Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains, beans, |nuts or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm and bran together or of the endosperm alone. Meal is either differentiable from flour as having coarser particle size or is synonymous with flour. For example, the word cornmeal connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line; the English word "flour" is a variant of the word "flower" and both words derive from the Old French fleur or flour, which had the literal meaning "blossom", a figurative meaning "the finest".
The phrase "fleur de farine" meant "the finest part of the meal", since flour resulted from the elimination of coarse and unwanted matter from the grain during milling. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat seeds crushed between simple millstones to make flour dates to 6000 BC; the Romans were the first to grind seeds on cone mills. In 1879, at the beginning of the Industrial Era, the first steam mill was erected in London. In the 1930s, some flour began to be enriched with iron, niacin and riboflavin. In the 1940s, mills started to enrich flour and folic acid was added to the list in the 1990s. An important problem of the industrial revolution was the preservation of flour. Transportation distances and a slow distribution system collided with natural shelf life; the reason for the limited shelf life is the fatty acids of the germ, which react from the moment they are exposed to oxygen. This occurs. Depending on climate and grain quality, this process takes six to nine months. In the late 19th century, this process was too short for an industrial production and distribution cycle.
As vitamins and amino acids were or unknown in the late 19th century, removing the germ was an effective solution. Without the germ, flour cannot become rancid. Degermed flour became standard. Degermation started in densely populated areas and took one generation to reach the countryside. Heat-processed flour is flour where the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran processed with steam, dry heat or microwave and blended into flour again; the FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E. coli bacterial contamination. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
These terms are now applied more broadly to uses of water and wind power for purposes other than milling. More the Unifine mill, an impact-type mill, was developed in the mid-20th century. Home users have begun grinding their own flour from organic wheat berries on a variety of electric flour mills; the grinding process is not much different from grinding coffee but the mills are larger. This provides fresh flour with the benefits of wheat fiber without spoilage. Modern farm equipment allows livestock farmers to do some or all of their own milling when it comes time to convert their own grain crops to coarse meal for livestock feed; this capability is economically important because the profit margins are thin enough in commercial farming that saving expenses is vital to staying in business. Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates known as polysaccharides; the kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour, self-rising flour, cake flour including bleached flour.
The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, the more it will produce crusty or chewy breads. The lower the protein the softer the flour, better for cakes and pie crusts. "Bleached flour" is any refined flour with a whitening agent added. "Refined flour" has had the germ and bran removed and is referred to as "white flour". Bleached flour is artificially aged using a maturing agent, or both. A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour. A maturing agent may either weaken gluten development; the four most common additives used as bleaching/maturing agents in the US are: Potassium bromate, listed as an ingredient, is a maturing agent that strengthens gluten development. It does not bleach. Benzoyl peroxide does not act as a maturing agent, it has no effect on gluten. Ascorbic acid is listed as an ingredient, either as an indication that the flour was matured using ascorbic acid or that a small amount is
A crepe maker is a cooking device used to make crepes, pancakes, blinis or tortillas. It should not be mistaken for a crepe pan. Crepe makers were large cast-iron plates set over the fire to cook cereal-based batters; the machines have since evolved and the cast-iron plates were set on top of stainless steel frames. These first machines were electric machines, on, gas crepe griddles were developed as well. Although professional cast-iron crepe makers need to be seasoned, non-stick cast-iron griddles can now be found on the market. Crepe cooking machines are referred to as crepe makers or crepe griddles, they are known as billig in Brittany, where crêpes originate. Billig is a mutated form of the breton word pillig meaning "crepe maker". Krampouz, crepe maker manufacturer Tava http://chefcrepe.com/history-about-crepes.htm?sm=1
A pancake is a flat cake thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan frying with oil or butter. Archaeological evidence suggests that pancakes were the earliest and most widespread cereal food eaten in prehistoric societies; the pancake's shape and structure varies worldwide. In Britain, pancakes are unleavened and resemble a crêpe. In North America, a leavening agent is used creating a thick fluffy pancake. A crêpe is a thin Breton pancake of French origin cooked on one or both sides in a special pan or crepe maker to achieve a lacelike network of fine bubbles. A well-known variation originating from southeast Europe is a palačinke, a thin moist pancake fried on both sides and filled with jam, cheese cream, chocolate, or ground walnuts, but many other fillings—sweet or savoury—can be used; when potato is used as a major portion of the batter, the result is a potato pancake. Commercially prepared pancake mixes are available in some countries.
