of modern Japanese science fiction began with the influence of paperbacks that the US occupation army brought to Japan after World War II.
The first science fiction magazine in Japan, was created in 1954 but was discontinued after only one issue. Several short-lived magazines followed Seiun in the Japanese market, but none experienced great success. Science fiction in Japan gained popularity in the early 1960s. Both the Hayakawa's S-F Magazine and the science fiction coterie magazine Uchūjin began publication in this decade; the first Japan SF Convention was held in 1962. A writers' association, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan was formed in 1963 with eleven members. Notable authors like Sakyo Komatsu, Yasutaka Tsutsui, Taku Mayumura, Ryo Hanmura and Aritsune Toyota debuted at the Hayakawa SF contest. Other notable authors, such as Shinichi Hoshi, Ryu Mitsuse, Kazumasa Hirai, Aran Kyodomari and Yoshio Aramaki, were published. Though influenced by the West, their work was distinctively Japanese. For example, Kazumasa Hirai, Aritsune Toyota and Takumi Shibano wrote novels as well as plots for SF-anime and SF-manga, which are some of the most prominent examples of Japanese contributions to the genre of science fiction.
The contributions of excellent translators such as Tetsu Yano, Masahiro Noda, Hisashi Asakura and Norio Ito introduced English science fiction to readers in Japan, influenced public opinion of science fiction. SF Magazine's first editor, Masami Fukushima was an excellent novelist and translator. In visual media genre, film studio Toho spawned the Kaiju film genre in 1954 with Godzilla. Eiji Tsuburaya who directed the special effects for Toho's film formed his own studio and created Ultraman in 1966. Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom became the first Japanese TV animation series in 1963. Public interest in science fiction had risen notably in Japan by Expo'70. Komatsu's Nihon Chinbotsu was a best-seller. Uchū Senkan Yamato, a work of anime placed in a science fiction setting, was aired, Star Wars was screened in Japan in the late 1970s; the change in the nature of the science fiction genre in Japan that resulted from these events is called "Infiltration and Diffusion". At this time, Hanmura's Denki SF series and Hirai's Wolf Guy series became prototypes of Japanese light novels through the works of Hideyuki Kikuchi, Baku Yumemakura, Haruka Takachiho.
In addition, new science fiction magazines such as Kisō Tengai, SF Adventure and SF Hōseki were founded. A number of notable authors debuted in either SF Magazin
Chengdu romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an; as of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name unchanged throughout the imperial and communist eras.
It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, commercial, cultural and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu; the name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial and communist eras, although it had other names, for example it was known as Xijing in the 17th century; the Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, three to become a metropolis".
There are, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization, its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.
At the time of China's Xia and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou. Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" was established to oversee its supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu, his minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.
Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean"; the city's present Caotang was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong was built in the 9th century. Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han; the Later Shu was founded with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls; the Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived
Museum of Pop Culture
The Museum of Pop Culture, or MoPOP is a nonprofit museum dedicated to contemporary popular culture. It was founded by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen in 2000 as the Experience Music Project. Since that time MoPOP has organized dozens of exhibits, 17 of which have toured across the US and internationally; the museum—which used to be known as Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame and EMP Museum until November 2016—has founded many public programs including "Sound Off!", an annual 21-and-under battle-of-the-bands that supports the all-ages scene. MoPOP, in collaboration with the Seattle International Film Festival presents the Science Fiction and Fantasy Short Film Festival, which takes place annually every winter at Seattle Cinerama Theater. MoPOP is home to exhibits, interactive activity stations, sound sculpture, various educational resources. A 140,000-square-foot building, designed by Frank O. Gehry, that houses several galleries and the Sky Church, which features a Barco C7 black package LED screen, one of the largest indoor LED screens in the world.
