Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Union County, Kentucky
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,007, its county seat is Morganfield. The county was formed on January 15, 1811; the county is located on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Wabash River. Union County, along with neighboring Posey County and Gallatin County, form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 363 square miles, of which 343 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water. Union County is part of the Western Coal Fields region of Kentucky; the county's northwestern border with Illinois and Indiana is formed by the Ohio River. Posey County, Indiana Henderson County Webster County Crittenden County Hardin County, Illinois Gallatin County, Illinois As of the 2010 Census, the population was 15,007. Of this, 85.45% were White, 12.05% were Black or African American, 1.49% were two or more races, 0.44% were some other race, 0.34% were Asian, 0.19% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.05% were Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander.
Hispanic or Latino were 1.62% of the populationAs of the census of 2000, there were 15,637 people, 5,710 households, 4,082 families residing in the county. The population density was 45 per square mile. There were 6,234 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 85.04% White, 12.89% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,710 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99. 25.30% of the population was under the age of 18, 13.80% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 101.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,018, the median income for a family was $43,103. Males had a median income of $30,244 versus $20,817 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,465. About 9.30% of families and 17.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. Public schools are managed by Union County Public Schools; the three public elementary schools in the county are located in Morganfield and Uniontown. The county has one public high school, Union County High School. Located near Morganfield, Kentucky, it is known for its wrestling program. St. Ann School, the only private school in the county, is located in Morganfield—it teaches preschool and middle school classes; these are the major highway routes through Union County: U. S. Route 60 KY 56 KY 109The John T. Myers Locks and Dam, once known as Uniontown Locks and Dam, is located on the Ohio River 3½ miles downstream from Uniontown.
It straddles the river between Posey County Indiana. Construction of the dam was begun in 1965 by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and completed in 1977, it was renamed to honor retired Indiana congressman John T. Myers. Morganfield Sturgis Uniontown Waverly Breckinridge Center Bordley Boxville Caseyville Curlew Dekoven Grangertown Grove Center Henshaw Pride Spring Grove Sullivan The Rocks Isaiah L. Potts, tavern keeper of the notorious Potts Tavern who ran a gang of highwaymen and murderers on the Illinois frontier Ben M. Bogard, lived as a child in Union County. Became a Baptist preacher and involved with the Landmarkism movement. National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Kentucky Ben M. Bogard, Baptist clergyman, reared in Union County in the 1870s Union County Public Schools, Kentucky Union County Economic Development 2010 Census Data
The Illinois Salines known as the Saline Springs or Great Salt Springs, is a salt spring site located along the Saline River in Gallatin County, Illinois. The site was a source of salt for Illinois' prehistoric settlers and is now an archaeological site with a large quantity of organic remains. After European settlement of Illinois, the salt springs became part of Illinois' first major industry and were one of the only places in Illinois where slavery was legal after 1818; the Illinois Salines were an important source of salt for prehistoric residents of Illinois. The earliest occupation of the site is speculated to have occurred during the Early Woodland Period; the salt excavated from the site was traded to other prehistoric sites in Illinois, as evidenced by the recovery of items from the Saline Springs at the Kincaid Site at the southern tip of Illinois. The Saline Springs are an important site of prehistoric remains such as shells and other organic materials. Excavations at the site have continued through the 20th century.
An archaeological project led by Southern Illinois University has studied the site since 1981. The southern Illinois salines were the first major industry in the Illinois Territory following European settlement; the salines, where brine was boiled down into salt, were financially successful, became the property of the State of Illinois upon its statehood in 1818. Although Illinois was a free state, an exemption in the Illinois Constitution allowed slavery at the Illinois Salines and other salt springs near Shawneetown; the law allowed African slaves to be imported to the site until 1825. However, indentured servitude at the springs continued past this point. Salt production continued until 1870, when competition from West Virginia salt mines drove the springs out of business; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 24, 1973. John Crenshaw John Duff James Ford Berry, Daina Ramey; the Price for Their Pound of Flesh: The Value of the Enslaved from Womb to Grave in the Building of a Nation.
Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2017. McFarland, Joe. "When Salt was Gold - Illinois DNR", Outdoor Illinois, October 2009. Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Musgrave, Jon. Slaves, Sex and Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. IllinoisHistory.com, 2008. Musgrave, Jon. Potts Hill Gang, Sturdivant Gang, Ford's Ferry Gang Rogue's Gallery, Hardin County in IllinoisGenWeb. Springfield, IL: The Illinois Gen Web Project, 2018. Myers, Jacob W. "History of the Gallatin County Salines”, October 1921-January 1922, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 14:3-4
U.S. Route 45
U. S. Route 45 is a major north–south United States highway and a border-to-border route, from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico. A sign at the highway's northern terminus notes the total distance as 1,300 miles. US 45 is notable for incorporating, in its maiden alignment, the first paved road in the South, a 49-mile segment in Lee County, Mississippi. Let to contract in July 1914, the concrete highway opened on November 15, 1915; as of 2006, the highway's northern terminus is in Ontonagon, Michigan, at the corner of Ontonagon and River Streets, a few blocks from Lake Superior. M-64 terminated there as well until its rerouting in October 2006 to use the newly built Ontonagon River Bridge, its southern terminus is in Mobile, Alabama, at an intersection with U. S. Route 98. US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 17 between Mobile and Vinegar Bend, just north of Deer Park, in Washington County, Alabama. From Vinegar Bend to the Mississippi state line, US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 57. U. S. Highway 45 is part of a designated hurricane evacuation route in Mississippi.
It is four-laned from its point of entry from Alabama, at the town of State Line, to the Tennessee line just north of Corinth, along the way serving the towns of Waynesboro, Meridian and Tupelo. At Brooksville, U. S. 45 splits away from U. S. 45 Alternate and serves the towns of Columbus and Aberdeen before rejoining U. S. 45 Alternate south of Tupelo. The alternate roadway provides a more direct and four-laned route between Meridian and Tupelo, bypassing Columbus to the west and, more Starkville to the east. Major junctions of U. S. 45 in Mississippi include U. S. Route 84 at Waynesboro, Interstate 20/59 at Meridian, U. S. Route 82 at Columbus, Interstate 22/U. S. Route 78 at Tupelo and U. S. Route 72 at Corinth; each of these junctions is an interchange and, with the exception of Waynesboro, each is part of a freeway segment. The Mississippi section of U. S. 45 is defined at Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3. From the Mississippi state line U. S. 45 extends north past Selmer and Jackson to Three Way, just north of Jackson.
At Three Way, the highway splits into U. S. 45E and U. S. 45W. From Three Way to the northeast, U. S. 45E extends past Milan Martin and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 43 for most of the route's length past except for short segments at South Fulton and Martin, where it is cosigned with State Route 216 and State Route 215 respectively. From Three Way to the northwest, U. S. 45W extends past Humboldt and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 5 to Union City and with U. S. 51 to the junction with U. S. 45E less than a quarter mile south of the Kentucky state line. Mainline U. S. 45, concurrent with U. S. 51, continues north into Kentucky. U. S. 45 enters Kentucky at Fulton northeast past Mayfield heads directly north into Paducah as a four-lane highway. In Paducah, U. S. 45 serves as a major artery, intersecting with Interstate 24 at exit 7, intersecting US 60 and 62. U. S. 45 leaves Kentucky from Paducah's northern border across the two-lane, metal-grate Brookport Bridge to Brookport, Illinois across the Ohio River.
In the state of Illinois, U. S. 45 runs from a bridge across the Ohio River from Paducah, through Shawnee National Forest and north to the Wisconsin border east of Antioch, Illinois. With a length of 428.99 miles in Illinois, U. S. 45 is the longest numbered route in Illinois. In its progress north from the Ohio River U. S. 45 first joins Interstate 24 as far as Vienna heads northeast through Harrisburg and north through Fairfield, Effingham, Champaign, Urbana and Kankakee straight north through the western suburbs of Chicago in Will County, Cook County and Lake County to the Wisconsin border. U. S. 45 enters the state in southeast Wisconsin. It runs concurrent with Interstate 894 and U. S. Route 41 through the west side of metro Milwaukee to form a major artery through the metropolitan area, it runs north to Fond du Lac. The highway routes near the western shore of Lake Winnebago through Wisconsin. U. S. 45 travels north through Wittenberg and Eagle River, as well as the state and national forests, until it leaves the state at Land O' Lakes and enters Michigan.
