Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li
Jamie St John Bamber Griffith is an English/Irish/American actor, known for his roles as Lee Adama in Battlestar Galactica and Detective Sergeant Matt Devlin in the ITV series Law & Order: UK. He had a supporting role in the Hornblower series and was a regular on the British series Ultimate Force and Peak Practice. In 2013, Bamber starred in the TNT medical drama Monday Mornings, in 2014, in the Sky 1 drama The Smoke. Jamie Bamber holds citizenship in Britain and the United States through his American father and Irish mother. Bamber has one sister, actress Anastasia Griffith. Bamber was educated at St Paul's School in London, graduated with a first in Modern Languages from St John's College, before attending and graduating from the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, he is fluent in both languages. Bamber appeared in the 1994 student film Shifting Sands. Beginning in 2003, Bamber starred as Lee'Apollo' Adama in the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica that started as a miniseries and served as a backdoor pilot for the 2004 television series on the US Sci Fi Channel.
The show received critical acclaim and received a Peabody Award plus a number of nominations in its four-season run. In the role of Lee Adama, Londoner Bamber speaks with an American accent, cited for its accuracy, he darkened his hair, in an effort to more resemble Edward James Olmos, who plays his character's father. Reciprocally, Olmos wore contact lenses with blue irises to match Bamber's eyes. Bamber wrote the foreword for Titan Books' Battlestar Galactica: The Official Companion Season Three by David Bassom. Of the show's dramatic resonance, he said:... that's what good drama lets us do. It allows us to feel things we otherwise would not, and great drama allows us to do that on every level: the psychological, the personal and the political. I am proud to say that in the pared down world of Battlestar Galactica there is no plot, no character and no relationship that does not breathe the oxygen of all three levels at once. Bamber is well known for his role as DS Matt Devlin, the impulsive younger partner of veteran detective DS Ronnie Brooks on Law & Order: UK for the show's first five series, from 2009 to 2011.
He played Lieutenant Archibald "Archie" Kennedy in the popular ITV series Hornblower, appearing in five of the eight television films in which Kennedy has a much expanded role from that essayed in C. S. Forester's novels. Bamber appeared as a trainee doctor in the final series of long running ITV soap Peak Practice, portrayed an SAS officer in Ultimate Force. Bamber guest starred in the second season premiere of Joss Whedon's Dollhouse where his character is wed to Echo during one of her missions. In the BBC's Outcasts, Bamber portrayed a hot-tempered expeditionary leader amongst colonists of a distant planet in the late 21st century. Other TV series in which he has made guest appearances include CSI: Miami, NCIS, Cold Case, Ghost Whisperer, The Last Detective, Body of Proof, Rizzoli & Isles and the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers, he played the role of detective Caolán Longstreet in 17th Precinct, a pilot by Galactica creator Ronald D. Moore described as a police drama which takes place in a world governed by magic.
The pilot was not picked up by NBC for the fall 2011 season. Bamber starred as neurosurgeon Dr. Tyler Wilson in Monday Mornings, the David E. Kelley-produced series for TNT, co-executive-produced by Sanjay Gupta and based on his novel of the same name; the series debuted in February 2013. In 2014 he played the lead role of Kev Allison, a London firefighter struggling to keep his personal and professional relationships together after a life-altering accident on the job, in The Smoke, a Kudos Television drama for Sky1 in the UK, he has supporting roles in two UK series: Marcella, returning for a second series in 2018. He plays a recurring role in the 2018 STARZ series Counterpart. Bamber played the starring role in the 2008 film Pulse 2: Afterlife, a direct-to-DVD sequel to 2006's Pulse. Earlier he starred in The Devil's Tattoo along with Kerry Norton, to become his wife, he made his French-language acting debut in 2012 in Martin Valente's Un jour mon père viendra, portraying the American fiancé of the female lead played by French pop star Olivia Ruiz.