Exhibits that cover pop culture, from the art of fantasy, horror cinema, video games to science fiction literature and costumes from screen and stage. Interactive activities included in galleries like Sound Lab and On Stage where visitors can explore hands-on the tools of rock and roll through instruments, perform music before a virtual audience. IF VI WAS IX, a guitar sculpture consisting of more than 500 musical instruments and 30 computers conceived by UK exhibit designer Neal Potter and developed by sound sculptor Trimpin; the largest collections in the world of artifacts, hand-written lyrics, personal instruments, original photographs celebrating the music and history of Seattle musicians Nirvana and Jimi Hendrix. Educational resources including MoPOP's Curriculum Connections in-museum workshops and outreach programs. Public programs such as MoPOP's Science Fiction + Fantasy Short Film Festival, Pop Conference, the Youth Advisory Board, Sound Off! the Northwest's premier battle-of-the-bands.
MoPOP was the site of the concert and demo program of the first NIME workshop, which subsequently became the annual International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, a leading venue for cutting edge research on music technology. The Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame was founded by Paul Allen and Jody Patton and opened to the public on June 18, 2004, it incorporated the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, established in 1996. The museum was divided into several galleries with common themes such as "Homeworld," "Fantastic Voyages," "Brave New Worlds," and "Them!" Each gallery displayed related memorabilia in large display cases and interactive displays to sketch out the different subjects. "From robots to jet packs to space suits and ray guns, it's all here." Members of the museum's advisory board included Steven Spielberg, Ray Bradbury, James Cameron, George Lucas. Among its collection of artifacts were Captain Kirk's command chair from Star Trek, the B9 robot from Lost in Space, the Death Star model from Star Wars, the T800 Terminator and the dome from the film Silent Running.
Although the Science Fiction Museum as a permanent collection was de-installed in March 2011, a new exhibit named Icons of Science Fiction opened as a replacement in June 2012, at which time the new Hall of Fame display was unveiled and the class of 2012 inducted. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame was founded in 1996 by the Kansas City Science Fiction and Fantasy Society and the Center for the Study of Science Fiction at the University of Kansas; the chairmen were Robin Wayne Bailey. Only writers and editors were eligible for recognition and four were inducted annually, two deceased and two living; each class of four was announced at Kansas City's annual science fiction convention, ConQuesT, inducted at the Campbell Conference hosted by CSSF. The Hall of Fame stopped inducting fantasy writers after 2004, when it became part of the Science Fiction Museum affiliated with MoPOP, under the name "Science Fiction Hall of Fame". Having inducted 36 writers in nine years, in 2005 it began to recognize non-literary media.
It thus reduced the annual number of writers. The 2005 and 2006 press releases placed new members in "Literature", "Art", "Film and Media", "Open" categories, one each. In 2007 and 2008 the fourth inductee was placed in one of the three substantial categories. MoPOP de-installed the Science Fiction Museum in March 2011; when the exhibition "Icons of Science Fiction" opened in June 2012, a new Hall of Fame display was unveiled and the class of 2012 inducted. Nominations are submitted by the public but the selections are made by "award-winning science fiction authors, editors and film professionals."MoPOP restored the original name online during June 2013 and announced five new members, one daily, beginning June 17. The first four were cited or wholly for science fiction but the last was J. R. R. Tolkien, "hailed as the father of modern fantasy literature"; the class of 2017 brings the number of members to 92, plus twenty extra added in 2016 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the museum. Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inductions19
Space Western is a subgenre of science fiction which uses the themes and tropes of Westerns within science fiction stories. Subtle influences may include exploration of new, lawless frontiers, while more overt influences may feature literal cowboys in outer space who use ray guns and ride robotic horses. Although popular, a strong backlash against perceived hack writing caused the genre to become a more-subtle influence until the 1980s, when it regained popularity. A further critical reappraisal occurred in the 2000s with Firefly. A space Western may emphasize space exploration as "the final frontier"; these Western themes may be explicit, such as cowboys in outer space, or they can be a more subtle influence in space opera. Gene Roddenberry described Star Trek: The Original Series as a space Western. Firefly and its cinematic follow-up Serenity literalized the Western aspects of the genre popularized by Star Trek: it used frontier towns and the styling of classic John Ford Westerns. Worlds that have been terraformed may be depicted as presenting similar challenges as that of a frontier settlement in a classic Western.