US 45 enters Michigan south of Watersmeet. From there, the highway crosses the Western Upper Peninsula through the Ottawa National Forest running north to Ontonagon. US 45 ends just south of Lake Superior in downtown Ontonagon; the terminus was not changed in 2006 despite realignment of M-38 and M-64 from the terminus to a crossing 0.7 miles south. Until March 1935, US 45's northern terminus was in the Illinois area. Prior to the construction of the Interstate Highway system, US 45 was one of the main routes south out of Chicago toward New Orleans, Louisiana. Much of the traffic left US 45 at Effingham, continuing on through Cairo, Illinois along Illinois Route 37. Southern segmentAlabama US 98 in Mobile I‑65 in Prichard Mississippi US 84 in Waynesboro I‑20 / I‑59 in Meridian US 11 / US 80 in Meridian US 82 west of Columbus; the highways travel concurrently to Columbus. US 278 north-northwest of New Wren; the highways travel concurrently to the Verona–Tupelo city line. I‑22 / US 78 in Tupelo US 72 in Corinth Tennessee US 64 in Selmer.
The highways travel concurrently through the city. I‑40 / US 412 in Jackson US 45E / US 45W in Three Way US 79 in Milan US 79 in Humboldt Northern segmentTennessee US 45E / US 45W / US 51 in South Fulton. US 45 / US 51 travel concurrently to Fulton, Kentucky. Kentucky Future I‑69 north of Mayfield I‑24 in Paducah US 62 in Paducah; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 60 / US 62 in Paducah. US 45/US 60 travels concurrently throu
Saline County, Illinois
Saline County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 24,913, its county seat is Harrisburg. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". There are three major towns in Saline County connected by U. S. Route 45, by the now abandoned Cairo and Vincennes/Big Four/New York Central Line, from north to south, Eldorado and Carrier Mills. Saline County is the 79th wealthiest county in the state, out of 102. Saline County was formed from Gallatin County in 1847, it is named for the Saline River and the springs which salt was produced from in the early history of Gallatin County. Saline County was named "Moredock County", in honor of John Moredock, known the "Indian slayer". A militia officer and a member of the territorial legislature, Moredock had lost his mother and brother in an Indian attack in 1786, when they were traveling from Pennsylvania to Illinois down the Ohio River. Moredock had been traveling with another group, which arrived on the scene to find Moredock's mother's body horribly mutilated.
He managed to tracked down and kill every member of the band that did it, he thereafter spent much of his life ambushing and killing Native Americans, hostile or not. Controversial because of this, he was a popular figure in early Illinois. Moredock died in 1830; the creation of Saline County itself was controversial. Illinois had a small number of large counties; as more settlers arrived, new counties were formed from the original counties. Gallatin County was formed in 1812, but it soon was divided into fifteen counties, with what remained of Gallatin county becoming what is now Saline County; this persisted for several decades after the era of rapid formation of counties. Old Shawneetown was the original county seat of Gallatin County. At that time Old Shawneetown was the largest city and commercial center of Illinois, it was, located on the eastern edge of the County. In 1826, the county seat was moved to the new village of Equality, near the center of what was Gallatin County. Old Shawneetown opposed this move, sought redress by splitting off Saline County, with the aim of moving the County seat of what remained back to Old Shawneetown.