According to Bamber, his character is loosely based on Andre Agassi. Most he co-starred in the 2017 French romantic comedy L'Embarras du Choix alongside Alexandra Lamy and Arnaud Ducret. In May 2011, Bamber completed filming John Doe: Vigilante, an Australian production directed by Kelly Dolen; the film was released in the United States on 21 March 2014. On 9 June 2015, Variety announced that Jamie Bamber, Kellan Lutz, Jesse Williams, Jess Weixler had joined the cast of a thriller film titled Money, directed by Martin Rosete and produced by Atit Shah. Bamber's s
Daybreak (Battlestar Galactica)
"Daybreak" is the three-part series finale of the reimagined science fiction television series Battlestar Galactica, are the 74th and 75th episodes overall. The episodes aired on the U. S. Sci Fi Channel and SPACE in Canada on March 13 and March 20, 2009; the second part is double-length. The episodes were written by Ronald D. Moore, directed by Michael Rymer; the Season 4.5 DVD and Blu-ray releases for Region 1 feature an extended version of the finale, which not only combines all three parts as a single episode, but integrates it with new scenes not seen in the aired version of either part. The survivor count shown in the title sequence for Part 1 is 39,516; the survivor count shown in the title sequence for Part 2 is 39,406. At the end of Part 2, Admiral Adama announces the survivor population at 38,000; the episodes portray the Galactica launching a rescue mission to retrieve Hera Agathon from the "colony", a armed and defended Cylon base located near a black hole. They manage to rescue Hera, in the end, the fleet finds a new planet to settle on, which they come to call Earth.
The final episodes gave Battlestar Galactica the strongest ratings since its second season, though they received mixed reviews. The flashback sequences during the course of the first part take place a few years before the Cylon attack on Caprica. William Adama is reluctant to undergo a lie detector test in preparation for a civilian desk job. Elsewhere, Gaius Baltar is getting tired of his father, abusive to his nurse. However, Caprica Six soon informs Baltar that she took his father into a care home, where he will be happier. Laura Roslin is living with her two sisters, one of whom is pregnant, but Roslin receives distressing news that both her sisters and father were killed in a car accident. Three months after, she is set up for a blind date and is encouraged to join Mayor Adar's presidential campaign. Lee Adama meets Kara Thrace for the first time while she is seeing Zak; when Lee arrives home drunk, he notices a pigeon in his house, he chases it away. Lastly, the flashbacks focus on Anders, interviewed during his sporting career, where he admits to playing for the joy of the pursuit of perfection rather than the winning.
Back in the present, Galactica is being stripped for parts to be used on other ships, while the military will be transferred to control the Rebel Basestar. The pictures of the fallen in the memorial hallway are taken down. Baltar wants his people to have a seat on the quorum. Admiral Adama decides to give amnesty to those who took part in the attempted coup d'état, as well as to Tyrol, in the brig for helping Boomer escape; this allows Tyrol to take part in the mission to retrieve Hera, being studied by the Cylons to determine how Cylons can reproduce. Adama announces a plan to rescue the child Hera at the colony and that it will be a one-way trip for the Galactica, requires all Galactica personnel to either volunteer for the mission or decline in person, he and Starbuck lay a line down the center of the landing bay and personnel move to one side to volunteer or the other to remain with the Fleet. Doc Cottle attempts to join in, but is ordered back by Adama as the fleet cannot afford to lose a doctor.
Several others join in the operation, including the original Cylon models, a weakened Roslin. A Raptor is dispatched to the possible location of the "Colony", only to find it located close to a black hole, but despite the circumstance, Adama orders an attack to begin and planning commences. In flashback sequences, William Adama and Saul Tigh celebrate their upcoming retirement, where Tigh convinces Adama to take his new job; as Adama is questioned in an interview, he complains that no job is worth questioning his loyalty and decides to rejoin the military. Lee has dinner with Starbuck again; when Zak passes out, the sexual tension between Kara and Lee nearly erupts before they are interrupted by a stirring Zak. Back home, Lee again encounters the pigeon. Roslin meets her blind date. After they go back to her apartment, she ends the date. Boomer meets Adama and Tigh for the first time, where she is warned that she is on the verge of ending her career due to her inability to land a Raptor. Given one last chance, Boomer gratefully tells the two that unlike other pilots, she will repay Adama one day.
