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Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, west of Detroit. Since 2007, it has been a division of Cengage; the company known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public and school libraries, businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, Gale OneFile, other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works in the areas of religion and social science. Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, the company was acquired by the Thomson Corporation in 1985 before its 2007 sale to Cengage. In 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Library Reference from Pearson. In 2000 it acquired the Munich-based K. G. Saur Verlag, but sold it to Walter de Gruyter in 2006. On October 25, 2006 Thomson Corporation announced that it intended to wholly divest the Thomson Learning division, because, in the words of Thomson CEO Richard Harrington, "it does not fit with our long-term strategic vision".

Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate $5 billion. Thomson Learning was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of Apax Partners and OMERS Capital Partners for $7.75 billion and the name was changed from Thomson Learning to Cengage Learning on July 24, 2007. Patrick C. Sommers was president of Gale from October 22, 2007, until he retired in 2010. Gale produces hundreds of products, such as Gale Academic OneFile and Genealogy Master Index, General OneFile, General Reference Center, Sabin Americana, World History Collection. Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Scholarly Resources Inc.. Schirmer Reference, St. James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gale's fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Romance and Science Fiction & Fantasy genres. Gale sells into the K–12 market with several imprints, including U·X·L, Greenhaven Press, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, others. Gale owns large print publishers Christian Large Print and Wheeler Publishing.

Contemporary Authors published by Gale Dictionary of Literary Biography published by Gale Dictionary of the Middle Ages published by Scribner's Dictionary of Scientific Biography published by Scribner's Encyclopaedia Judaica published by Gale Encyclopedia of Associations published by Gale HighBeam Research owned by Gale New Catholic Encyclopedia published by Gale Questia Online Library owned by Gale Gale websiteGale-owned sites and servicesGale Directory Library – dozens of print directories on a digital platform Books & Authors – indexed database of fiction and nonfiction book titles

National Cycle Route 76

National Cycle Network Route 76 is a Sustrans National Route that runs from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Kirkcaldy. The route is 168 miles in length and is open and signed in both directions. Between Dunbar and Kirkcaldy the route is known as the Round the Forth; the southern trailhead is at a junction with NCN Route 1 on the outskirts of Berwick-upon-Tweed. After 2 miles the route crosses the English-Scottish border and climbs Ayton Hill before descending through Ayton before meeting the coast at Eyemouth. From here the route climbs to its highpoint before descending to Cockburnspath where it passes under the A1. From Bilsdean the route uses a cycle path adjacent to the A1. At Torness Nuclear Power Station the route becomes traffic free to the outskirts of Dunbar before rejoining the roads through the town. From Dunbar Route 76 is known as the Round the Forth Cycle Route for the rest of its length to Kirkaldy. From here to Haddington the route is predominately on quite roads via East Linton and the ruins of Hailes Castle.

The route is traffic free along the 4.5 miles Haddington to Longniddry railway path after which it uses a mixture of roads and paths along the shore of the Firth of Forth to reach Musselburgh and a junction with Route 1. There is a gap in Route 76 between Cramond Bridge. Route 1 is used as the east to west link through Edinburgh. Leaving Route 1 at Cramond Bridge, 76 is traffic free when returns to the banks of the Forth via the parklands of Dalmeny Estate, before passing under the Forth Bridges at South Queensferry where it returns the roads. Continuing to trace the south bank of the Forth the route becomes traffic free again as it passes through the deer park at Abercorn, it climbs away from the bank of the firth on the roads through Bo'ness to follow the line of the Antonine Wall before descending into Grangemouth. The section between Cramond Bridge and Bo'ness is part of The John Muir Way. On leaving Grangemouth the route crosses the Forth and Clyde Canal adjacent to The Helix and its Kelpies.

It passes through open countryside as far as the city of Stirling. This section of the route follows the northern bank of the Firth of Forth. Tullibody Old Bridge and Cambus Iron Bridge, each a Category A listed building and scheduled monument, are on the route. After Alloa 76 passes Clackmannan and passes close to the site of the closed Longannet power station. A combination of river bank paths and roads takes the route east. At the north end of the Forth Bridges NCN 76 passes under the M90 and joins NCN Route 1 to pass through Inverkeithing. Route 76 leaves Route 1 in Inverkiething to follow the north bank of the Forth to Aberdour and Kinghorn, it climbs inland before turning back towards the coast for a descent into Kirkcaldy. This section was part of National Cycle Network route 1 and was signed accordingly. There are long term plans to extend the route to St Andrews. Route 76 on the Sustrans website. Route 76 on Open Street Map

Edward C. Ford, Jr.

