Navaratri spelled Navratri, Navarathri, Navratam, or Nauratam, is a nine nights Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year. It is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. Theoretically, there are four seasonal Navaratri. However, in practice, it is the post-monsoon autumn festival called Sharada Navaratri, the most observed in the honor of the divine feminine Devi; the festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. In the eastern and northeastern states of India, the Durga Puja is synonymous with Navaratri, wherein goddess Durga battles and emerges victorious over the buffalo demon to help restore Dharma. In the northern and western states, the festival is synonymous with "Rama Lila" and Dussehra that celebrates the battle and victory of god Rama over the demon king Ravana. In southern states, the victory of different goddesses, of Rama or Saraswati is celebrated.
In all cases, the common theme is the battle and victory of Good over Evil based on a regionally famous epic or legend such as the Ramayana or the Devi Mahatmya. Celebrations include stage decorations, recital of the legend, enacting of the story, chanting of the scriptures of Hinduism; the nine days are a major crop season cultural event, such as competitive design and staging of pandals, a family visit to these pandals and the public celebration of classical and folk dances of Hindu culture. On the final day, called the Vijayadashami or Dussehra, the statues are either immersed in a water body such as river and ocean, or alternatively the statue symbolizing the evil is burnt with fireworks marking evil's destruction; the festival starts the preparation for one of the most important and celebrated holidays, the festival of lights, celebrated twenty days after the Vijayadashami or Dussehra. The word Navaratri means ` nine nights' in nava meaning nine and ratri meaning nights. According to some Hindu texts such as the Shakta and Vaishnava Puranas, Navaratri theoretically falls twice or four times a year.
Of these, the Sharada Navaratri near autumn equinox is the most celebrated and the Vasanta Navaratri near spring equinox is next most significant to the culture of Indian subcontinent. In all cases, Navaratri falls in the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar months; the celebrations vary by region. Sharada Navaratri: the most celebrated of the four navaratris, named after sharada which means autumn, it is observed the lunar month of Ashvin. In many regions the festival falls after autumn harvest, in others during harvest. Vasanta Navaratri: the second most celebrated, named after vasanta which means spring, it is observed the lunar month of Chaitra. In many regions the festival falls after spring harvest, in others during harvest; the other two navratris are observed regionally or by individuals: Magha Navaratri: in Magha, winter season. The fifth day of this festival is independently observed as Vasant Panchami or Basant Panchami, the official start of spring in the Hindu tradition wherein goddess Saraswati is revered through arts, writing, kite flying.
In some regions, the Hindu god of love, Kama is revered. Ashada Navaratri: in Ashadha, start of the monsoon season; the Sharada Navaratri commences on the first day of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Ashvini. The festival is celebrated for nine nights once every year during this month, which falls in the Gregorian months of September and October; the exact dates of the festival are determined according to the Hindu luni-solar calendar, sometimes the festival may be held for a day more or a day less depending on the adjustments for sun and moon movements and the leap year. The festivities extend beyond god Rama. Various other goddesses such as Saraswati and Lakshmi, gods such as Ganesha, Kartikeya and Krishna are regionally revered. For example, a notable pan-Hindu tradition during Navaratri is the adoration of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning and arts through Ayudha Puja. On this day, which falls on the ninth day of Navaratri after the Good has won over Evil through Durga or Rama and knowledge is celebrated.
Warriors thank and worship their weapons, offering prayers to Saraswati. Musicians upkeep their musical instruments and pray to them. Farmers, smiths, pottery makers and all sorts of trades people decorate and worship their equipment and tools of trade. Students express respect and seek their blessings; this tradition is strong in South India, but is observed elsewhere too. The festival is associated to the prominent battle that took place between Durga and demon Mahishasura and celebrates the victory of Good over Evil; these nine days are dedicated to Goddess Durga and her nine Avatars. Each day is associated to an incarnation of the goddess: Known as Pratipada, this day is associated to Shailaputri, an incarnation of Parvati, it is in this form. Shailaputri is considered to be the direct incarnation of Mahakali; the color of the day is red, which depicts vigor. On Dwitiya, Goddess Brahmacharini, another incarnation of Parvati, is worshiped. In this form, Parvati became Sati
Makara Sankranti, Maghi, is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Surya. It is observed each year in January, it marks the first day of sun's transit into the Makara, marking the end of the month with the winter solstice and the start of longer days. Makara Sankranti is one of the few ancient Indian festivals, observed according to solar cycles, while most festivals are set by the lunar cycle of the lunisolar Hindu calendar. Being a festival that celebrates the solar cycle, it always falls on the same Gregorian date every year, except in some years when the date shifts by a day for that year; the festivities associated with Makar Sankranti are known by various names such as Maghi by north Indian Hindus and Sikhs, Makara Sankranti in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Telangana, Sukarat in central India, Magh Bihu by Assamese, Thai Pongal by Tamils. Makara Sankranti is observed with social festivities such as colorful decorations, rural children going house to house and asking for treats in some areas, dances, kite flying and feasts.