When buttermilk is used in place of or in addition to milk, the pancake develops a tart flavor and becomes known as a buttermilk pancake, common in Scotland and the US. Buckwheat flour can be used in a pancake batter, making for a type of buckwheat pancake, a category that includes Blini, Kaletez and Memil-buchimgae. Pancakes may be served at any time of the day with a variety of toppings or fillings but in America they are considered a breakfast food. Pancakes serve a similar function to waffles. In Britain and the Commonwealth, they are associated with Shrove Tuesday known as "Pancake Day", when perishable ingredients had to be used up before the fasting period of Lent; the Ancient Greeks made pancakes called τηγανίτης, ταγηνίτης or ταγηνίας, all words deriving from τάγηνον, "frying pan". The earliest attested references to tagenias are in the works of the 5th-century BC poets Cratinus and Magnes. Tagenites were made with wheat flour, olive oil and curdled milk, were served for breakfast. Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης, from σταίτινος, "of flour or dough of spelt", derived from σταῖς, "flour of spelt".
Athenaeus mentions, in his Deipnosophistae, staititas topped with honey and cheese. The Middle English word pancake appears in English in the 15th century; the Ancient Romans called their fried concoctions alia dulcia, Latin for "other sweets". These were much different from. Pancakes in the Horn of Africa are known as injera. Injera is a yeast-risen flatbread with a unique spongy texture. Traditionally, it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Canjeero known as lahooh or lahoh, is a similar kind of flatbread eaten in Somalia and Yemen. In Eritrea and Ethiopia, injera are served with one or more stews known as wat or with salads or with other injera; the right hand is used to tear small pieces from the injera to use to pick up and eat the stews or salads. The injera under these stews soaks up juices and flavours and, after the stews and salads are finished, is consumed. Injera thus acts as food, eating utensil and plate; when the "tablecloth" formed by the injera is finished, the meal is over.
Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen. It is eaten along with honey and tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with soup or stew. In Kenya, pancakes are eaten for breakfast as an alternative to bread, they are served plain with the sugar added to the batter to sweeten them. Kenyan pancakes are similar to French crepes. A "pancake" in South Africa is a crêpe. In Afrikaans, it is known as a pannekoek and, traditionally, is prepared on gas stoves and eaten on wet and cold days. Pannekoeke are served with cinnamon-flavoured sugar, either allowed to dissolve into and soften them or, if their crispy texture is to be retained, eaten immediately, they are a staple at Dutch Reformed Church fêtes. Plaatkoekies are American-style "silver dollar" pancakes. A variation of the pannekoek is the South African crumpet, made from self-raising flour, milk and a pinch of salt; the smooth batter is fried in butter to produce a raised flat cake. Crumpets are always served hot for breakfast, with butter and golden syrup.
In Uganda, pancakes are locally made with bananas and served as a breakfast or as a snack option. Banana pancakes are a menu item in Western-oriented backpackers' cafes in Asian countries such as Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam and China; this has elicited the term Banana Pancake Trail. Chinese pancakes may be either savoury or sweet, are made with dough rather than batter; the dough consists of water and vegetable oil. The dish can be served as a side alongside duck, or as a snack, topped with scallions along with hot and sour sauce. India has many styles of pancake. Variations range from their taste to the main ingredient used. All are made without the use of added raising agents. Pancakes prepared using a north Indian cooking style are known as cheela. Sweet cheela are made using jaggery with a wheat flour-based batter. North Indian salty pancakes are made using batter p
Kaletez, called galette de sarrasin in French, is a buckwheat pancake in Breton cuisine. According to legend, the buckwheat pancake was born thanks to a Breton woman spilling buckwheat slop on a hot pebble in the chimney. Small quantities of buckwheat pollen have been found in the peat lands of Brittany that date to the 12th Century Buckwheat agriculture appeared in Brittany at the beginning of the 16th century: its output is irregular and low, but it was not taxed. Buckwheat grows on poor, infertile land and can be harvested three months after sowing, giving the nickname "the 100 days plant". Among many legends about Anne of Brittany, it is said; the local production of buckwheat cannot supply the 15000 tons consumed per year in France, the preparation of these buckwheat pancakes relies on imports from China and Canada. A "protected geographic indicator" exists for Breton buckwheat flour and the "Blé noir tradition Bretagne" society consists of more than 800 producers and around ten mills in order to promote buckwheat flour usage.
Blini – Eastern European buckwheat pancake Galette List of buckwheat dishes Memil-buchimgae – Korean buckwheat pancake
Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain. A bannock is cut into sections before serving; the word "bannock" comes from Scots English dialects. The Oxford English Dictionary states the term stems from panicium, a Latin word for "baked dough", or from panis, meaning bread, it was first referred to as "bannuc" in early glosses to the 8th century author Aldhelm, its first cited definition in 1562. Its historic use was in Ireland and Northern England; the Scottish poet Robert Burns mentions bannock in his Epistle to James Tennant of Glenconner, in reference to Alexander Tennant. The original bannocks were heavy, flat cakes of unleavened barley or oatmeal dough formed into a round or oval shape cooked on a griddle. In Scotland, before the 19th century, bannocks were cooked on a bannock stane, a large, rounded piece of sandstone, placed directly onto a fire, used as a cooking surface. Most modern bannocks are made with baking powder or baking soda as a leavening agent, giving them a light and airy texture.