Meanwhile, believing that Caprica Six is a corporate spy, allows her access to the military defense mainframe. He says that he is not doing this for her. Back in the present of the series, Baltar decides to join the mission with Caprica Six at the last minute. At that moment it is revealed that Baltar's Inner Six and Six's Inner Baltar are aware of each other, the two real-life counterparts see both of them. Romo Lampkin is installed as president, Hoshi is given command of the fleet while Adama and Galactica set off to rescue Hera. A battalion of the self-aware Cylon Centurions who are aligned with the fleet march down the flight deck - red stripes painted diagonally on their chests to distinguish them from the others. Galactica jumps right next to the colony
Leland Joseph "Lee" Adama is a fictional character in the television series Battlestar Galactica. He is portrayed by actor Jamie Bamber, is one of the main characters in the series. Lee Adama was born to William Adama, a veteran of the First Cylon War, his wife, Carolanne Adama, he had a younger brother, Zak Adama. Their father encouraged both boys to enter the Colonial Fleet and become Viper pilots. Zak was not a natural pilot like his brother and father, was killed in an accident after being awarded flight status against the better judgment of his flight instructor and fiancée, then-Lieutenant Kara "Starbuck" Thrace. Zak's death drove a wedge between Lee Adama and his father which would only be healed over two years after the Destruction of the Twelve Colonies. By the time of the Cylons' devastating attack on the Twelve Colonies, Lee Adama is a Captain in the Colonial Fleet Reserve with the call sign "Apollo", he is a special guest at the decommissioning ceremonies for Battlestar Galactica, commanded by his father.
After Major Jackson "Ripper" Spencer, the Galactica's CAG is killed in battle, Lee Adama becomes senior surviving pilot joins the Galactica crew and becomes its CAG. Lee Adama's strained relationship with his father causes him to become a strong supporter of Colonial President Laura Roslin, who butts heads with William Adama. Roslin, unfamiliar with the military, appoints Lee Adama to be her personal advisor. Early in their relationship, President Laura Roslin referred to Lee Adama as "Captain Apollo". Lee once corrected her, stating "Apollo" was his call sign, but President Roslin replied "'Captain Apollo' has a nice ring to it." Upon joining Galactica's crew, Apollo was a bit of an outsider but after proving himself in several missions as more than just the "old man's son" he earned the respect of his fellow pilots and soon became one of the crew. When Kara Thrace goes missing after being shot down over an unnamed red moon, Lee is at the forefront of the search for the missing pilot. Lee and his father are compelled to abandon the search for Starbuck after President Roslin alerts them to how they are placing personal feelings above the good of the fleet.
Starbuck is able to return to Galactica using a Cylon Raider she shot down. However, the incident cements the father-son bond between his surviving son. Lee questions how long his father would search for him, were he missing, to which the elder Adama responds, "If it were you, we'd never leave."Lee is part of the strike team sent by then-Commander Adama to Colonial One to terminate Laura Roslin's presidency after she encourages Kara Thrace to abscond with a captured Cylon Raider. On board Colonial One, Lee has a change of heart, declaring that it isn't worth it to sacrifice democracy, he puts his gun to Colonel Saul Tigh's head. Tigh calmly tells Lee, "This is mutiny, you know that." Tigh takes control of the situation after Roslin surrenders and is able to take both Roslin and Lee into custody. Lee is present in the Galactica's CIC shortly thereafter, when the Cylon infiltrator known as Lieutenant Junior Grade Sharon "Boomer" Valerii shoots Commander Adama twice in the chest. On Tigh's orders, Lee is physically dragged from his father's side and thrown in the brig.
Needing Lee's services as CAG, Tigh releases Lee on parole. Lee will perform his duties as before, but "make no attempt to free or sow insurrection among the crew", will return to the brig when not on duty. Nonetheless, Lee breaks his parole after Tigh's leadership takes a disastrous turn and results in civilian deaths, he helps Roslin to lead a breakaway fleet to Kobol. After Commander Adama and President Roslin make a personal effort to heal the divisions in the fleet, Lee returns to duty on Galactica. Lee is one of the five people. After the Battlestar Pegasus joins the fleet, Lee is temporarily transferred to the Pegasus, given duties flying Raptors rather than Vipers, demoted to Lieutenant. All of these misfortunes are reversed after the successful attack on the Cylon Resurrection ship, the death of Rear Admiral Helena Cain, his father's promotion to flag rank. However, Lee battles with depression at this time, confessing to Kara Thrace "he didn't want to make it back alive."While on leave on the Cloud 9 luxury liner, Lee is accidentally shot by Kara Thrace during a hostage rescue.
