The Nation (Sri Lanka)
The Nation is a weekly English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka. It is published on every Sunday, by Rivira Media Corporation Ltd, a sister newspaper of Rivira, The Nation was established in 2006. It has a circulation of 132,000 per issue and a readership of 662,000 by 2012. The newspaper comes with a range of supplements, including Politics, Business, editor in chief of The Nation newspaper is Malinda Seneviratne. The Nation has its weekend edition entitled Weekend Nation List of newspapers in Sri Lanka Official website
Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena is a Sri Lankan politician who is the 7th and current President of Sri Lanka, since 2015. Although born in the Western Province, Sirisena hails from the North Central Province of the country and is the first president from that province and he is an agriculturist and does not belong to the Sri Lankan political elite. Sirisena joined mainstream politics in 1989 as a member of the Parliament of Sri Lanka and has held several ministries since 1994 and their votes were more anti-Rajapaksa than pro-Sirisena. Sirisena was sworn in as the sixth Executive President before Supreme Court judge K. Sripavan in Independence Square, immediately afterwards he appointed Ranil Wickremesinghe as the new Prime Minister. After being sworn in Sirsena stated that he would serve one term. On 28 April 2015, Sirisena voluntarily transferred significant presidential powers to parliament, Maithripala Sirisena was born on 3 September 1951 in Yagoda, a village in present-day Gampaha District.
He is the son of World War II veteran Albert Sirisena and his mother was a school teacher. He was educated at Thopawewa Maha Vidyalaya and Royal College, Polonnaruwa where he first developed, while still in school, as a teenager, Sirisena became interested in communism and joined the Communist Party becoming closely associated with party leader N. Shanmugathasan in party activities. In 1968 he took part in a communist party anti-government rally which was broken up by baton charging police, at the age of 17 years he was chosen as the secretary of the SLFP Youth Organisation in Polonnaruwa by the SLFP Member of Parliament for Polonnaruwa, Leelaratna Wijesingha. In 1971, aged 19, he was jailed for 15 months for alleged involvement in the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna Insurrection, following his release from prison, Sirisena joined All Ceylon SLFP Youth Organization led by Anura Bandaranaike and joined politics at the national level. After serving at a number of institutions, Sirisena obtained the SLFP membership in 1978.
In 1974 Sirisena started working at the Palugasdamana Multi Purpose Cooperative Society as an office and in 1976 he became a grama niladhari. He rose up the SLFP ranks, joining its politburo in 1981, where he was chosen as the President of the All Island SLFP Youth Organisation, and later served as Treasurer. During the 1981 Presidential poll, when Basil Rajapaksa joined the United National Party, subsequently, he was appointed the Polonnaruwa SLFP chief organiser by the SLFP hierarchy. He became president of the All Island SLFP Youth Organisation in 1983, Sirisena studied for three years at the Sri Lanka School of Agriculture, Kundasale from where he earned a diploma in agriculture in 1973. In 1980 he earned a Diploma in Political science at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in Russia, Sirisena contested the 1989 parliamentary election as one of the SLFPs candidates in Polonnaruwa District and was elected to the Parliament. He was re-elected at the 1994 parliamentary election, this time as a Peoples Alliance candidate, in 1997 he was appointed as the General Secretary of the SLFP for the first time, from which he resigned.
In August 2000 Sirisena tried to become general-secretary of the SLFP but was beaten by S. B, Sirisena was instead appointed one the Deputy Presidents of SLFP
Suez is a seaport city in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbors, Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities, together they form a metropolitan area. Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo. In the 7th century AD a town named Kolzum stood just north of the site of present-day Suez and served as terminus of a canal built by Amr ibn al-As linking the Nile River. Kolzums trade fell following the closure of the canal in 770 by the second Abbasid caliph al-Mansur to prevent his enemies in Arabia from accessing supplies from Egypt, the town benefited from the trade that remained between Egypt and Arabia. By 780 al-Mansurs successor al-Mahdi restored part of the canal, the Qarmatians led by Hasan ibn Ahmad defeated a Fatimid army headed by Gawhar al-Siqilli at Kolzum in 971 and thereby captured the town.
