Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the economic center for the state. It contains almost all of the manufacturing and has thirty percent of its population. The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s, evidence of the areas first inhabitants dates back 3,000 years, much of which are from a site called the San Dieguito Complex, located in the El Pinacate Zone. Evidence of agriculture dates back 2,500 years, in the pre-Hispanic era, this area was inhabited by the Seri and Pima peoples. The first encounter between the Spanish and natives occurred in the middle of the 16th century, when explorers were sent here in search of nonexistent gold. The first missionaries arrived in the state of Sonora around 1614, what is now the states of Sonora and Sinaloa was loosely organized as the provinces of Sonora and Sinaloa. In 1700, three small Spanish villages were founded in what is now the outskirts of Hermosillo, Nuestra Señora del Pópulo, Nuestra Señora de Los Angeles and la Santísima Trinidad del Pitic.
The native peoples here soon became hostile to the Spanish and managed to drive them out several times in the early 18th century, in 1716, the Spanish offered irrigated lands for farmers to natives who agreed to abide by Spanish law. Around 1726, a fort named the Presidio of Pitic was constructed to stop the domination of this area by the natives, the situation did not settle soon so that the first church was not built until 1787 and the first formal parish was not established until 1822. During the Mexican War of Independence and the town of Pitic stayed loyal to the Spanish Crown, in fact, a general from this area, Alejo García Conde, defeated insurgent José María González Hermosillo, who had been sent here by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. In 1825, the village of Pitic was made the seat of the department of the same name, in 1828, the settlement changed its name to Hermosillo to honor José María González de Hermosillo. A battle between imperial and republican forces occurred here in 1866 during the French Intervention in Mexico, in 1879, the capital of the state of Sonora was moved from Arizpe to Hermosillo.
In 1881 the railroad linking Hermosillo with Guaymas and Nogales was finished, allowing for expansion in the area by bringing in mining equipment. Since then, the city has been a center for northwest Mexico. During the Mexican Revolution, forces loyal to Pancho Villa were repulsed by General Manuel M. Diéguez, after the assassination of Francisco I. Madero in 1913, Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, here Carranza began the Constitutionalist Movement, and because of this, Hermosillo has the nickname of the revolutionary capital of the country. From the late 19th century and through the first two decades of the 20th, Chinese immigrants came into Sonora state, one of the places in which a significant number settled was the city of Hermosillo
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
The Liga MX is the top level of the Mexican football league system. Currently sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, it is known as Liga BBVA Bancomer. Each season, the league holds two tournaments, the Apertura, which starts in the summer, and the Clausura, which starts in the winter. As of 2017, the league comprises 18 clubs, with one being relegated every year based upon its league performances over the three years. The first 8 teams in the table at the end of the phase of the tournament qualify to the liguilla. Up until July 2011, the league was divided into 3 groups, the group formatting was removed in favor of a single-table format. The league is considered the strongest in North America, and among the strongest in all of Latin America. Of the 56 teams to have competed in the league, América have won the title a record 12 times, followed by Guadalajara, Cruz Azul, León and Pumas UNAM, the current league champions are Tigres UANL, who won the Apertura 2016 tournament.
Prior to the Liga Mayor, there was no national league in Mexico. The winners of the Primera Fuerza, a league consisting of teams near. There were other regional leagues such as the Liga Amateur de Veracruz, the Liga Occidental De Jalisco, many club owners were not keen on the idea of establishing a professional league, despite paying players under the table. With the increasing demand for football, there was a sense of urgency to unite all the amateur leagues in Mexico to progress as a football nation. The professional national league was established in 1943. When the Federación Mexicana de Fútbol Asociación announced the formation of the nations first professional league, the F. M. F. announced that 10 clubs would form the Liga Mayor. The league was founded by six clubs from the Primera Fuerza of Mexico City, Primera Fuerza, América, Atlante and Marte. Liga Occidental De Jalisco and Guadalajara, Liga Amateur de Veracruz, ADO, Veracruz and Moctezuma. The 1970 World Cup held in Mexico was the first World Cup televised on a grand scale, the season following the FIFA World Cup, the F. M. F.
Changed the league format and established a playoff phase to determine the national champion and this was done to regenerate interest and reward teams that placed fairly high in the standings
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States.
Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash.
Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season.
The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Tampico Madero F.C.