He takes a month to recover from this wound, during which time he is promoted to Major and consummates his long-simmering relationship with Petty Officer Second Class Anastasia Dualla. He is assigned to Pegasus to assist Commander Barry Garner. After he commands the ship during a Cylon surprise attack in which Garner is killed, Lee is promoted from Major to Commander, given command of Pegasus. Shortly before the Roslin-vs.-Baltar presidential election, the fleet discovers a somewhat habitable planet inside of a nebula safe from Cylon discovery, named New Caprica. After Gaius Baltar wins the presidential election, he orders the establishment of permanent settlements on the planet; the Galactica and Pegasus begin a monotonous orbital defense patrol. Months Lee and Kara Thrace both get drunk at a party celebrating the ceremonial first shovelful of earth being dug on New Caprica, they make love, declare their love for one another, fall asleep together. When Lee wakes and returns to the settlement he finds.
This betrayal causes a lot of bad feeling between Adama and
Lieutenant (junior grade)
Lieutenant abbreviated as LTJG or Lt. is a junior commissioned officer rank of the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. LTJG has a US military pay grade of O-2, a NATO rank code of OF-1a; the rank is used in the United States Maritime Service. The NOAA Corps's predecessors, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps and the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps or ESSA Corps used the rank. Lieutenant, junior grade, ranks above ensign and below lieutenant and is equivalent to a first lieutenant in the other uniformed services and sub-lieutenant in the Royal Navy and the navies of many Commonwealth countries. Promotion to LTJG is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest all "fully qualified" ensigns should be promoted to LTJG; the time for promotion to LTJG is a minimum of two years after commissioning in the Navy or 18 months in the Coast Guard.
Lieutenants, junior grade lead petty officers and non-rated personnel, unless assigned to small aircraft or on staff duty. A LTJG's usual shipboard billet is as a division officer. Lieutenant, junior grade is referred to colloquially as JG. Prior to March 3, 1883, this rank was known in the U. S. Navy as master. Neil Armstrong, Korean War Naval Aviator and as an astronaut, Commander of Apollo 11 Paul Brown, exceptional High School and Pro level American Football Coach George H. W. Bush, World War II Naval Aviator and 41st President of the United States Albert David, only Atlantic Fleet sailor awarded the Medal of Honor in World War II Kirk Douglas, American actor Henry Fonda, American film and stage actor L. Ron Hubbard, science fiction writer and founder of scientology John F. Kennedy, commanding officer of motor torpedo boat PT-109 and 35th President of the United States Bob Kerrey, Navy SEAL Medal of Honor recipient and U. S. Senator Harvey Milk, gay rights activist and member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors Thomas R. Norris, Navy SEAL and Medal of Honor recipient David Robinson, U.
S. Naval Academy and National Basketball Association Hall of Fame player Potter Stewart, served in World War II as a member of the U. S. Naval Reserve aboard oil tankers, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Malcolm Wilson, New York politician Douglas A. "Doug" Roberts in the 1960s TV series Mister Roberts John Wayne as "Rusty" in the 1945 film They Were Expendable H. Paynter Jr. in The Caine Mutiny Radar intercept officers Nick "Goose" Bradshaw, Ron "Slider" Kerner, Marcus "Sundown" Williams in the 1986 film Top Gun Attorneys Daniel Alistair Kaffee and Sam Weinberg in the 1992 film A Few Good Men Bright Noa in Mobile Suit Gundam Tim O'Neill and Lonnie Henderson in seaQuest DSV Nick Holden in the 1959 film Operation Petticoat Cathy Connors and Danny Romano in the 1961 film Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea Meg Austin and Bud Roberts in the 1990s TV series JAG Felix Gaeta in Battlestar Galactica Joseph Tormolen in the episode The Naked Time of Star Trek. Solid Snake was disguised as this U.
S. Navy SEAL. Tom Paris in Star Trek: Voyager Ezri Dax was promoted from Ensign to LTJG by Captain Benjamin Sisko in Star Trek: Deep Space 9 Fred Boynton in the 1994 film Barcelona Deborah Solomon in Purple Hearts Julian Mintz in Legend of the Galactic Heroes Fred-104 in Halo 5: Guardians Malcolm Blanke MD in C. S. Forester's short story "Dr Blanke's First Command". In the US Navy Reserve. LeRoy Carpentor in McHales Navy, Comparative military ranks U. S. Navy officer rank insignia
A cliffhanger, or cliffhanger ending, is a plot device in fiction which features a main character in a precarious or difficult dilemma, or confronted with a shocking revelation at the end of an episode of serialized fiction. A cliffhanger is hoped to ensure the audience will return to see how the characters resolve the dilemma; some serials end with the caveat "To Be Continued…" or "The End?" In movie serials and television series, the following episode sometimes begins with a recap sequence. Cliffhangers were used as literary devices in several works of the medieval era; the Arabic literary work One Thousand and One Nights involves Scheherazade narrating a series of stories to King Shahryār for 1,001 nights, with each night ending on a cliffhanger in order to save herself from execution. Some medieval Chinese ballads like the Liu chih-yuan chu-kung-tiao ended each chapter on a cliffhanger to keep the audience in suspense. Cliffhangers appeared as an element of the Victorian serial novel that emerged in the 1840s, with many associating the form with Charles Dickens, a pioneer of the serial publication of narrative fiction.
