The Vatican Museums are the museums of the Vatican City and are located within the citys boundaries. The museums contain roughly 70,000 works, of which 20,000 are on display, and currently employ 640 people who work in 40 different administrative, Pope Julius II founded the museums in the early 16th century. The Sistine Chapel, with its ceiling decorated by Michelangelo and the Stanze di Raffaello decorated by Raphael, are on the route through the Vatican Museums. In 2013, they were visited by 6 million people, which combined makes it the 6th most visited art museum in the world, there are 54 galleries, or sale, in total, with the Sistine Chapel, being the very last sala within the Museum. It is one of the largest museums in the world, in 2017, the Museums official website and social media presence was completely redone, in accord with current standards and appearances for modern websites. Pope Julius II sent Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who were working at the Vatican, on their recommendation, the pope immediately purchased the sculpture from the vineyard owner.
The pope put the sculpture of Laocoön and his sons on public display at the Vatican exactly one month after its discovery, the Museum Christianum was founded by Benedict XIV, and some of the Vatican collections formed the Lateran Museum, which Pius IX founded by decree in 1854. The Museums celebrated their 500th anniversary in October 2006 by permanently opening the excavations of a Vatican Hill necropolis to the public, on 1 January 2017 Barbara Jatta became the Director of the Vatican Museums, replacing Antonio Paolucci who had been director since 2007. The art gallery was housed in the Borgia Apartment until Pope Pius XI ordered construction of a proper building, the new building, designed by Luca Beltrami, was inaugurated on 27 October 1932. The museum has paintings including, Giottos Stefaneschi Triptych Olivuccio di Ciccarello, Opere di Misericordia Raphaels Madonna of Foligno, Oddi Altarpiece, the group of museums includes several sculpture museums surrounding the Cortile del Belvedere.
The museum takes its name from two popes, Clement XIV and Pius VI, the pope who brought the museum to completion, Clement XIV came up with the idea of creating a new museum in Innocent VIIIs Belvedere palace and started the refurbishment work. Pope Clement XIV founded the Pio-Clementino museum in 1771, and originally it contained the Renaissance, the museum and collection were enlarged by Clements successor Pius VI. Today, the museum works of Greek and Roman sculpture. Some notable galleries are, Greek Cross Gallery, with the porphyri sarcophagi of Constance and Saint Helen and mother of Constantine the Great. Sala Rotonda, shaped like a miniature Pantheon, the room has impressive ancient mosaics on the floors, Gallery of the Statues, as its name implies, holds various important statues, including Sleeping Ariadne and the bust of Menander. It contains the Barberini Candelabra, Gallery of the Busts, Many ancient busts are displayed. Cabinet of the Masks, The name comes from the mosaic on the floor of the gallery, found in Villa Adriana, along the walls, several famous statues are shown including the Three Graces.
One wove the thread of life, second nurtured it, third cut it. The center piece is Belvedere Torso, revered by Michelangelo and other Renaissance men, sala degli Animali, So named because of the many ancient statues of animals
Giacomo Balla was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism. In his painting he depicted light and speed, Giacomo Balla was born in Turin, in the Piedmont region of Italy. He was the son of a photographer and as a child studied music, at age nine, after the death of his father, he gave up music and began working in a lithograph print shop. By age 20, his interest in art had developed to such a level that he decided to study painting at local academies. Following academic studies at the University of Turin, Balla moved to Rome in 1895, for several years he worked in Rome as an illustrator and portrait painter. Around 1902, he taught Divisionist techniques to Umberto Boccioni and Gino Severini, influenced by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Giacomo Balla adopted the Futurism style, creating a pictorial depiction of light and speed. He was a signatory of the Futurist Manifesto in 1910, and he began to design Futurist furniture, typical for his new style of painting is Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash and his 1914 work Abstract Speed + Sound.