Tampico Madero Fútbol Club is a football club that currently plays in the Ascenso MX. The club spent most of the 1970s in the Segunda División de México after being relegated in the early 1960s, in 1977 the club bought out the Atlético Potosino franchise to move it to Tampico in order for the club to have once again first division action. The club played out the 1980s in the first division but was again relegated in the early 1990s and has never again reached the top division. The clubs first official game was played in the 1945–46 tournament against Atlante were the club suffered its first loss with a score of 10–3. The club won its first game on September 30 the same year against Atlas 3–2 first goals scored by Ernesto Olivares. The club finished that year 11th out 16, the club played mediocre tournaments the following years finishing last in the 1948–49 tournament and 9th in the 1949–50 tournament. The club started off the 1950s in the way they had been playing in the 1940s gaining a 9th, 6th place from 1950–52 tournaments.
It was until the 1952–53 tournament when the team came together and it was won with 14 victories,6 draws and only 2 losses for a total of 34, a league record. The club would go on to win the title Campeón de Campeones after defeating Puebla who had won that years Copa México with a score of 3–0, roster from the 1952–53 championship club were. The clubs last notable achievement from 1954–57 when they finished 4th in 1954, 7th in 1955, 6th in 1956, in 1958, they finished last and were relegated to Segundo División. They played 1 year and were returned to Mexican Primera División, the club started out the 1960s with 3 bad consecutive league tournaments but manage to win its only Copa México title in 1961 against Toluca. Nonetheless the club would once again been relegate in 1962–63 tournament. The club played in the division in the 1960s coming up short in the 1964–65. Tournament after finishing tied for first place with Jabatos de nuevol leon having played a match that the club would go on to loss match played in León Guanajuato.
The club would go on to play most of the 1970s in the second division till 1977 when the club bought out the San Luis club, the club that played in the second division was sold to Universidad de Guadalajara and became Bachilleres a reserve squad. The club had a tournament in its first year back reaching the semi finalist again Pumas which they would go on to loss that year. The following year the club finished 14th overall and did not reach the play-off spots, in the 1979–80 tournament the club finished 7th and managed to qualified to the play-off group stage where they lost once again and so came the end of the 1970s. In the 1980–81 tournament the club finished 15th in the league, soon after the clubs relegation the city decided to buy out yet another franchise this time buying struggling club in order for the club to remain in the top division. This club was made up from players from the Atletas Campesinos and that year the club struggled once again finishing 14 in the league
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shorts, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection.
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition.
The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
The Ascenso MX is the second professional level of the Mexican football league system. The champion of the competition is promoted to Liga MX, the bottom team gets relegated to Segunda División de México. It is currently sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, formerly known as Primera División A the league changed its name and competition format in 2009 to Liga de Ascenso. It was rebranded as Ascenso MX in 2012, the main changes are that clubs now do not need a FMF certification to get promoted and that the competition doesnt use group stages. The project was under the direction of José Antonio García Rodríguez and he envisioned the new division to be joined by the best teams of the Segunda and include teams from the United States. Upon review, FIFA did not authorize such integration, as a result, the new league was created instead with the best Second Division teams. Cobras de Ciudad Juárez, which would have been the sixteenth team, during the 2006 tournament it was decided to increase the number of teams from 20 to 24 and it was decided to form two groups, A and B divided by geographical areas.
In 2009 major changes occurred the most prominent being the change from Primera Division A to Liga de Ascenso. The league was reduced to 17 teams and eliminated the groups, starting with the Apertura 2010 season 18 teams participated. In 2012 the league was rebranded as Ascenso MX, the Alebrijes de Oaxaca was the 16th team of Ascenso MX starting 2013-2014 season. Club Zacatepec was promoted to the Ascenso MX taking the spot of Pumas Morelos in August 2013, from the 2011–2016 Seasons, Ascenso MX did not relegate a team to the Segunda División de México Liga Premier de Ascenso. But on June 6,2016 the president of the division announced a return to relegating a team to the Segunda División de México Liga Premier de Ascenso for the 2016–17 season after a 5-year absence. The leagues current sponsor is BBVA Bancomer, thus making the official name Ascenso BBVA Bancomer. The official match ball is manufactured by Voit, the following 18 clubs will compete in Ascenso MX during the 2016–17 season. 1981–82, Tampico bought Atletas Campesinos and took over its spot 1983–84, Ángeles de Puebla bought Oaxtepec and took over its spot 1988–89, Veracruz bought Neza and took over its spot 1992–93, U. T.
Neza changes its name to Toros Neza 1998-99, Puebla bought U. D Curtidores and took over its spot 1999-00, Irapuato gained automatic promotion as they won both tournaments