Six-shooters and horses may be replaced by ray rockets. Westerns influenced early science fiction pulp magazines. Writers would submit stories in both genres, science fiction magazines sometimes mimicked Western cover art to showcase parallels. In the 1930s, C. L. Moore created one of the first space Northwest Smith. Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon were early influences. After superhero comics declined in popularity in 1940s America, Western comics and horror comics replaced them; when horror comics became untenable with the Comics Code Authority in the mid-1950s, science fiction themes and space Westerns grew more popular. By the mid-1960s, classic Western films fell out of favor, Revisionist Westerns supplanted them. Science fiction, such as Lost in Space, Star Trek, presented a new frontier to be explored, films like Westworld rejuvenated Westerns by updating them with science fiction themes. Peter Hyams, director of Outland, said that studio heads in the 1980s were unwilling to finance a Western, so he made a space Western instead.
Space operas such as the Star Wars film series took strong cues from Westerns. These science fiction films and television series offered the themes and morals that Westerns did; this frontier view of the future is only one of many ways to look at space exploration, not one embraced by all science fiction writers. The Turkey City Lexicon, a document produced by the Turkey City science fiction writers' workshop, condemns the space Western as the "most pernicious" form of a pre-established background that avoids the necessity of creating a fresh world. Galaxy Science Fiction ran an advertisement on its back cover, "You'll never see it in Galaxy", which gave the beginnings of make-believe parallel Western and science fiction stories featuring a character named Bat Durston; such scathing attacks on the subgenre, along with further attacks on space operas, caused a perception that all space Westerns were by definition hack writing and not "true" science fiction. Although the underlying themes remained influential, this bias persisted until the 1980s, when the release of Outland and children's cartoons, such as Bravestarr and The Adventures of the Galaxy Rangers, repopularized explicit themes of cowboys in space.
In the 1990s, anime series, such as Cowboy Bebop, Outlaw Star, Trigun became prime examples of the genre. In the 2000s, Firefly won critical acclaim, further causing a critical reassessment of space Westerns. Games such as StarCraft and the Borderlands series have popularized the space Western theme. Pastiche Cross-genre Mecha anime Revisionist Western Space opera Space pirate Weird West A Fistful of Datas Solo: A Star Wars Story Abbott, Frontiers Past and Future: Science Fiction and the American West, University Press of Kansas, 2006. Katerberg, William H. Future West: Utopia and Apocalypse in Frontier Science Fiction, University Press of Kansas, 2008. Mogen, Wilderness Visions: The Western Theme in Science Fiction Literature, Borgo Press, 1993. Westfahl, Gary and Beyond: The Frontier Theme in Science Fiction, Greenwood Press, 2000. Gunn, James. "Teaching Science Fiction". Center for the Study of Science Fiction. University of Kansas. Retrieved 2006-01-15. Priestley, J. B. "Thoughts in the Wilderness."
New Statesman. SpaceWesterns.com
Russian science fiction and fantasy
Science fiction and fantasy have been part of mainstream Russian literature since the 19th century. Russian fantasy developed from the centuries-old traditions of Slavic folklore. Russian science fiction emerged in the mid-19th century and rose to its golden age during the Soviet era, both in cinema and literature, with writers like the Strugatsky brothers, Kir Bulychov, Mikhail Bulgakov, among others. Soviet filmmakers, such as Andrei Tarkovsky produced many science fiction and fantasy films. With the fall of the Iron Curtain, modern Russia experienced a renaissance of fantasy. Outside modern Russian borders, there are a significant number of Russophone writers and filmmakers from Ukraine and Kazakhstan, who have made a notable contribution to the genres. In the Russian language, science fiction and all other related genres are considered a part of a larger umbrella term, фантастика equivalent to "speculative fiction", are less divided than in the West; the Russian term for science fiction is научная фантастика, which can be translated as "scientific fantasy" or "scientific speculative fiction".