Edward Charles Ford, Jr. is an American Repubican Politician and Ordained Minister who serves on the Common Council of the City of Middletown, Connecticut since 2019. Ford was a Member of the City's Board of Education from 2017 to 2019; when Ford was first elected to public office back in 2017, after his swearing-in, he became the youngest African-American Republican in the United States to hold public office and after his election to the Common Council, he became the youngest person elected to the Council besides being the first African-American Republican to sit on the Council. Edward Ford, Jr. was born in Augusta, Georgia to Edward C. Ford, Sheryl Ford and moved with his family to Middletown, Connecticut when he was young, he attended the Middletown Public School System where he graduated from in 2015. He received a Bachelor's of Arts in Psychology from Central Connecticut State University in 2019. Ford and his Parents are Ordained Christian Ministers and have a Church based in Waterbury, Connecticut called the Bread of Life Evangelical

Saint Markella

Saint Markella was an inhabitant of Fourteenth Century Chios, Greece, canonized by the Greek Orthodox Church. Her feast day is celebrated on July 22. Saint Markella was born and lived in Volissos, Greece, she was raised as a devout Christian by her mother. However, her father was a pagan. Markella lived during the fourteenth century - during most. At a young age, her mother died and Markella continued to study her Bible, pray to God and live a life according to what she was taught. Around the time of her eighteenth birthday, the virtuous Markella had to flee the fury of her violent father. There are variant accounts given about the reasons for that. In one version, while Markella's late mother had been a Christian, her father was an idolater and he tried hard to force his daughter to become an idolater, too. By another version, the problem was that Markella's father was consumed with incestuous lust for her, she fled in horror when he declared his intentions. Whatever her reason for being afraid of her father, Saint Markella fled to nearby mountains and hid in a bush.

Her father found her with the help of a local herdsmen, they set fire to the bush to force her to show. Markella ran to the sea to escape but her father wounded her; as believed by the local people, The blood of the saint dyed the rocks and to this day, during the festivities for her feast day, at a specific time, her blood becomes visible on these rocks for all the faithful who bear witness to this miracle. It is further believed that as she was injured, she prayed to Jesus - her final moments spent in prayer requesting that the rocks would open for her to hide from her father and this happened. However, the opened rock enabled her to hide all of her body inside, but not her head, her father threw the head into the sea. Her head floated to the nearby beach of Komi. For many years, the locals could not locate the head until one day an Italian warship was in the area. In the evening, the Italians could see a bright light coming from the distance and when they got closer they witnessed a head, floating in the water, lit by upright floating candles.

They realized that this was a sacred miracle they were witness to and they took the head of the Saint back to their homeland. Local tradition has it that holy water springs from the rocks that mark her martyrdom. Many pilgrims visit this location and every year on 22 July, during the commemoration services for the Saint, the holy sea water in the rock pool boils during the entire Paraklisis Service. If a pilgrim's faith is strong, a local tradition is that the water in the rock-pool will feel warm to touch. Today there is a church on the cave of Saint Markella; the rock in which she was killed is said to spring holy water. Her nameday is on July 22; the icon of Saint Markella is said to be miraculous. A special prayer is dedicated to Saint Markella: Rose of piety and sprout of Chios, we honor with canticles Saint Markella, beheaded by her father's hand, as she guarded the commands of Christ, give strength and save from danger, us who cry unto you. Glory to Him who gave you strength, Glory to Him who crowned you.

Glory to Him who works through you, healings for all the faithful. Apolytikion Rose of piety and sprout of Chios, we honour with canticles Saint Markella, beheaded by her father's hand, as she guarded the commands of Christ, give strength and save from danger, us who cry unto you. Glory to Him who gave you strength, glory to Him who crowned you. Glory to Him who works through you, healings for all the faithful. Metropolis of Chios Martyr Marcella of Chios Markella, the Virgin-martyr of Chios The Holy-Female Martyr Marcella The Life of Saint Markella, The Patron Saint of Chios The Holy Shrine of St. Marcella Volissos - Saint Markella Chios - Saint Markella Life of St Markella of Chios This article is derived in whole or in part from Saint Markella at OrthodoxWiki, dually licensed under CC-By-SA and GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed

Piccadilly (supermarket chain)

Piccadilly is a former Bulgarian supermarket chain operating in Varna and Sofia. Founded as a 51% foreign-owned company in 1995, it opened its first supermarket in Varna in 1994 and became 100% Bulgarian-owned in 2003. Piccadilly was known for its near-complete dominance of the market in Varna to the extent that it prevented large international chains such as Billa from opening new stores. A loyalty program, Piccadilly Club, was started in 2003. On 12 September 2007 the Serbian firm "Delta Holding" bought 85% of the Piccadilly Chain Supermarket. Under the deal, Delta had to invest about €70m in Piccadilly and open 20 new stores which would hire about 1000 new employees; that was the first deal. Through the acquisition of Delta Maxi Group in July 2011, Piccadilly became a member of the Belgian international food retailer Delhaize Group; the chain disposed of 26 Piccadilly supermarkets and 13 Piccadilly Express corner shops. In 2014 the chain was once again sold by Delhaize to the Bulgarian company AP Mart and the company decided to merge the Piccadilly stores chain with the Carrefour Market operated by KMB Bulgaria franchiser.