Following his defeat in Cairo by al-Siqilli at the end of year, Hasan. Suez was situated nearby and served as a source of drinking water for Kolzum according to Arab traveler al-Muqaddasi who visited in 986, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, fortified both Kolzum and Suez in to defend Egypts eastern frontier from Crusader raids by Raynald of Chatillon. Between 1183-84, Raynald had ships stationed in the Red Sea to prevent the Ayyubid garrison at Kolzum from accessing water, in response, Saladins brother al-Adil had Husam ad-Din Lulu build a naval fleet which sailed to the southern port of Aidab to end Raynalds venture. By the 13th century it was recorded that Kolzum was in ruins as was Suez which had replaced the former as a population center. According to Muslim historians al-Maqrizi and al-Idrisi, Kolzum had once been a prosperous town, Arab geographer al-Dimashqi noted that Kolzum belonged to the Mamluk province of al-Karak at the time. Following the Ottomans conquest of Egypt at the beginning of the 16th century, the Ottoman fleets at Suez were instrumental in disputing control with the Portuguese over Indian Ocean trade.
However, by 1798, during Napoleonic invasion, Suez had devolved into an unimportant town, fighting between the French and the British in 1800 left most of the town in ruins. Its importance as a port increased after the Suez Canal opened in 1869, the city was virtually destroyed during battles in the late 1960s and early 1970s between Egyptian and Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula. The town was deserted following the Six Day War in 1967, reconstruction of Suez began soon after Egypt reopened the Suez Canal, following the October War with Israel. Suez was the first city to major protests against the government of Hosni Mubarak during the 2011 Egyptian revolution and was the scene of the first fatality of that uprising. On account of this, it has called the Sidi Bouzid of Egypt. The city is divided into five districts, It is most populous district of the city
Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg
Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, RE was the first wife of Prince Joachim of Denmark, the younger son of Queen Margrethe II. She is of mixed Chinese-European ancestry and lived in Hong Kong until she met Prince Joachim in 1994 and they were married from 1995 to 2005 and had two boys. After her divorce she remarried and stayed in Denmark, thus she has one-eighth Chinese ancestry. She was christened at the Cathedral of Saint John, Hong Kong and her father was an insurance company executive, her mother was the manager of a communications company. She attended Quarry Bay Junior School, Glenealy School and Island School, manley studied international business at universities in Austria and England. It is not known whether she has obtained a university degree, from 1990 to 1995, she was employed by GT Management Ltd. Hong Kong, where she from 1990–1993 worked in Sales and Marketing, Alexandra met Prince Joachim at a party in Hong Kong, where he was working for a Danish shipping company. Their engagement, which took both Alexandras family and Danish royal watchers by surprise, was revealed in May 1995.
They were wed on 18 November 1995, by Queen Margrethes Chaplain-in-Ordinary, the wedding festivities were held at Fredensborg Palace. The brides gown was designed by Jørgen Bender, she wore the Alexandrine Drop Tiara, originally the property of Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, when she married Prince Joachim, she had to renounce her British citizenship and give up her career in marketing. She changed her religious affiliation, Alexandra, an Anglican, received instruction in the Evangelical Lutheran faith and was confirmed prior to her wedding. Prince Joachim and Alexandra have two children from their marriage, Prince Nikolai William Alexander Frederik. Alexandra became popular with the Danish people, known for her fashion sense and charity work, she was dubbed the Diana of the North. She is a native English and German speaker, and her fluency in German helped her pick up the Danish language quickly, within a few months she spoke it nearly without accent, which further endeared her to the Danes.
As she said in an interview, I dont find the grammar especially difficult and it reminds me a little of German, with the glottal stop … Saying something with an upswing or a downswing can give a word an entirely different meaning, she explained. It was my decision to learn the language immediately and it would have been terrible to have to stand up and speak English at an engagement, or thank someone for something. It would have been utterly wrong and this is my home, and so there was no other option. In addition to her European language skills, Alexandra speaks a bit of Cantonese, at a press conference in 1995, when asked whether or not she is able to communicate with Prince Henrik in Chinese, she stated that she believes that his Chinese is better than hers
Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a literature of ideas. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying science fiction is what we point to when we say it, a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography, you do not know what it is, in 1970 or 1971William Atheling Jr. According to science fiction writer Robert A, rod Serlings definition is fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers.
Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. g. utopian, post-scarcity, paranormal abilities such as mind control, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.
In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars
France 24 is a 24-hour international news and current affairs television network, based in Paris. Its channels broadcast, respectively, in, French and Arabic, based in Issy-les-Moulineaux, in the suburbs of Paris, the service started on 6 December 2006. The stated mission of the three channels is to provide a public service and a common editorial stance. The budget is approximately €m100 million per year, France 24 is broadcast on three channels, in French, in English, and in Arabic. France 24s programming is divided more or less equally between news coverage and news magazines or special reports, along with 260 journalists of its own, France 24 can call on the resources of the two main French broadcasters as well as partners such as AFP and RFI. The CEO of France 24 is Alain de Pouzilhac, from 19 May 2010, France 24 unveiled a new schedule that prioritizes the morning and evening slots, anchored live by the networks editorial staff. More programming space than ever before goes to business, culture, as from 2016, France 24 shares its night programming with the France-based France Info.
Format and Magazines France 24 broadcasts on a cycle with a live news bulletin. In Sunday, all programs are rebroadcasts, except Revisited at 9, the First Gulf War of 1990, relayed across the world by CNN International in particular, revealed the power of international news channels and their role in the formation of opinion. A parliamentary minister, Philippe Séguin, wished to create a French-language equivalent, in 1996, after nineteen governmental reports in ten years, Prime Minister Alain Juppé asked Radio France Internationale president Jean-Paul Cluzel to create a French international news channel. Cluzel proposed in 1997 to group TV5, RFI, and CFI within a corporation entitled Téléfi, admittedly, we have with Agence France-Presse a remarkable information tool that we must continue to reinforce, notably in its international mission. Indeed, everyone here recognises the recent progress made by RFI, by TV5, by CFI, thanks to the efforts of their teams and to the determination of the public bodies.
But everybody notices that we are far from having a large international news channel in French. The recent crises have shown the handicap that a country suffers, an area, which doesnt possess a sufficient weight in the battle of the images. It is essential for the influence of our country, an international version of LCI, proposed by Groupe TF1, which asked for a state subvention for the service. Strengthening of TV5s news service, as suggested by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on 19 March 2003, Matignon opened offers to, Elicit the development of an international news channel. The international news channel must contribute to a strategy of influence of France in the world. Brochard attempted to group both Groupe TF1 and Groupe Canal+, with no success, after a press conference in January 2004, President Chirac wished for a launch of the channel towards the end of the year
The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment and this may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades. The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members, originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of workers, past workers, students. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a union, is highest in the Nordic countries. The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level that is maintained in the various branches of industry.
That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value, yet historian R. A. the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all labouring men and women for a different order of things. The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote, We rarely hear, it has said, of the combination of masters. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, there were severe penalties for attempting to organize unions, up to and including execution. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England.
In 1799, the Combination Act was passed, which banned trade unions, although the unions were subject to often severe repression until 1824, they were already widespread in cities such as London. Sympathy for the plight of the workers brought repeal of the acts in 1824, by the 1810s, the first labour organizations to bring together workers of divergent occupations were formed. Possibly the first such union was the General Union of Trades, known as the Philanthropic Society, the latter name was to hide the organizations real purpose in a time when trade unions were still illegal. The Association quickly enrolled approximately 150 unions, consisting mostly of textile related unions, but including mechanics and various others
John D. Rockefeller
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. was an American oil industry business magnate and philanthropist. He is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, born into a large family in upstate New York, he was shaped by his con man father and religious mother. His family moved several times before settling in Cleveland, Ohio. Rockefeller became an assistant bookkeeper at the age of 16, and went into a partnership with Maurice B. Clark. After buying them out, he and his brother William founded Rockefeller & Andrews with Samuel Andrews, instead of drilling for oil, he concentrated on refining. In 1867, Henry Flagler entered the partnership, the Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler company grew by incorporating local refineries. As kerosene and gasoline grew in importance, Rockefellers wealth soared and he became the richest person in the country, Oil was used throughout the country as a light source until the introduction of electricity and as a fuel after the invention of the automobile. Furthermore, Rockefeller gained enormous influence over the industry, which transported his oil around the country.