Since there was little adult-oriented fantasy fiction in Soviet times, Russians did not use a specific term for this genre until Perestroika. Although Russian language has a literal translation for'fantasy', фантазия, the word refers to a dream or imagination, not literary genre. Today, Russian publishers and literary criticians use direct English transcription, фэнтези. Gothic and supernatural fiction are referred to as мистика. While science fiction did not emerge in Russia as a coherent genre until the early 20th century, many of its aspects, such as utopia or imaginary voyage, are found in earlier Russian works. Fedor Dmitriev-Mamonov's anti-clerical A Philosopher Nobleman; the Allegory is considered prototypical to science fiction. It is a voltairean conte philosophique influenced by Micromégas. Utopia was a major genre of early Russian speculative fiction; the first utopia in Russian was a short story by Alexander Sumarokov, "A Dream of Happy Society". Two early utopias in form of imaginary voyage are Vasily Levshin's Newest Voyage and Mikhail Shcherbatov's Journey to the Land of Ophir.
Pseudo-historical heroic romances in classical settings by Fyodor Emin, Mikhail Kheraskov, Pavel Lvov and Pyotr Zakharyin were utopian. Ancient Night of the Universe, an epic poem by Semyon Bobrov, is the first work of Russian Cosmism; some of Faddei Bulgarin's tales are set in the future, others exploited themes of hollow earth and space flight, as did Osip Senkovsky's Fantastic Voyages of Baron Brambeus. Authors of Gothic stories included Aleksandr Bestuzhev with his German couleur locale, Sergey Lyubetsky, Vladimir Olin, Alexey K. Tolstoy, Elizaveta Kologrivova and Mikhail Lermontov. By the mid-19th century imaginary voyages to space had become popular chapbooks, such as Voyage to the Sun and Planet Mercury and All the Visible and Invisible Worlds by Dmitry Sigov, Correspondence of a Moonman with an Earthman by Pyotr Mashkov, Voyage to the Moon in a Wonderful Machine by Semyon Dyachkov and Voyage in the Sun by Demokrit Terpinovich. Popular literature used fantastic motifs like demons and shrinking men.
Hoffmann's fantastic tales influenced Russian writers including Nikolay Gogol, Antony Pogorelsky, Nikolay Melgunov, Vladimir Karlgof, Nikolai Polevoy, Aleksey Tomofeev, Konstantin Aksakov and Vasily Ushakov. Supernatural folk tales were stylized by Orest Somov, Vladimir Olin, Mikhail Zagoskin and Nikolay Bilevich. Vladimir Odoevsky, a romantic writer influenced by Hoffmann, wrote on his vision of the future and scientific progress as well as many Gothic tales. Alexander Veltman, along with his folk romances and hoffmanesque satiric tales, in 1836 published The forebears of Kalimeros: Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon, the first Russian novel to feature time travel. In the book, the main character rides to ancient Greece on a hippogriff to meet Aristotle and Alexander the Great. In Year 3448, a Heliodoric love romance set in the future, a traveler visits an imaginary country Bosphorania and sees social and technological advances of the 35th century. Second half of the 19th century saw the rise of realism.
However, fantasies with a scientific rationale by Nikolai Akhsharumov and Nikolai Vagner stand out during this period, as well as Ivan Turgenev's "mysterious tales" and Vera Zhelikhovsky's occult fiction. Mikhail Mikhailov's story "Beyond History", a pre-Darwinian fantasy on the descent of man, is an early example of prehistoric fiction. Fictional accounts of prehistoric men were written by popular science writers. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin's satires use a grotesque element; the plot of Animal Mutiny by historian Nikolay Kostomarov is similar to that of Orwell's Animal Farm. Some of Fyodor Dostoevsky's short works use fantasy: The Dream of a Ridiculous Man, a doppelgänger novella The Double: A Petersburg Poem, mesmeric The Landlady, a comic horror story Bobok. Dostoevsky's magazine Vremya was first to publish Ru
Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that emphasizes space warfare, melodramatic adventure, interplanetary battles, chivalric romance, risk-taking. Set or in outer space, it involves conflict between opponents possessing advanced abilities, futuristic weapons, other sophisticated technology; the term has no relation to music, but is instead a play on the terms "soap opera" and "horse opera", the latter of, coined during the 1930s to indicate clichéd and formulaic Western movies. Space operas emerged in the 1930s and continue to be produced in literature, comics and video games. An early film, based on space opera comic strips was Flash Gordon created by Alex Raymond. In the late 1970s, the Star Wars franchise created by George Lucas brought a great deal of attention to the subgenre. After the convention-breaking "New Wave", followed by the enormous success of the Star Wars films, space opera became once again a critically acceptable subgenre. Throughout 1982–2002, the Hugo Award for best science fiction novel was given to a space opera nominee.