But the deal never happened. In 2015, Piccadilly took a € 11.8 m loan from Investbank to repay its lenders. As of 2017, the company operates seven in Sofia. Since 17 February 2017 Piccadilly is in administration due to €80m of indebtedness towards its lenders, suppliers and the state. Piccadilly website

Poetic Edda

Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all of text from the Icelandic medieval manuscript known as the Codex Regius; the Codex Regius is arguably the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends. From the early-19th century onwards it has had a powerful influence on Scandinavian literatures - not only through its stories, but through the visionary force and the dramatic quality of many of the poems, it has become an inspiring model for many innovations in poetic meter in Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes that lack any final rhyme but instead use alliterative devices and strongly-concentrated imagery. Poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Codex Regius include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, J. R. R. Tolkien, Ezra Pound, Jorge Luis Borges, Karin Boye. Codex Regius was written during the 13th century, but nothing was known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson Bishop of Skálholt.

At the time, versions of the Edda were known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was another Edda, an Elder Edda, which contained the pagan poems that Snorri quotes in his Edda. When Codex Regius was discovered, it seemed that the speculation had proved correct, but modern scholarly research has shown that the Edda was written first and that the two were, at most, connected by a common source. Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest. Modern scholars reject that attribution, but the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes associated with both the "Codex Regius" and versions of "Poetic Edda" using it as a source. Bishop Brynjólfur sent Codex Regius as a present to the Danish king - hence the name given to the codex: Latin: codex regius, lit.'royal codex'. For centuries it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen, but in 1971 it was returned to Iceland; the Eddic poems are composed in alliterative verse. Most are in fornyrðislag.

The rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr. The language of the poems is clear and unadorned. Kennings are employed, though they do not arise as nor are they as complex, as those found in skaldic poetry. Like most early poetry, the Eddic poems were minstrel poems, passed orally from singer to singer and from poet to poet for centuries. None of the poems are attributed to a particular author, though many of them show strong individual characteristics and are to have been the work of individual poets. While scholars have speculated on hypothetical authors and accepted conclusions have never been reached. Accurate dating of the poems has long been a source of scholarly debate. Firm conclusions are difficult to reach. For example, Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed in the latter half of the 10th century, he uses a couple of lines in his Hákonarmál that are found in Hávamál, it is possible that he was quoting a known poem, but it is possible that Hávamál, or at least the strophe in question, is the younger derivative work.

The few demonstrably historical characters mentioned in the poems, such as Attila, provide a terminus post quem of sorts. The dating of the manuscripts themselves provides a more useful terminus ante quem. Individual poems have individual clues to their age. For example, Atlamál hin groenlenzku is claimed by its title to have been composed in Greenland, seems so by some internal evidence. If so, it can be no earlier than about 985, since there were no Scandinavians in Greenland until that time. In some cases, old poems may have been merged with other poems. For example, stanzas 9–16 of Völuspá, the "Dvergatal" or "Roster of Dwarfs", is considered by some scholars to be an interpolation; the problem of dating the poems is linked with the problem of determining. Iceland was not settled until 870, so anything composed before that time would have been elsewhere, most in Scandinavia. More recent poems, on the other hand, are Icelandic in origin. Scholars have attempted to localize individual poems by studying the geography and fauna to which they refer.

This approach does not yield firm results. For example, there are no wolves in Iceland, but we can be sure that Icelandic poets were familiar with the species; the apocalyptic descriptions of Völuspá have been taken as evidence that the poet who composed it had seen a volcanic eruption in Iceland – but this is hardly certain. Some poems similar to those found in Codex Regius are included in some editions of the Poetic Edda. Important manuscripts include AM 748 I Hauksbók and Flateyjarbók. Many of the poems are quoted in Snorri's Edda, but only in bits and pieces. What poems are included in an edition of the Poetic Edda depends on the editor; those not in Codex Regius are sometimes called Eddica minora, from their appearance in an edition with that title edited by Andreas Heusler and Wilhelm Ranisch in 1903. English translators are not consistent on the translations of the names of the Eddic poems or on how the Old Norse forms should be rendered in English. Up to three translated titles are given below, taken from the translations of Bellows and Larrington with proper names in the normalized English forms found in John Lindow's Norse Mythology and in Andy Orchard's Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend.

Völuspá (Wise-woman's prophecy, The Prophecy of the Seeres