The Locmariaquer megaliths are a complex of Neolithic constructions in Locmariaquer, Brittany. The broken menhir was erected around 4700 BC, at the time as another 18 blocks nearby. Measuring 20.60 metres, with a weight of 330 tonnes, worked over its entire surface, the monument bears a sculpture representing a hatchet-plough. Unfortunately today this is seriously eroded and very difficult to see and it is not known what caused the menhir to topple and break into the four pieces that are now seen. At one time it was believed that the stone had never stood upright, the most popular theory is that the stone was deliberately pulled down and broken. Certainly other menhirs that accompanied it were removed and reused in the construction of tombs, however, in recent years, some archaeologists have favoured the explanation of an earthquake or tremor, and this theory is supported by a computer model. The Table des Marchands is a large dolmen containing a number of decorations, the main capstone of the chamber includes a large carving on its underside depicting an axe, and part of a carved depiction of a plough, apparently pulled by oxen.
This fragment indicates that the capstone was originally part of the broken menhir, other parts were used in the tumulus and in the nearby dolmen of Gavrinis, on a nearby island. The stone at the back of the chamber contained an engraved stele with whorls, the dolmen was fully exposed and above ground until it was excavated and rebuilt inside a cairn in 1993, reconstructing its original appearance and protecting its contents. The Er-Grah tumulus is 140 metres long and it was probably originally constructed in the fifth millennium BC as a cairn, which was extended in both directions. A pavement surrounded the stepped structure, the capstone indicates that the monument was completed at around 3,300 BC. Radiocarbon determinations suggest a date in the sixth and early fifth millennium BC
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Knocknakilla megalithic complex that lies between Macroom and Millstreet, in County Cork, Ireland. It is set in blanket peatland on the north-west upper slopes of Musherabeg mountain and is thought to be 3500 years old, the area is rich with archaeological artifacts, and nearby are two cashels, a ringfort, two fulacht fiadh, a possible souterrain and a circular enclosure. The complex is best known for its large phallic and now leaning portal stone, the stone circle is made up of five 1. 3- to 1. 5-metre-high stones, of which two fell sometime in the last 50 years. Only the two portal stones and a stone at the west stand today. Three meters away is a 10-stone,3. 5-metre-diameter, radial cairn which was first discovered by Coillte Teoranta in 1970, the upright standing stone is 3.7 metres tall, and it leans heavily to the north. Near the main site, a Dolmen made up from a flat capstone supported by three upright stones is a modern re-construction. List of megalithic monuments in Cork Power, archaeological inventory of County Cork, Volume 3, Mid Cork,9467 ColorBooks,1997.
ISBN 0-7076-4933-1 Megalithic Ireland - Photographs of Knocknakilla Stone Circle
Le Pouget is a commune in the Hérault department in the Occitanie region in southern France. Le Pouget is situated on the sides of two valleys and Clermont LHérault, the centre of the commune is at the entrance to the medieval circulade. The Hérault river is 2 km from the centre, the village was known for its circulade in the Middle Ages in the time of Louis XIV. The prehistoric dolmen Gallardet is a sight in the village. Église Saint-Jacques, Romanesque church Église Sainte-Catherine, Gothic church Dolmen Saint-Amant fountain The circulade Château de lEstang, dAlzon family Jacqueline Mirande, French novelist Jean-Paul Nozière, French novelist Communes of the Hérault department INSEE Official site Tourist office Pouget carnival
Beltany stone circle
Beltany is a neolithic stone circle just south of Raphoe town in County Donegal, Ireland. It dates from around 1400-800 BC and comprises 64 stones around a low earth platform or tumulus, one stone is decorated with cup marks and many of the stones stand at an angle after being disturbed around a hundred years ago. There may originally have been about 80 stones, a single stone about 2 metres high stands to the southeast of the circle. It probably had some related to the rites or ceremonies in the circle. A stone head was found at Beltany, probably carved between 400 BC and 400 AD and this may indicate that the stone circle was used for many centuries. In Irish the name for the day is Lá Bealtaine, in Scottish Gaelic Là Bealltainn
The Meehambee Dolmen is a megalithic portal tomb dating from about 3500 BC located in County Roscommon, Ireland. It has been discovered by two children in the 1960s who have unearthed two stone axes. Originally supported on 6 upright portals,2.3 metres high, the capstone is estimated to weigh twenty-four tonnes. The portal stone supporting the back of the capstone has collapsed, allowing the capstone to slide out of position. It is located in County Roscommon, a few hundred meters from the M6 and it is accessed by a bridle path off a local road from the R362 regional road in the village of Bellanamullia on the western outskirts of Athlone. Dolmen Megalithic art European Megalithic Culture Gochang and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Megalith Neolithic Europe Stone circle Meehambee Dolmen
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone, although there are more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic, Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the skeleton of the burial mound intact. It remains unclear when, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made, the oldest known dolmens are in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7,000 years ago. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it and they are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these date from the time when the stones were originally set in place.
The word dolmen has a confused history, the word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour dAuvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin. The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning stone table but doubt has been cast on this. Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, granja is used in Portugal and Spain. The rarer forms anta and ganda appear, in the Basque Country, they are attributed to the jentilak, a race of giants. The etymology of the German, Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch, of other Celtic languages, cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is commonly used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Korean dolmens exhibit a distinct from the Atlantic European dolmen. The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula, with an estimated 35,000 dolmens, Korea alone accounts for nearly 40% of the world’s total.