In 1914, Balla began working as a sculptor, creating, in 1915, during World War I, Ballas studio became a meeting place for young artists. In 1935, he was made a member of Romes Accademia di San Luca, in 1955, Balla participated in the documenta 1 in Kassel. Ballas 1909 painting The Street Light typifies his exploration of light, Ballas most famous works, such as his 1912 Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash where efforts to express movement – and thus the passage of time – through the medium of painting. One of Ballas main inspirations was the chronophotography of Étienne-Jules Marey, Ballas 1912 The Hand of the Violinist depicts the frenetic motion of a musician playing, and draws on inspiration from Cubism and the photographic experiments of Marey and Eadweard Muybridge. In his abstract 1912–1914 series Iridescent Interpenetration, Balla attempts to separate the experience of light from the perception of objects as such, Abstract Speed + Sound is a study of speed symbolised by the automobile. Originally, it may have part of a triptych.
Ballas 1914 series Mercury Passing Before the Sun depicts the November 17,1914 transit of Mercury across the face of the Sun, Balla created at least a dozen versions and studies of this work. In 1987, some of his artworks were exhibited at documenta 8, works by Giacomo Balla Italian Futurism Maurizio Fagiolo DellArco, The Futurist Vivien Greene, Italian Futurism 1909 -1944. Reconstructing the Universe, Guggenheim Museum 2014, ISBN 978-0-89207-499-0 Giovanni Lista, catalogue général de l’œuvre, vol. I, Edizioni della Galleria Fonte d’Abisso, Modène,1982, vol. Giacomo Balla, Scritti futuristi, raccolti e curati da Giovanni Lista, Milan,2010
Porta San Paolo Railway Museum
The Rome Porta San Paolo Railway Park Museum is a museum in Rome, concerned with railway and tram transportation. It is housed next to the Roma Porta San Paolo railway station, the museum is open from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. from Monday to Thursday and from 9 a. m. to 1 p. m. on Friday. The rolling stock examples kept in the include, Locomotive Breda AEG, year 1915. Locomotive Carminati-Toselli TIBB, year 1922, s. n.05 STEFER from the Rome–Lido railway, electric locomotive ECD Officine Meccaniche della Stanga TIBB, year 1931, s. n.21 from the Rome–Civitacastellana–Viterbo railway. Tram STFER series 400, s. n.404 Officine Meccaniche della Stanga TIBB, year 1941,70, from the extra-urban service on the Castelli Romani lines. STEFER, flat service wagon obtained by modifying a former extra-urban two-axle trailer, power trolley STEFER used for inspections on the Rome–Fiuggi railway. The museum centre of ATAC SpA website, with a description of the exhibits
The Galleria Borghese is an art gallery in Rome, housed in the former Villa Borghese Pinciana. At the outset, the building was integrated with its gardens. The Galleria Borghese houses a part of the Borghese collection of paintings and antiquities, begun by Cardinal Scipione Borghese. The Villa was built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese himself, who used it as a villa suburbana, other paintings of note include Titians Sacred and Profane Love, Raphaels Entombment of Christ and works by Peter Paul Rubens and Federico Barocci. The Casina Borghese lies on the outskirts of seventeenth-century Rome, by 1644, John Evelyn described it as an Elysium of delight with Fountains of sundry inventions and small Rivulets of Water. Evelyn described the Vivarium that housed ostriches, peacocks and cranes, in 1808, Prince Camillo Borghese, Napoleons brother-in-law, was forced to sell the Borghese Roman sculptures and antiquities to the Emperor. The result is that the Borghese Gladiator, renowned since the 1620s as the most admired single sculpture in Villa Borghese, the Borghese Hermaphroditus is now in the Louvre.