The Magha Mela, according to Diana L. Eck, is mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata Many go to sacred rivers or lakes and bathe with thanksgiving to the sun; every twelve years, the Hindus observe Makar Sankranti with one of the world's largest mass pilgrimages, with an estimated 40 to 100 million people attending the event. At this event they say a prayer to the sun and bathe at the Prayaga confluence of the River Ganga and River Yamuna at the Kumbha Mela, a tradition attributed to Adi Shankaracharya. Makara Sankranti is set by the solar cycle of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, is observed on a day which falls on 14 January of Gregorian calendar, but sometimes 15 January, it signifies the arrival of longer days. Makar Sankranti falls in the Hindu calendar solar month of Makara, lunar month of Magha, it marks the end of the month with winter solstice for India and the longest night of the year, a month, called Pausha in lunar calendar and Dhanu in the solar calendar in the Vikrami system. The festival celebrates the first month with longer days.
There are two different systems to calculate the Makara Sankranti date: sayana. The January 14 date is based on the nirayana system, while the sayana system computes to about December 23, per most Siddhanta texts for Hindu calendars; as per the solar calendar, after one year, Sun comes to the same location 20 min. Late every year which means Sun needs to 1 day extra after every 72 years in the sky. That's the reason; this festival is dedicated to Surya. This significance of Surya is traceable to the Vedic texts the Gayatri Mantra, a sacred hymn of Hinduism found in its scripture named the Rigveda; the festival marks the beginning of a six-month auspicious period for Hindus known as Uttarayana. Makara Sankranti is regarded as important for spiritual practices and accordingly, people take a holy dip in rivers Ganga, Godavari and Kaveri; the bathing is believed to result in absolution of past sins. They pray to the sun and thank for their successes and prosperity. A shared cultural practices found amongst Hindus of various parts of India is making sticky, bound sweets from sesame and a sugar base such as jaggery.
This type of sweet is a symbolism for being together in peace and joyfulness, despite the uniqueness and differences between individuals. For most parts of India, this period is a part of early stages of the Rabi crop and agricultural cycle, where crops have been sown and the hard work in the fields is over; the time thus signifies a period of socializing and families enjoying each other's company, taking care of the cattle, celebrating around bonfires, in Maharashtra the festival is celebrated by flying kites. Makara Sankranti is an important pan-Indian solar festival, known by different names though observed on the same date, sometimes for multiple dates around the Makar Sankranti, it is known as Pedda Panduga in Andhra Pradesh, Makara Sankranti in Karnataka and Maharashtra, Pongal in Tamil Nadu, Magh Bihu in Assam, Magha Mela in parts of central and north India, as Makar Sankranti in the west, by other names. In some parts of India it is believed. Makara or Makar Sankranti is celebrated in many parts of Indian subcontinent with some regional variations.
It is known by different names and celebrated with different customs in different parts of the region: Suggi Habba, Makara Sankramana, Makara Sankranti: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana Makara Sankranti or Makara Mela and Makara Chaula: Odisha Thai Pongal, Uzhavar Thirunal: Tamil Nadu Uttarayan: Gujarat Maghi: Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu: Assam Shishur Saenkraat: Kashmir Valley Khichdi: Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar Poush Sangkranti: West Bengal Tila Sakrait: MithilaIn other countries too the day is celebrated by Hindus, but under different names and in different ways. Nepal: Maghe Sankranti or Maghi- /Khichdi Sankranti Bangladesh: Shakrain/ Poush Sangkranti Pakistan: Tirmoori Sri Lanka: ThaiPongal Malaysia: ThaiPongal It is celebrated differently across the Indian subcontinent. Many people take a dip in places like Ganga Sagar Prayag and pray to the Sun God, it is celebrated with pomp in sou
Gudhi Padwa and Konkani: संवसर पाडवो,Sanvsar Pādvo) is a spring-time festival that marks the traditional new year for Marathi and Konkani Hindus. It is celebrated in and near Maharashtra and Goa on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar; the word पाडवा or पाडवो or पाड्ड्वा/पाड्ड्वो comes from the Sanskrit word प्रतिपदा, which refers to the first day of a lunar fortnight. The festival is observed with colorful floor decorations called rangoli, a special Gudhi flag, street processions and festive foods. In India, first day of the bright phase of the moon is called Gudhi Padwa in pāḍya. Konkani Hindus variously refer to the day as सौसार पाडवो or सौसार पाडयो, संसार being a corruption of the word संवत्सर. Telugu Hindus celebrate the same occasion as Ugadi, while Konkani and Kannada Hindus in Karnataka refer to it as युगादि, ಯುಗಾದಿ; the same new year festival is known by other names in different regions of the Indian subcontinent.