By the 1860s it had become a staple part of the sensation serials, while the term itself originated with Thomas Hardy in 1873 when a protagonist from one of his serials, Henry Knight, was left hanging off a cliff. Cliffhangers became prominent with the serial publication of narrative fiction, pioneered by Charles Dickens. Printed episodically in magazines, Dickens’s cliffhangers triggered desperation in his readers. Writing in the New Yorker, Emily Nussbaum captured the anticipation of those waiting for the next installment of Dickens' The Old Curiosity Shop; the impact of Dickens' serial publications saw the cliffhanger become a staple part of the sensation serials by the 1860s. The term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialised version of Thomas Hardy's A Pair of Blue Eyes in which Henry Knight, one of the protagonists, is left hanging off a cliff. Cliffhangers were popular from the 1910s through to the 1930s serials when nickelodeons and movie theaters filled the cultural niche primarily occupied by television.
During the 1910s, when Fort Lee, New Jersey was a center of film production, the cliffs facing New York and the Hudson River were used as film locations. The most notable of these films was The Perils of Pauline, a serial which helped popularize the term cliffhanger. In them, the serial would end leaving actress Pearl White's Pauline character hanging from a cliff. Cliffhangers are used in television series soap operas that end each episode on a cliffhanger. Prior to the early 1980s, season-ending cliffhangers were rare on U. S. television. The first such season-ender on U. S. TV was in the comedy send-up of soap operas Soap in 1978. Several Australian soap operas, which went off air over summer, such as Number 96, The Restless Years, Prisoner, ended each year with major and much publicized catastrophe, such as a character being shot in the final seconds of the year's closing episode. Cliffhangers are used in Japanese manga and anime. In contrast to American superhero comics, Japanese manga are much more written with cliffhangers with each volume or issue.
This is the case with shōnen manga those published by Weekly Shōnen Jump, such as Dragon Ball, Shaman King, One Piece. During its original run, Doctor Who was written in a serialised format that ended each episode within a serial on a cliffhanger. In the first few years of the show, the final episodes of each serial would have a cliffhanger that would lead into the next serial. Dragonfire Part One is notable for having a cliffhanger that involved The Doctor hanging from a cliff; this has been criticised by fans for being a pointless cliffhanger, but script editor Andrew Cartmel gave an explanation for the reasoning of it in an interview. Another British science fiction series, Blake's 7, employed end-of-season cliffhangers for each of the four seasons the series was on air, most notably for its final episode in 1981 in which the whole of the main cast are killed. Cliffhangers were rare on American television before 1980, as television networks preferred the flexibility of airing episodes in any order.
The phenomenal success of the 1980 "Who shot J. R.?" third season-ending cliffhanger of Dallas, the "Who Done It" fourth-season episode that solved the mystery, contributed to the cliffhanger becoming a common storytelling device on American television. Another notable cliffhanger was the "Moldavian Massacre" on Dynasty in 1985, which fueled speculation throughout the summer months regarding who lived or died when all the characters attended a wedding in the country of Moldavia, only to have revolutionaries topple the government and machine-gun the entire wedding party. Cliffhanger endings in films date back to the early 20th century, were prominently used in the movie serials of the 1930s, though these tended to be resolved with the next installment the following week. A longer term cliffhanger was employed in the Star Wars film series, in The Empire Strikes Back in which Darth Vader made a shock revelation to Luke Skywalker that he was his father, the life of Han Solo was in jeopardy after he was frozen and taken away by a bounty hunter.