Three specific UNESCO World Heritage sites at Gochang and Ganghwa by themselves account for over 1,000 dolmens, the Korean word for dolmen is goindol supported stone. Serious studies of the Korean megalithic monuments were not undertaken until relatively recently, after 1945, new research is being conducted by Korean scholars. In 1981 a curator of National Museum of Korea, Gongil Ji, the boundary between them falls at the Bukhan River although examples of both types are found on either side. Korean dolmens can be divided into three types, the table type, the go-table type and the unsupported capstone type
Zorats Karer, called Karahunj, Qarahunj or Carahunge and Carenish is a prehistoric archaeological site near the town of Sisian in the Syunik Province of Armenia. It is referred to in international tourist lore as the Armenian Stonehenge. It is located on a promontory near Sisian. The name Carahunge is interpreted as deriving from two Armenian words, meaning stone, and hunge or hoonch, meaning sound, thus the name Carahunge means Speaking Stones. In 2004, the site was named the Karahunj Observatory. Carahunge is known in local lore as Zorats Karer, Dik-dik Karer, the Carahunge Monument consists of the following parts, the central circle, the north arm, the south arm, N-E alley, the chord and separate standing stones. The site is rich with stone settings, burial cists and standing stones - Menhirs, the heights of the stones range from 0.5 to 3 m and weight up to 10 tons. They are basalt stones, eroded by time and covered with moss, the inside surface of holes preserved much better. There are broken and unnumbered stones.
About 80 of the feature a circular hole, although only 37 of the stones. They have been of interest to Russian and Armenian archaeoastronomers who have suggested that the stones could have been used for astronomical observation. Seventeen of the stones were associated with observations of sunrise or sunset at the solstices and equinoxes, this must remain conjectural as the holes are relatively unweathered and may not even be prehistoric in origin. The astronomical significance of megalithic structures at Zorats Karer was first explored by Armenian archaeologist Onik Khnkikyan in 1984, investigation by radiophysicist Paris Herouni and his research team during 1994-2001 led them to the now disputed conclusion that Carahunge is the worlds oldest astronomical observatory. In a letter to Herouni, Professor Hawkins confirmed his Armenian colleague’s similar conclusions about Zorats Karer, stating, in particular, “I admire the precise calculations you have made. I am most impressed with the work you have done.
They identified the site as a necropolis dating mainly from the Middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age, archaeoastronomer Clive Ruggles wrote that Inevitably there have been other claims—more speculative and less supportable—relating to the astronomical significance of the site. One is that it can be dated to the sixth millennium BCE and direct comparisons with Stonehenge. Armenian biologist and mathematician Vachagan Vahradyan has recently developed the hypothesis about the astronomical function of this archaeological complex
Caixa de Rotllan
The Caixa de Rotllan is a dolmen in Arles-sur-Tech, Pyrénées-Orientales, South of France, dating back to the Neolithic period, during the second half of 3rd millennium BC. Dolmens are actually tombs, but they were erected many centuries before the legendary knights adventures, the Caixa de Rotllan is made of three upright stones making a H-shape, supporting a thick roofing stone and delimiting a rectangular, medium-sized chamber. The entrance faces South-East, as many other dolmens do in Pyrénées-Orientales and this building is listed as a Monument historique since 1889 but has never been excavated by archaeologists. The Caixa de Rotllan is one of the 148 dolmens listed in the Pyrénées-Orientales department, some of them have been destroyed or attested by old sources but lost and not yet found by modern scholars. They are all located in hilly or mountainous areas of the department, usually on a mountain pass, as the others, this dolmen is situated on a ridge line. Two ways lead to the dolmen from Arles town, a passable track along the Bonabosc river leads near it, but one must leave this track to have a 60 metres walk to reach the dolmen.
The GR10 footpath runs near the dolmen and this part of the GR10 is an old busy track people used to tread to reach iron ore mines from Arles-sur-Tech. This way is an hour and a halfs walk, on 1,25000 map by Institut Géographique National, the Caixa de Rotllan is indicated by a star, as a curiosité. In Catalan language Caixa de Rotllan means « Rolands grave », many megaliths in the Pyrénées-Orientales are named after mythic characters such as Roland or his enemies the Moors. Some other very near places are named after Roland,1,500 metres north from the Caixa along the ridge line lies the Palet de Rotllan. It refers to an ancient game named Palet, in which players had to knock down a target standing on the ground throwing a puck to it. According to a legend, Roland played this game, but used huge stones intstead of pucks, further to the north, lies the abeurador del cavall de Rotllan where the legedary knights horse Veillantif used to drink. The Cova den Rotllan is another dolmen situated in Corsavy, a commune where Roland used to rest.
Another legend tells that Veillantif, Rolands horse, brought the corpse of his master to the Vallespir near the place where he used to play palet, a tomb was built there, it is the Caixa de Rotllan. Many places in region are named after the pawprints left by Veillantif. The Caixa de Rotllan may have been erected during the Chalcolithic or the beginning of the Bronze Age, during the Middle Ages it marked the boundary between Arles and Montbolo. The current boundary between these two communes runs very near the dolmen, the first paper that mentioned this dolmen was an article written by Jean-Baptiste Renard de Saint-Malo in 1837 and entitled « Monument druidique ». But Renard de Saint-Malo made a confusion between the Caixa and another stone, the palet of Roland, very near, at this time, people thought that dolmen have been built by the Celts