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Gallaecia

Gallaecia known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania present-day Galicia, northern Portugal and Leon and the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia. The Roman cities included the port Cale, the governing centers Bracara Augusta, Lucus Augusti and Asturica Augusta and their administrative areas Conventus bracarensis, Conventus lucensis and Conventus asturicensis; the Romans gave the name Gallaecia to the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula after the tribes of the area, the Gallaeci or Gallaecians. The Gallaic Celts make their entry in written history in the first-century epic Punica of Silius Italicus on the First Punic War: Fibrarum et pennae divinarumque sagacem flammarum misit dives Callaecia pubem, barbara nunc patriis ululantem carmina linguis, nunc pedis alterno percussa verbere terra, ad numerum resonas gaudentem plaudere caetras."Rich Gallaecia sent its youths, wise in the knowledge of divination by the entrails of beasts, by feathers and flames— who, now crying out the barbarian song of their native tongue, now alternately stamping the ground in their rhythmic dances until the ground rang, accompanying the playing with sonorous caetrae".

Gallaecia, as a region, was thus marked for the Romans as much for its Celtic culture, the culture of the castros—hillforts of Celtic origin—as it was for the lure of its gold mines. This civilization extended over present day Galicia, the north of Portugal, the western part of Asturias, the Berço, Sanabria and was distinctive from the neighbouring Lusitanian civilization to the south, according to the classical authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder. At a far date, the mythic history, encapsulated in Lebor Gabála Érenn credited Gallaecia as the point from which the Gaels sailed to conquer Ireland, as they had Gallaecia, by force of arms. Strabo in his Geography lists the people of the northwestern Atlantic coast of Iberia as follows:...then the Vettonians and the Vaccaeans, through whose territory the Durius River flows, which affords a crossing at Acutia, a city of the Vaccaeans. For this reason, since they were hard to fight with, the Callaicans themselves have not only furnished the surname for the man who defeated the Lusitanians but they have brought it about that now the most of the Lusitanians are called Callaicans.

After the Punic Wars, the Romans turned their attention to conquering Hispania. The tribe of the Gallaeci 60,000 strong, according to Paulus Orosius, faced the Roman forces in 137 BC in a battle at the river Douro, which resulted in a great Roman victory, by virtue of which the Roman proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus returned a hero, receiving the agnomen Gallaicus. From this time, Gallaic fighters joined the Roman legions, to serve as far away as Dacia and Britain; the final extinction of Celtic resistance was the aim of the violent and ruthless Cantabrian Wars fought under the Emperor Augustus from 26 to 19 BC. The resistance was appalling: collective suicide rather than surrender, mothers who killed their children before committing suicide, crucified prisoners of war who sang triumphant hymns, rebellions of captives who killed their guards and returned home from Gaul. For Rome Gallaecia was a region formed by two conventus—the Lucensis and the Bracarensis—and was distinguished from other zones like the Asturica, according to written sources: Legatus iuridici to per ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE.

Procurator ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE. Cohors ASTURUM ET GALLAECORUM. Pliny: ASTURIA ET GALLAECIAIn the 3rd century, Diocletian created an administrative division which included the conventus of Gallaecia and Cluniense; this province took the name of Gallaecia since Gallaecia was the most populous and important zone within the province. In 409, as Roman control collapsed, the Suebi conquests transformed Roman Gallaecia into the kingdom of Galicia. Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius, praeses before 338 On the night of 31 December 406 AD, several Germanic barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suebi, swept over the Roman frontier on the Rhine, they advanced south, pillaging Gaul, crossed the Pyrenees. They set about dividing up the Roman provinces of Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis and Baetica; the Suebi took part of Gallaecia, where they established a kingdom. After the Vandals and Alans left for North Africa, the Suevi took control of much of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Visigothic campaigns took much of this territory back.

The Visigoths emerged victorious in the wars that followed, annexed Gallaecia. After the Visigothic defeat and the annexation of much of Hispania by the Moors, a group of Visigothic states survived in the northern mountains, including Gallaecia. In Beatus of Liébana, Gallaecia became used to refer to the Christian part of the Iberian peninsula, whereas Hispania was used for the Muslim one; the emirs found it not worth their while to conquer these mountains filled with warlike tribes and lacking oil or wine. In Charlemagne's time, bishops of Gallaecia attended the Council of Frankfurt in 794. During his residence in Aachen, he received embassies from Alfonso II of Asturias, according to the Frankish chronicles. Sancho III of Navarre in 1029 refers to Bermudo III of León as Imperator domus Vermudus in Gallaecia. Gallaec

Business History Review

The Business History Review is a scholarly quarterly published by Cambridge University Press for Harvard Business School. Business History Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of business history, it was established in 1954 by Harvard University Press as the continuation of the Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. The journal is one of the leading scholarly journals in the field of business history alongside Enterprise & Society and Business History; the Business History Review traces it origins to 1926 with the publication of Harvard’s Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. The Bulletin aimed “to encourage and aid the study of the evolution of business in all periods and in all countries” and devoted much space to describing the growing archival collections of Harvard’s Baker Library. Henrietta Larson, whose Guide to Business History documented the scope of available research materials, was editor from 1938 to 1953. In 1954, the Bulletin changed its name to Business History Review and took its current format of publishing peer-reviewed research articles and book reviews.