Space opera is defined as an adventure science-fiction story. The term "space opera" was coined in 1941 by fan writer and author Wilson Tucker as a pejorative term in an article in issue 36 of Le Zombie, a science fiction fanzine. At the time, serial radio dramas in the United States had become popularly known as soap operas because many were sponsored by soap manufacturers; the term "horse opera" had come into use to describe formulaic Western films. Tucker defined space opera as the science fiction equivalent: a "hacky, stinking, spaceship yarn". Fans and critics have noted that the plots of space operas have sometimes been taken from horse operas and translated into an outer space environment, as famously parodied on the back cover of the first issue of Galaxy Science Fiction. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, when the stories were printed in science-fiction magazines, the stories were referred to as "super-science epics". Beginning in the 1960s, accepted by the 1970s, the space opera was redefined, following Brian Aldiss' definition in Space Opera as – as paraphrased by Hartwell and Cramer – "the good old stuff".
Yet soon after his redefinition, it began to be challenged, for example, by the editorial practice and marketing of Judy-Lynn del Rey and in the reviews of her husband and colleague Lester del Rey. In particular, they disputed the claims that space operas were obsolete, Del Rey Books labeled reissues of earlier work of Leigh Brackett as space opera. By the early 1980s, space operas were again redefined, the label was attached to major popular culture works such as Star Wars. Only in the early 1990s did the term space opera began to be recognized as a legitimate genre of science fiction. Hartwell and Cramer define space opera as:... colorful, large-scale science fiction adventure and sometimes beautifully written focused on a sympathetic, heroic central character and plot action, set in the distant future, in space or on other worlds, characteristically optimistic in tone. It deals with war, military virtues, large-scale action, large stakes. Early works which preceded the subgenre contained many elements of.
They are today referred to as proto-space opera. Early proto-space opera was written by several 19th century French authors, for example, Les Posthumes by Nicolas-Edme Rétif, Star ou Psi de Cassiopée: Histoire Merveilleuse de l’un des Mondes de l’Espace by C. I. Defontenay and Lumen by Camille Flammarion. Not popular, proto-space operas were occasionally written during the late Victorian and Edwardian science-fiction era. Examples may be found in the works of Percy Greg, Garrett P. Serviss, George Griffith, Robert Cromie. One critic cites Robert William Cole's The Struggle for Empire: A Story of the Year 2236 as the first space opera; the novel depicts an interstellar conflict between solar men of Earth and a fierce humanoid race headquartered on Sirius. However, the idea for the novel arises out of a nationalistic genre of fiction popular from 1880 to 1914 called future-war fiction. Despite this early beginning, it was not until the late 1920s that the space opera proper began to appear in pulp magazines such as Amazing Stories.
In film, the genre began with the 1918 Danish film, Himmelskibet. Unlike earlier stories of space adventure, which either related the invasion of Earth by extraterrestrials, or concentrated on the invention of a space vehicle by a genius inventor, pure space opera took space travel for granted, skipped the preliminaries, launched straight into tales of derring-do among the stars. Early stories of this type include J. Schlossel's "Invaders from Outside", The Second Swarm and The Star Stealers, Ray Cummings' Tarrano the Conqueror, Edmond Hamilton's Across Space and Crashing Suns. Similar stories by other writers followed through 1929 and 1930. By 1931, the space opera was well established as a major subgenre of science fiction. However, the author cited most as the true father of the genre is E. E. "Doc" Smith. His first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, is called the first great space opera, it merges the traditional tale of a scientist inventing a space-drive with planetary romance in the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs.
Smith's Lensman serie