The Borghese villa was modified and extended down the years, eventually being sold to the Italian government in 1902, along with the entire Borghese estate and surrounding gardens, the Galleria Borghese includes twenty rooms across two floors. The main floor is devoted to classical antiquities of the 1st–3rd centuries AD. In addition, several portrait busts are included in the gallery, including one of Pope Paul V, the second Scipione Borghese portrait was produced after a large crack was discovered in the marble of the first version during its creation. Official website Amor sacro e amor profano Description of the painting, Roman Map of the area with related services
The Palazzo Barberini is a 17th-century palace in Rome, facing the Piazza Barberini in Rione Trevi. It houses the Galleria Nazionale dArte Antica, the sloping site had formerly been occupied by a garden-vineyard of the Sforza family, in which a palazzetto had been built in 1549. The sloping site passed from one cardinal to another during the sixteenth century, when Cardinal Alessandro Sforza met financial hardships, the still semi-urban site was purchased in 1625 by Maffeo Barberini, of the Barberini family, who became Pope Urban VIII. Three great architects worked to create the Palazzo, each contributing his own style, Maderno began in 1627, assisted by his nephew Francesco Borromini. When Maderno died in 1629, Borromini was passed over and the commission was awarded to Bernini, Borromini stayed on regardless and the two architects worked together, albeit briefly, on this project and at the Palazzo Spada. Works were completed by Bernini in 1633, after the Wars of Castro and the death of Urban VIII, the palace was confiscated by Pamphili Pope Innocent X and was only returned to the Barberini in 1653.
The palazzo is disposed around a forecourt centered on Berninis grand two-storey hall backed by an oval salone, with an extended wing dominating the piazza, which lies on a lower level. At the rear, a long wing protected the garden from the piazza below, the main block presents three tiers of great arch-headed windows, like glazed arcades, a formula that was more Venetian than Roman. On the uppermost floor, Borrominis windows are set in a perspective that suggests extra depth. Flanking the hall, two sets of stairs lead to the piano nobile, a large squared staircase by Bernini to the left, the salon ceiling is graced by Pietro da Cortonas masterpiece, the Baroque fresco of the Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power. Also in the palace is a masterpiece by Andrea Sacchi, a critic of the Cortona style. The garden is known as a giardino segreto, for its concealment from an outsiders view and it houses a monument to Bertel Thorwaldsen, who had a studio in the nearby Teatro delle Quattro Fontane in 1822-1834.
Today, Palazzo Barberini houses the Galleria Nazionale dArte Antica, one of the most important painting collections in Italy and it includes Raphaels portrait La fornarina, Caravaggios Judith Beheading Holofernes and a Hans Holbein portrait of Henry VIII. The palace houses the Italian Institute of Numismatics, the European Convention on Human Rights, which created the European Court of Human Rights, was signed here on 4 November 1950, a milestone in the protection of human rights. Hidden in the cellars of the part of the building. Blunt, The Palazzo Barberini, Journal of the Warburg, il palazzo Barberini, official site Rome Art-Lover, Palazzo Barberini Palazzo Barberini and Veneto Rome guide Italian army ends museum stand-off, BBC News, Friday,13 October 2006 Google Maps. The complex constituting the Palazzo Barberini is in the center, set back from the road on all sides, on the lower side of the image are the start of the Quirinal Palace gardens. Below, and in the first corner on the right, is the San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, diagonally opposite and above is the triangular Piazza Barberini with the Triton Fountain
Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria
The Museo Storico Nazionale dellArte Sanitaria is located within the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Sassia at 3, Lungotevere in Sassia in Rome. The museum originates from an anatomical museum, increased with the collections of Giovanni Carbonelli. The collections of the museum, having educational purposes, are still in place. The idea for the creation of the current museum came from the International Exhibition of Retrospective Art, held in Rome in 1911. The Institute for the Historic Museum of Healthcare Art was founded in 1920 and in 1934 turned into the Academy of History of Healthcare Art, in 1929 the Institute of Santo Spirito granted a wing of the hospital, located in the former Corsia Alessandrina. Cavalli Mulinelli and the ones of Giuseppe and Orlando Solinas, the museum is located in a wing of the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Sassia. It includes a library, with books dating from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The library houses four 18th-century oil paintings portraying doctors, among which Giuseppe Flajani, a walnut shelf, coming from a monastic chapter archive, is placed along the walls.