Standard Oil was the first great business trust in the United States, Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry, and along with other key contemporary industrialists such as steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, defined the structure of modern philanthropy. His peak net worth was estimated at $336 billion in 1913, Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement at his estate in Westchester County, New York. His foundations pioneered the development of research and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm. Rockefeller was the founder of both the University of Chicago and Rockefeller University and funded the establishment of Central Philippine University in the Philippines and he was a devout Northern Baptist, and supported many church-based institutions. Rockefeller adhered to total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco throughout his life and he was a faithful congregant of the Erie Street Baptist Mission Church, where he taught Sunday school, and served as a trustee and occasional janitor.
Religion was a force throughout his life, and Rockefeller believed it to be the source of his success. Rockefeller was the second of six children and eldest son born in Richford, New York, to con artist William Avery Bill Rockefeller and his siblings were Lucy, William Jr. Mary, and twins Franklin and Frances. His father was of English and German descent while his mother was of Scots-Irish descent, Bill was first a lumberman and a traveling salesman who identified himself as a botanic physician and sold elixirs. The locals referred to the mysterious but fun-loving man as Big Bill and he was a sworn foe of conventional morality who had opted for a vagabond existence and who returned to his family infrequently. Throughout his life, Bill was notorious for shady schemes, in between the births of Lucy and John and his mistress/housekeeper Nancy Brown had a daughter named Clorinda who died young
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician and central figure of the Indian National Congress party, and to date the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Indias first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, despite her surname Gandhi, she is not related to the family of nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi. She served as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, Gandhi served as her fathers personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as prime minister between 1947 and 1964. She was elected Congress President in 1959, upon her fathers death in 1964, Gandhi refused to enter the Congress party leadership contest and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government led by Lal Bahadur Shastri. As the Prime Minister of India, Gandhi was known for her political ruthlessness, Gandhi presided over a controversial state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree. Akin to Mahatma Gandhis fate, she was assassinated by nationalists in 1984.
The assassins, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, were both killed, in 1999, Indira was named Woman of the Millennium in a poll organised by the BBC. Indira Gandhi was born as Indira Nehru in a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad and her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in Indias political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Union of India. She was the child, and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan. She had a lonely and unhappy childhood and her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bed-ridden with illness, and suffered an early death from tuberculosis. She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters, Indira was mostly taught at home by tutors, and intermittently attended school until matriculation in 1934. It was during her interview that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, a year later, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe.
While there, it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford, after her mother died, she briefly attended the Badminton School before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a performance in Latin. At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics and she did, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was attended by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies and she was being treated there in 1940, when the Nazi armies rapidly conquered Europe. Gandhi tried to return to England through Portugal but was stranded for nearly two months
Vernon Corea was a pioneer radio broadcaster with 45 years of public service broadcasting both in Sri Lanka and the UK. He joined Radio Ceylon, South Asias oldest radio station, in 1956 and the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation. He was well known not only in Sri Lanka, but right across the Indian Sub-Continent from the late 1950s to the 1970s – this was in the heyday of Radio Ceylon, Corea was born in Kurana, Katunayake in Ceylon on 11 September 1927. His parents were Reverend Canon Ivan Corea and Ouida Corea, and was the brother of Ernest Corea a prominent journalist, rev. Corea was Vicar of St. Lukes Church, and St. Pauls Church, Milagiriya. Vernon Corea was educated at Royal College, Colombo a well known education institution and he represented the school in tennis and was fully involved in the world of drama and the debating society. He was sent by his father to Bishop’s College, Calcutta, in Calcutta he was elected President of the Ceylon Students Association and acted in drama performances.