There is a suggestion that bannock cakes played a pivotal role in the deciding of a person for human sacrifice during the late Iron Age in the discovery of Lindow Man. Bannock varieties can be named or differentiated according to various characteristics: the flour or meal from which they are made, whether they are leavened or not, whether they have certain special ingredients, how they are baked or cooked, the names of rituals or festivals in which they are used. Specially made bannocks were used in rituals marking the changing of the Gaelic seasons: St Bride's bannock for spring, Bealtaine bannock for summer, Lughnasadh or Lammas bannock for autumn harvests, Samhain bannock for winter. Other special bannocks include beremeal bannock, bride's bannock, cod liver bannock, cryin' bannock, fallaid bannock, fife bannock, Hogmanay bannock, Marymas bannock, mashlum bannock, Michaelmas bannock, pease bannock, Pitcaithly bannock, salt bannock, sautie bannock, Silverweed bannock, St Columba's bannock, teethin' bannock, Yetholm bannock, Yule bannock.
Manx bonnag comes from the same root form as bannock and is made using similar ingredients. In the north of England, bannocks are made using pastry rather than a bread dough. Selkirk bannock from Scotland is well-known and named after the town in the Scottish borders where it is traditionally made, it is a spongy, buttery variety, sometimes compared to a fruitcake, made from wheat flour and containing a large quantity of raisins. The first known maker of this variety was a baker named Robbie Douglas, who opened his shop in Selkirk in 1859; when Queen Victoria visited Sir Walter Scott's granddaughter at Abbotsford she is reputed to have taken her tea with a slice of Selkirk bannock, thus ensuring that its reputation was enshrined forever. Today, Selkirk bannocks are popular throughout Great Britain, can be found at most large supermarkets. Bannock, skaan, or Indian bread, is found throughout North American Native cuisine, including that of the Inuit of Canada and Alaska, other Alaska Natives, the First Nations of the rest of Canada, the Native Americans in the United States, the Métis.
A type of bannock, using available resources, such as flour made from maize, tree sap and leavening agents, may have been produced by indigenous North Americans prior to contact with outsiders, similar to modern cornbread. Some sources indicate that bannock was unknown in North America until the 1860s when it was created by the Navajo who were incarcerated at Fort Sumner, while others indicate that it came from a Scottish source. Evidence for the pre-contact history of bannock comes from the fact that most indigenous North American languages have a distinct word for bannock, such as Inuvialuk: muqpauraq rather than a borrowing or calque of the English or French words. Other languages do offer hints of European influence, for example Navajo: bááh dah díníilghaazhh "bread that bubbles", where "bááh" is a borrowing from Spanish: pan for flour and yeast bread, as opposed to the older Navajo: łeesʼáán which refers to maize bread cooked in hot ashes Likewise, Yup'ik alatiq comes from Russian: ола́дьи "pancakes, fritters".
As made by Indigenous North Americans, bannock is prepared with white or whole wheat flour, baking powder, sugar and water or milk, which are combined and kneaded fried in rendered fat, vegetable oil, or shortening, baked in an oven or cooked on a stick. Bannock is the most universal of dishes in the indigenous Canadian repertoire, is used in the Arctic, Sub-arctic, Pacific cultural areas. However, the modern recipes for bannock are influenced by the government rations that were distributed on Indian reserves in the late 19th century when access to country foods were restricted by the arrival of non-indigenous settlers; such rations included the staples of the European Canadian diet at that time: wheat flour, sugar and butter. These new ingredients helped indigenous people to survive the loss of access to country foods, are now thought of by some as a part of indigenous identity, as "Indian soul food". However, for others they are a reminder of the negative impacts of colonialism, are regarded as an imposition.
Balep korkun is a Tibetan bannock cooked on a frying pan. Damper Frybr
Bánh xèo "sizzling pancake", named for the loud sizzling sound it makes when the rice batter is poured into the hot skillet. It is stuffed with individual preferences, served vegetarian or with meat; some common stuffings include: pork, diced green onion, mung bean, bean sprouts. Bánh xèo is served with lettuce, Thai basil, fish mint; the dish is popular in Cambodian cuisine, where the dish is called បាញ់ឆែវ