These plotlines were left unresolved until the next film in the series three years later. The two main ways for cliffhangers to keep readers/viewers coming
Thomas "Tom" Zarek is a fictional character on the Syfy series Battlestar Galactica. He is played by Richard Hatch, who had portrayed Captain Apollo, one of the main characters on the original Battlestar Galactica series of the late 1970s. Zarek is a charismatic and philosophical populist political leader from the Colony of Sagittaron, jailed twenty years before the Cylon holocaust for terrorist activities and for spurring political unrest. After the destruction of the Twelve Colonies, he and a number of other inmates find themselves stuck on the Astral Queen, a prison ship which joins the Battlestar Galactica in fleeing the Cylons. Gathering followers among the prisoners, Zarek leads a riot against the leadership of the ragtag fleet, protesting the poor living conditions on the Astral Queen, he creates a hostage situation which then-Commander Adama and President Roslin must resolve in the midst of a crisis of water supply in the fleet. As an homage to the original 1970s series, at one point in the episode Zarek and Lee Adama are in discussion sitting opposite each other in one of the cells.
One of Zarek's co-conspirators calls "Apollo!", at which point they both turn in recognition. In the series, Zarek runs for political office, is elected representative for Sagittaron on the new Quorum of Twelve, he runs for the vacant office of Vice President, in a power play meant to take a step towards ascending to the presidency, but is defeated when Roslin makes a surprise replacement for her own nominee, Dr. Gaius Baltar is elected Vice President. Actor Richard Hatch has stated that Zarek ran for office because "he's always looking for positions where he can leverage himself, where he can have more influence, he believes that he's fighting for the people, but much so the idealistic revolutionary becomes the self-serving politician. So what you think is for the people ends up being for you. I think, they start out for beneficial reasons but they get caught up in the process for their own purposes and agendas."During the time in which Col. Tigh imposed martial law on the fleet, Zarek assists Lee Adama in hiding Roslin from the military..
While on the run, he unsuccessfully tries to persuade the younger Adama to record a message to the fleet publicly denouncing his father for ordering Roslin's arrest.. After the Astral Queen leads the pro-Roslin faction to Kobol and his lieutenant, accompany Roslin's party to the planet's surface, ostensibly to provide security as they search for the Tomb of Athena. Zarek tries to dissuade Meier from his plan of assassinating Lee to no avail, Meier ends up dead when the plan fails.. Soon after reuniting with the fleet, Lee turns to Zarek for information on his "shady friends," who control a black market for essential goods. Zarek names a gangster named Phelan, killed by Lee. Although he denies any involvement in the black market, saying that he broke off contact with Phelan when he discovered Phelan's child prostitution ring, Zarek is shown associating with one of the late Phelan's former henchmen.. Subsequently, Zarek goes on to become Gaius Baltar's campaign manager in his bid against Laura Roslin.
He engineers a winning platform that called for the fleet to settle on an isolated, newly discovered planet dubbed "New Caprica." When Baltar is elected President of the Twelve Colonies, Zarek became his vice president. Zarek was placed in confinement, when he refused to collaborate with the Cylons after they forced the surrender of the Baltar administration. He, along with Laura Roslin and Cally Tyrol, was one of 200 citizens sentenced to death by the Cylon-controlled Colonial Government. Believing themselves to be doomed, Zarek elicited a confession from Roslin about the election fraud that denied Baltar the presidency. Upon hearing the truth from Roslin, Zarek admitted that in light of the Cylon occupation, settling on New Caprica was a bad idea; the group is saved at the last minute by the human resistance movement. After Galactica's return to help the remnants of humanity escape, Baltar is left with the Cylons. Zarek becomes president of the Colonies, but decides to step down, believing that without the military's support he wouldn't be able to control the fleet.
Before his resignation, he appoints Laura Roslin as his Vice President. Although saying he would like any position in Roslin's new administration, Zarek is surprised when Roslin asks him to be her new Vice President. Before Roslin resumed her presidency, Zarek in conjunction with Saul Tigh secretly authorized "The Circle" to carry out death squad executions of those who collaborated with the Cylons on New Caprica. Roslin is horrified when she learns of this, but Zarek says that the fleet needs quick justice to prevent chaos and that Roslin's new mandate needs to start with clean hands; the executions are stopped. After Baltar is returned by the Cylons to the Colonials during the Eye of Jupiter incident, Zarek counsels Roslin against giving him a public trial, again citing the potential for chaos in the fleet that could ensue, he advises Roslin to declare martial law as a precaution during the trial. When Zarek leaves and Tory note that Zarek seemed worried about possible unrest, as Zarek's political philosophy has always been fundamentally opposed to martial law.
When Roslin is kidnapped by renegade Cylons in the episode "Sine Qua Non", unde