Galicia (Spain)

Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the northwest Iberian Peninsula, it includes the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra. Galicia is bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,701,743 in 2018 and a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora and the largest and most populated, A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD. In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga.

In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia; this institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia. This resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and beaches; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize. In 2018, the nominal gross domestic product was €62,900 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €23,300.

Galicia is characterised, unlike other Spanish regions, by the absence of a metropolis dominating the territory. Indeed, the urban network is made up of other small towns; the population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. A Coruña is the largest city with 213,418 while Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the largest municipality, with 292,817. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: the native Galician, a Romance language related to Portuguese with which it shares the Galician-Portuguese medieval literature. While most Galicians are bilingual, a 2013 survey reported that 51% of the Galician population spoke Galician most on a day-to-day basis, while 48% most used Spanish.

Due to Galicia's history with mythology, the land has been called "Terra Meiga" The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'.

Anthony Boric

Anthony Frank Boric is a former rugby union footballer who represented the New Zealand in international rugby, was a member of the 2011 Rugby World Cup winning All Blacks squad. He played as a lock. Boric is a second-generation New Zealander of Croatian descent, his grandfather, from whom Boric acquired his middle name, hailed from the Dalmatia region. He attended school at Rosmini College in Takapuna. Boric studied Civil Engineering at the University of Auckland, in 2008, the final year of his degree, received news of his inclusion in the All Black squad when he heard his name read out on the radio. Boric started playing rugby on the wing, but as he grew in his teenage years he switched into the second row, played as a loose forward. In his early days at North Harbour and the Blues, Boric alternated between the role of lock and blindside flank before deciding to concentrate on the former position. After making his first appearance as an All Black coming on as a substitute against England on 13 June 2008, Boric's first match as part of the starting line-up was against the Springboks in Dunedin, replacing the suspended Brad Thorn.

Boric scored his first Test try versus Scotland on 8 November 2008 AB played his last Test match for All Black side during the winning 2011 Rugby World Cup campaign. He played. All Blacks Profile Blues Profile North Harbour Profile Super Rugby Profile

Caladenia williamsiae

Caladenia williamsiae known as Judy's spider orchid, or Williams' spider orchid is a species of orchid endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a rare species with a single large, hairy leaf and one or two delicate, greenish-yellow and red flowers, it is only known from a single population near Brookton. Caladenia williamsiae is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single erect, hairy leaf, 70–90 mm long and 15–18 mm wide. One or two greenish-yellow flowers with red markings, about 40 mm long and 30 mm wide are borne on a stalk 150–200 mm high; the sepals have club-like glandular tips 3 -- 4 mm long. The dorsal sepal is erect near the base curves forward and is 15–20 mm long and about 1 mm wide; the lateral sepals and petals are 15–20 mm long, about 2 mm wide and horizontal near their bases curve downwards. The labellum is 6 -- 8 mm long, 3 -- yellowish green with a red tip; the sides of the labellum have narrow red or cream-coloured teeth up to 3 mm long, the tip of the labellum curls downward and there are four rows of dark red calli up to 1 mm long, along the mid-line.

Flowering occurs from August to September. Caladenia williamsiae was first formally described in 2001 by Stephen Hopper and Andrew Phillip Brown from a specimen collected near Brookton and the description was published in Nuytsia; the specific epithet honours Judy Williams who discovered this species in 2000. Judy's spider orchid is only known from near Brookton in the Avon Wheatbelt biogeographic region where it grows under wandoo and in dense shrubland. Caladenia williamsiae is classified as "Threatened Flora" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife and as "Endangered" under the Australian Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the main threat to the species is grazing by kangaroos