Thus the impetus for the formation of Saline County came not from settlers at the fringe of the county, but from the core of the original county. Saline County was created by a voice vote in the General Assembly in 1847. Completion of the formation of the county, involved three acts of the General Assembly, four decisions of the Illinois Supreme Court and two referendums; the controversy came to involve the leading attorneys of Illinois, including Abraham Lincoln. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 387 square miles, of which 380 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. The Saline County area is rolling hills throughout rising to the Hills of the Shawnee National Forest; the Saline River flows through the central point of the county in three forks: North and South. To the north of Eldorado there are flat lowlands. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Harrisburg have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in February 1951 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.04 inches in September to 4.98 inches in May. Shawnee National Forest Sahara Woods State Fish and Wildlife Area Saline County State Fish and Wildlife Area U. S. Highway 45 Illinois Route 13 Illinois Route 34 Illinois Route 142 Illinois Route 145 Public transportation is provided by the Rides Mass Transit District and Harrisburg Taxi; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 24,913 people, 10,379 households, 6,631 families residing in the county. The population density was 65.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,697 housing units at an average density of 30.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.0% white, 4.0% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.8% were Irish, 16.6% were German, 12.9% were American, 11.1% were English. Of the 10,379 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families, 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,644 and the median income for a family was $46,314. Males had a median income of $41,108 versus $28,464 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,903. About 13.4% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Coal mining makes up the largest percentage of industrial employment in Saline County; the county is home to the Galatia Mine, which by industry standards is the largest underground coal mine in Illinois and employs close to 500 workers. The mining and exploration industry feeds other sources of employment such as coal and materials hauling and excavation. Construction fields and services benefit from Saline County's mining industry. Other employment in the county is made up by the medical and state services. Harrisburg is home to the Ha
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Randolph County, Illinois
Randolph County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 33,476, its county seat is Chester. Owing to its role in the state's history, the county motto is "Where Illinois Began." It contains the important village of Kaskaskia, Illinois's first capital. The county is part of Southern Illinois in the southern portion of the state known locally as "Little Egypt", includes fertile river flats, part of the American Bottom. Randolph County was organized in 1795 out of a part of St. Clair County, it was named in honor of Governor of Virginia. George Rogers Clark of the army of Virginia captured the area from the British on July 4, 1778, near the end of the Revolutionary War; the area became the seat, for several years, of Illinois County, although the Congress of the Confederation legislated the existence of the Northwest Territory on July 13, 1787. Edmund Randolph was Governor of Virginia at the time Virginia ceded the Northwest Territory to the United States.
In 1809, when Illinois became a separate territory, Territorial Secretary Nathaniel Pope, in his capacity as acting governor, issued a proclamation establishing Randoloph as one of the Illinois' two original counties. The county's boundaries were last changed in 1827; the Mississippi River has played a prominent role in the county's history, altering its boundaries in 1881 when it severed the isthmus that connected Kaskaskia to the Illinois mainland, destroying the original village of Kaskaskia and forcing its historic cemetery to be relocated across the river to Fort Kaskaskia. Crains Island, southeast of Chester, is another enclave of Illinois west of the Mississippi, created by a change in the river's course. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 597 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the Kaskaskia River flows into the Mississippi River in Randolph County. At this point the Mississippi, which defines the border between Illinois and Missouri, is in Illinois.
The Mississippi changed its course in the late-nineteenth century, leaving Kaskaskia, the former state capital, on the west side of the river. The boundary of the State, follows the old course of the river, leaving Illinois with an exclave on the western shore of the Mississippi River. A smaller enclave, Crains Island, is a few miles further down the river. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Chester have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 91 °F in July, although a record low of −18 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.85 inches in January to 4.30 inches in May. Monroe County St. Clair County Washington County Perry County Jackson County Perry County, Missouri Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri Randolph County is among the few counties in the United States to border two counties with the same name; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 33,476 people, 12,314 households, 8,188 families residing in the county.
The population density was 58.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,707 housing units at an average density of 23.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.6% white, 9.7% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 40.3% were German, 11.3% were Irish, 9.4% were English, 5.7% were American. Of the 12,314 households, 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 41.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,020 and the median income for a family was $55,113. Males had a median income of $43,359 versus $28,376 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,950. About 7.0% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. The Illinois Department of Corrections Menard Correctional Center is located in Chester. Prior to the January 11, 2003 commutation of death row sentences, male death row inmates were housed in Menard and Pontiac correctional centers. After that date, only Pontiac continued to host the male death row. Randolph is a rural conservative county in southern Illinois that has trended Republican in recent presidential elections; the county was dominated by organized labor and family farms. This put it into the Democratic column; the area might be described as economically populist and conservative. There are two AM radio stations licensed in the county — WHCO 1230AM in Sparta and KSGM 980AM in Chester. Weekly newspapers in the county are The Randolph County Herald Tribune located in Chester, The County Journal, based in Percy and covers Perry and Jackson Counties, the North County News in Red Bud, the Sparta News-Plaindealer.
The area is served by the on-line newspaper based in Chester, SunTimesNews.com Chester Red Bud Sparta National Register of Historic Places listings in Randolph County, Illinois KBDZ 93.1 FM Radio KSGM AM 980 Radio Randolph County Government Su