In these years, the intellectual framework of the field of business history was defined by the work of Alfred D. Chandler Jr. who published 11 research articles in the journal. One of the most popular was his 1959 piece “The Beginnings of ‘Big Business’ in American Industry,” which explored the question of why large, vertically integrated corporations were formed in the late nineteenth-century and why they took the structure they did. Another cited article from 1970 was “The Emerging Organizational Synthesis in American History” by Louis Galambos, which focused on explaining the growth of bureaucratic structures in the United States. In 1974, Business History Review published its first special issue on the multinational corporation. Included in the issue was an article on oil companies operating in South America by Mira Wilkins, who pioneered the field of international business history; the journal expanded its focus beyond the workings of business enterprise to cover business-government relations.

In 1975, Thomas K. McCraw, who edited the journal from 1994 to 2005, published “Regulation in America: A Review Article.” In 2011, the current editors, Walter A. Friedman and Geoffrey Jones, listed the BHR's core subjects as innovation, entrepreneurship and the environment and government, business and democracy. In 2015, the journal had an impact factor of 0.625 and was rated as a 4 by the British Academic Journal Guide. Http://www.jstor.org/journal/busihistrevi

Miguel Grau Seminario

Miguel María Grau Seminario is the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific. He was known as el Caballero de los Mares for his kind and chivalrous treatment of defeated enemies and is esteemed by both Peruvians and Chileans, he is an iconic figure for the Peruvian Navy, one of the most famous merchant marine and naval military leaders of the Americas. Miguel Grau was born in Paita on 27 July 1834 in the house of Dr. Alexander Diamont Newel with the assistance of the midwife Tadea Castillo known as "The Morito," both prominent figures in Paita, his father was Juan Manuel Grau y Berrío, a Colombian who came to Peru with Bolivar in the fight for independence from Spain. Juan bought property in Paita and worked at the Customs Office, his mother, Luisa Seminario y del Castillo, motivated Grau to love the sea from his youth. He entered the Paita Nautical School, he first went to sea when he was nine years old, going aboard a merchant schooner.

The schooner sank in front of Gorgona Island and he returned to Paita. However, he embarked again the following year. Grau went on various merchant ships to ports in Oceania, Asia and Europe; these voyages gave Grau the seagoing experience, the foundation for his brilliant career as a nautical officer and the beginning of a love story with Carla Ortiz. In 1853, at the age of 19, he left the merchant marine and became an officer candidate of the Peruvian Navy, where he developed an outstanding professional reputation. In 1854, he was Military officer of the steamer Rimac, his career was brilliant. In 1863, he was promoted a year later. In 1864, he was sent to Europe to oversee the construction of ships for the Peruvian fleet, he would be put in prison a year with a group of fellow officers for rejecting the idea of hiring a foreigner as supreme commander of the Peruvian navy, but was released after a trial in which they were declared not guilty as their cause was proven worthy. Among these ships was the ironclad Huáscar, launched in 1865 by Laird at Birkenhead.

Upon his return and Peru joined together in a bi-national fleet against Spanish attempts to reclaim their American colonies. In 1868, he was recalled to the Navy and was named commander of the Huáscar with the rank of Lieutenant Commander and was promoted to Commander. By June 1, 1874, he became the commanding officer of the Peruvian Navy's fleet as Captain, became a member of the Congress of the Republic of Peru as an elected congressman in 1876 representing Paita. To this day his seat is preserved in congress and his name is called at the beginning of each session, being responded "present" to by all congressmen; when the War of the Pacific between Chile against Bolivia and Peru began on 5 April 1879, Miguel Grau was aboard the Huáscar, as its captain and the Commander of the Navy. In an impressive display of naval mastery, Capitán Grau played an important role by interdicting Chilean lines of communication and supply, capturing or destroying several enemy vessels, bombarding port installations.

Grau's Huáscar became famed for moving stealthily, striking by surprise and disappearing. These actions put off a Chilean invasion by sea for six months, as a result he was promoted to Rear Admiral by the government in Lima - the first Peruvian to be promoted to flag officer rank in many years. At the Battle of Iquique, after Huáscar sank the Chilean corvette Esmeralda by ramming her, Grau ordered the rescue of the surviving crew from the waters. Grau wrote condolences to the widow of his opponent Arturo Prat, returning his sword and personal effects. Letter to Carmela Carvajal de Prat Dear Madam:I have a sacred duty that authorizes me to write you, despite knowing that this letter will deepen your profound pain, by reminding you of recent battles. During the naval combat that took place in the waters of Iquique, between the Chilean and Peruvian ships, on the 21st day of the last month, your worthy and valiant husband Captain Mr. Arturo Prat, Commander of the Esmeralda, like you would not ignore any longer, victim of his reckless valor in defense and glory of his country’s flag.

While sincerely deploring this unfortunate event and sharing your sorrow, I comply with the sad duty of sending you some of his belongings, invaluable for you, which I list at the end of this letter. Undoubtedly, they will serve of small consolation in the middle of your misfortune, I have hurried in remitting them to you. Reiterating my feelings of condolence, I take the opportunity of offering you my services and respects and I render myself at your disposal. Cpt. Miguel Grau At the port of Antofagasta, after sneaking up on an enemy ship the Matias Cousiño, he courteously asked the crew to abandon ship before opening fire; as her captain Castleton was abandoning the ship, the Chileans' capital ships Blanco Encalada and Almirante Cochrane showed up, forcing Grau to abandon his prey and, after disabling the Matias Cousiño, to escape by passing in between the Chilean ironclads rendering them in an unfavourable position to pursue. These and other gestures earned him the nickname of El Caballero de los Mares from his Chilean opponents, acknowledging an extraordinary sense of chivalry and his gentlemanly behaviour, combined with his efficient and brave combat career.

Grau was a determining factor in capturing the steamer Rimac. Rimac was being chased by the wooden corvette Union under command of Garcia y Garcia; when Huascar appeared and fired her twin cannons, Rimac