The museum is divided into the rooms, Portico This room belongs to the Sala Alessandrina. The left wall is decorated with the coat of arms of Pope Pius IX, under the coat of arms is a marble mortar with angels at its sides. Another plaque commemorates the restoration carried out in 1797, when the tutor of the hospital was Giovanni Castiglioni, in a corner on the right there is a 1902 walled-in monument portraying doctor Enrico Biondi, killed by a crazy man. Sala Alessandrina The room is perpendicular to the rooms that are the main body of the hospital. It is called Ospedaletto, because it was used as a shelter for wounded soldiers, the room is 108 ft 7 in long,35 ft 4 in wide and 35 ft 8 in high. Presently it serves as a conference hall, the walls are decorated by 19 anatomical tables dating back to the beginning of the 19th century, created by Antonio Serantony and Paolo Mascagni and belonged to the surgeon Guglielmo Riva. The room houses a statue with pedestal portraying Aesculapius. Grand staircase It can be reached from the Sala Alessandrina, the monumental staircase gives access to the upper floor.
On both sides are busts of physicians, among which Hippocrates and Giuseppe Maria Lancisi. On the landing there is a wooden 17th-century chest, decorated with heads and used to store healing herbs
National Etruscan Museum
The National Etruscan Museum is a museum of the Etruscan civilization, housed in the Villa Giulia in Rome, Italy. The villa was built for pope Julius III, for whom it was named and it remained in papal property until 1870, when, in the wake of the Risorgimento and the demise of the Papal States, it became the property of the Kingdom of Italy. The museums most famous treasure is the terracotta funerary monument. The Villa Giulia National Etruscan Museum, Short Guide, roma, LErma di Bretschneider, Ingegneria per la cultura. Tarquinia National Museum Museo Nazionale Etrusco information
Vatican Historical Museum
The Vatican Historical Museum is one of the sections of the Vatican Museums. It was founded in 1973 at the behest of Pope Paul VI, in 1987 it was moved to the main floor of the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran and opened in March 1991. Also on display on the floor are the papamobili and motorcars of Popes and Cardinals. The Lateran Palace, which is next to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran to its left within the courtyard of the church with an entry gate, is a large apartment complex of the Pope. Domenico Fontana was the architect of this palace which was built to his design in 1586, right at the entrance the staircase is a massive and impressive structure with the ceiling decorated with frescoes. It had been refurbished by Pope Paul IV into ten halls, the hall known as the Conciliation, and was provided with allegories related to the papacy of Sixtus V. The other halls were named Constantine, Hall of Apostles, Emperors Room, Popes Room, the fresco decorations were on themes of the History of Rome, episodes of the Bible related to Daniel, Solomon and others, and related to the Gospel.
Several colourful tapestries and Goblins added to the elegance of the halls. Before the History Museum decided to relocate here to a more luxurious locale, since 1991, these rooms have been exclusively used as exhibition or display rooms for the exhibits moved from the Vatican Museums. The museum has been arranged into two wings, the second wing is an annex wing on the ground floor where the papamobili are on display, these consist of decorated carriages, sedans and the first cars used by the Popes. Index of Vatican City-related articles Media related to Vatican Historical Museum at Wikimedia Commons
The Capitoline Museums are a single museum containing a group of art and archeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy. The history of the museums can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome, the museums are owned and operated by the municipality of Rome. The statue of a rider in the centre of the piazza is of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is a copy, the original being housed on-site in the Capitoline museum. Open to the public in 1734 under Clement XII, the Capitoline Museums are considered the first museum in the world, understood as a place where art could be enjoyed by all and this section contains collections sorted by building, and brief information on the buildings themselves. For the history of their design and construction, see Capitoline Hill#Michelangelo, the Capitoline Museums are composed of three main buildings surrounding the Piazza del Campidoglio and interlinked by an underground gallery beneath the piazza.