He felt that the priesthood was not his vocation and returned to Ceylon and he became well known as The Golden Voice of Radio Ceylon, representing shows of popular music, baila music, and western music. They became hugely popular in South Asia, throughout his life and his broadcasting career Corea promoted the very best of Sri Lankan talent in the world of popular music. He was the first to consistently promote Sri Lankas musicians through his highly influential entertainment column – EMCEE published in the Ceylon Daily News in the 1960s–1970s. He discovered many young Sri Lankan stars through his radio programmes on Radio Ceylon, some went onto the international stage. Some of Ceylons first music stars such as Nimal Mendis, Bill Forbes, Des Kelly and Cliff Foenander, were interviewed by Vernon Corea and he was the first to introduce the talents of Clarence Wijewardena, Annesley Malewana, and others on English radio programmes, on Radio Ceylon. As a special tribute to Vernon Coreas father, Reverend Canon Ivan Corea and it was an international hit for Clarence Wijewardena and Annesley Malewana.
In an interview, Annesley Malewanna recalls, When we toured England in 1994 to hold musical shows, when I got on to the stage and started singing Vernon broke down and all of us were moved by this incident. Wherever we go, most people in foreign countries requested me to sing this song, now I dedicate that song to my late father, he said. Vernon Corea created television history on the island of Sri Lanka when he was invited to present the first ever television broadcast on 15 June 1972 by the Radio Society of Ceylon. He appeared on screens in Colombo, in black and white, on a short TV programme. Vijaya Corea was one of many young broadcasters mentored by Vernon Corea – he went on to become the Director-General of the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation. Another protégé was Nihal Bhareti who went on to greater heights in broadcasting and was the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporations Director of English Services
Secret Intelligence Service
The Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence agency of the British government. The SIS Chief is held accountable to the Foreign Secretary, SIS is bound by the Intelligence Services Act 1994. The name MI6 was used as a flag of convenience during the First World War when it was known by many names, the existence of the SIS was not officially acknowledged until 1994. It forms a part of the UKs intelligence machinery alongside GCHQ, MI5, in late 2010, the head of SIS delivered what he said was the first public address by a serving chief of the agency in its 101-year history. The remarks of Sir John Sawers primarily focused on the relationship between the need for secrecy and the goal of maintaining security within the UK and his remarks acknowledged the tensions caused by secrecy in an era of leaks and pressure for ever-greater disclosure. Since 1995, the SIS headquarters have been at Vauxhall Cross on the South Bank of the River Thames, the service derived from the Secret Service Bureau, which was founded in 1909.
The bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities and this specialisation was because the Admiralty wanted to know the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy. This specialisation was formalised before 1914 and its first director was Captain Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming, who often dropped the Smith in routine communication. He typically signed correspondence with his initial C in green ink and this usage evolved as a code name, and has been adhered to by all subsequent directors of SIS when signing documents to retain anonymity. The services performance during the First World War was mixed, because it was unable to establish a network in Germany itself, most of its results came from military and commercial intelligence collected through networks in neutral countries, occupied territories, and Russia. After the war, resources were reduced but during the 1920s. In August 1919, Cumming created the new passport control department, the post of Passport Control Officer provided operatives with diplomatic immunity.
Circulating Sections established intelligence requirements and passed the intelligence back to its consumer departments, mainly the War Office, the debate over the future structure of British Intelligence continued at length after the end of hostilities but Cumming managed to engineer the return of the Service to Foreign Office control. In the immediate post-war years under Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming and throughout most of the 1920s, SIS was focused on Communism, in particular, Russian Bolshevism. Smith-Cumming died suddenly at his home on 14 June 1923, shortly before he was due to retire, an economic intelligence section, Section VII, to deal with trade and contraband. A clandestine radio communications organisation, Section VIII, to communicate with operatives, Section N to exploit the contents of foreign diplomatic bags Section D to conduct political covert actions and paramilitary operations in time of war. Section D would organise the Home Defence Scheme resistance organisation in the UK, with the emergence of Germany as a threat following the ascendence of the Nazis, in the early 1930s attention was shifted in that direction.
Sinclair died in 1939, after an illness, and was replaced as C by Lt Col. Stewart Menzies, the extensive double-cross system run by MI5 to feed misleading intelligence to the Germans Imagery intelligence activities conducted by the RAF Photographic Reconnaissance Unit