In addition, the 16th century Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino, located off the adjacent to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, was added to the museum complex in the early 20th century. The collections here are ancient sculpture, mostly Roman but Greek, the Conservators Apartment is distinguished by elaborate interior decorations, including frescoes, stuccos and carved ceilings and doors. The third floor of the Palazzo dei Conservatori houses the Capitoline Art Gallery, housing the museums painting, the Capitoline Coin Cabinet, containing collections of coins, medals and jewelry, is located in the attached Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino. Statues, sarcophagi, busts and other ancient Roman artifacts occupy two floors of the Palazzo Nuovo, in the Hall of the Galatian can be appreciated the marble statue of the Dying Gaul called “Capitoline Gaul” and the statue of Cupid and Psyche. The gallery was constructed in the 1930s and it contains in situ 2nd century ruins of ancient Roman dwellings, and houses the Galleria Lapidaria, which displays the Museums collection of epigraphs.
The new great glass covered hall — the Sala Marco Aurelio — created by covering the Giardino Romano is similar to the one used for the Sala Ottagonale, the design is by the architect Carlo Aymonino. Its volume recalls that of the oval space designed by Michelangelo for the piazza and its centerpiece is the bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was once in the centre of Piazza del Campidoglio and has been kept indoors ever since its modern restoration. Moving these statues out of the palazzo allows those sculptures temporarily moved to the Centrale Montemartini to be brought back. The Centrale Montemartini is a power station of Acea in southern Rome. Its permanent collection comprises 400 ancient statues, moved here during the reorganisation of the Capitoline Museums in 1997, along with tombs, many of them were excavated in the ancient Roman horti between the 1890s and 1930s, a fruitful period for Roman archaeology. They are displayed there along the lines of Tate Modern, except that the machinery has not been moved out, Capitoline Brutus Capitoline Museums official website
National Roman Museum
The National Roman Museum is a museum, with several branches in separate buildings throughout the city of Rome, Italy. Founded in 1889 and inaugurated in 1890, the museums first aim was to collect, the collection was appropriated by the state in 1874, after the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Renamed initially as the Royal Museum, the collection was intended to be moved to a Museo Tiberino, in 1901 the State granted the National Roman Museum the recently acquired Collection Ludovisi as well as the important national collection of Ancient Sculpture. Findings during the renewal of the late 19th century added to the collections. The palace was built on the site occupied by the Villa Montalto-Peretti, named after Pope Sixtus V. The present building was commissioned by Prince Massimiliano Massimo, so as to give a seat to the Jesuit Collegio Romano, originally within the convent of the church of SantIgnazio. In 1871, the Collegio had been ousted from the convent by the State which converted it into the Liceo Visconti, erected between 1883 and 1887 by the architect Camillo Pistrucci in a neo-cinquecentesco style, it was one of the most prestigious schools of Rome until 1960.
During World War II, it was used as a military hospital, but it returned to scholastic functions until the 60s. In 1981, lying in a state of neglect, the Italian State acquired it for 19 billion lire, the museum houses the Ancient Art as well as the Numismatic Collection, housed in the Medagliere, i. e. the Coin Cabinet. One room is devoted to the mummy that was found in 1964 on the Via Cassia, inside a richly decorated sarcophagus with several artefacts in amber. It begins with the triclinium of Livias Villa “ad Gallinas Albas”. The frescoes, discovered in 1863 and dating back to the 1st century BC, show a garden with ornamental plants. The Museums numismatic collection is the largest in Italy, among the coins on exhibit are Theodoric’s medallion, the four ducats of Pope Paul II with the navicella of St Peter, and the silver piastre of the Pontifical State with views of the city of Rome. The Palazzo Altemps is located in the modern rione Ponte, part of the Campus Martius, in the ancient Rome, this site was only 160 meters from the Ponte Elio, and was one of the two main marble ports on the Tiber River in Rome.
The other was located in what is now Testaccio, in 1891, during the construction works to build the embankments that now hold back the Tiber River, the remains of this dock were uncovered. A few of these ancient shops bear signs of hasty abandonment after the time of the emperor Trajan, there was likely a temple to Apollo located in this area, over which has been built the church of SantApollinare. The division was abandoned after the Great Schism in the 15th century. The building was designed in the 15th century by Melozzo da Forlì for Girolamo Riario, when the Soderini family fell on hard times, he in turn sold it in 1568 to the Austrian-born cardinal Mark Sittich von Hohenems Altemps, the son of the sister of Pope Pius IV