However, this is not the universal new year for all Hindus. For some, such as those in and near Gujarat, the new year festivities coincide with the five day Diwali festival. For many others, the new year falls on Vaisakhi between April 13 to 15, according to the solar cycle part of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, this is by far the most popular not only among Hindus of the Indian subcontinent but among Buddhists and Hindus in many parts of southeast Asia; the Sindhi community celebrates this day as Cheti Chand as the new year and observed as the emergence day of Lord Jhulelaal. Prayers are offered to Lord Jhulelaal and the festival is celebrated by making delicacies like Tehri and Saai Bhaaji. Gudhi means flag, erect flag on the houses as part of celebration in Maharashtra where its celebrated. According to Kittel word belongs to South Indian language origin; the word pāḍavā is derived from the Sanskrit word pratipad for the first day of each fortnight in a lunar month i.e. the first day on which the moon appears after the so-called "new moon" day and the first day after the full moon.
A Gudhi is hoisted on this occasion giving this festival its name. The term padva or padavo is associated with balipratipad the third day of Diwali, another celebration that comes at the end of the harvesting season. Gudhi Padva signifies the arrival to the reaping of Rabi crops; the festival is linked to the mythical day on which Hindu god Brahma created universe. To some, it commemorates the coronation of Rama in Ayodhya after his victory over evil Ravana, or alternatively the start of Shalivahan calendar after he defeated the Huns invasion in the 1st century. According to Anne Feldhaus, in rural Maharashtra the festival is linked to Shiva's dance and coming together of the community as they carry the Gudhi Kavads together to a Shiva temple. A notable sight during Gudhi Padwa are the numerous Gudhi arrangements at every household, it is a bright colorful silk scarf-like cloth tied at the top of a long bamboo. On top of it, one or more boughs of neem leaves and mango leaves are attached along with a garland of flowers.
This arrangement is capped with a bronze or copper pot signifying victory or achievement. The whole arrangement is hoisted outside each household to the right, or through a window or terrace, it is visible to everybody. Villages or neighborhoods come together and host a community Gudhi Kavad, which they carry together to the local Shiva temple; some temples are located on the top of hills, groups work together to help reach the kavad to the top. Some of the significances attributed to raising a Gudhi are as follows: It symbolizes the victory of King Shalivahana and was hoisted by his people when he returned to Paithan. Gudhi symbolizes the Brahmadhvaj mentioned in the Brahma Purana, because Lord Brahma created the universe on this day, it may represent Indradhvaj. The Gudhi symbolizes Lord Rama’s victory and happiness on returning to Ayodhya after slaying Ravana. Since a symbol of victory is always held high, so is the gudhi, it is believed that this festival is celebrated to commemorate the coronation of Rama post his return to Ayodhya after completing 14 years of exile.
So, people celebrated victory of lord Rama every year by raising Gudhi. Gudhi is symbol of victory of lord Rama Gudhi is believed to ward off evil, invite prosperity and good luck into the house. On the festive day, courtyards in village houses will be swept clean and plastered with fresh cow-dung. In the city, people take the time out to do some spring cleaning. Women and children work on intricate rangoli designs on their doorsteps, the vibrant colours mirroring the burst of colour associated with spring. Everyone dresses up in it is a time for family gatherings. Traditionally, families prepare a special dish that mixes various flavors the bitter leaves of the neem tree and sweet jaggery. Additional ingredients include sour astringent dhane seeds. This, like the pacchadi recipe used in Ugadi festival, is eaten as a reminder of life's sweet and bitter experiences, as well as a belief that the neem-based mixture has health benefits. Maharashtrian families make many other festive dishes, such as shrikhand and Poori or Puran Poli on this day.
Known as Guḍhī Pāḍavā in Maharashtra, this festiva
Teej is a generic name for a number of Hindu festivals that are celebrated by women in Nepal and North India. Haryali Teej and Hartalika Teej welcome the monsoon season and are celebrated by girls and women, with songs and prayer rituals; the monsoon festivals of Teej are dedicated to Goddess Parvati and her union with Lord Shiva. "Teej" refers to the "third" day that falls every month after the new moon, the third day after the full moon night of every month. The monsoon festivals of Teej include Kajari Teej and Hartalika Teej. Teej refers to the monsoon festivals, observed in western and northern states of India and Nepal; the festivals celebrate the bounty of nature, arrival of clouds and rain and birds with social activity and customs. The festivals for women, include dancing, getting together with friends and telling stories, dressing up with henna-coloured hands and feet, wearing red, green or orange clothes, sharing festive foods, playing under trees on swings on Haryali Teej; the festivals are dedicated, to Parvati.
Teej festivals are traditionally observed by women to celebrate the monsoons, on the third day of the Indian month of Shravan, on the third days of the waning and waxing moon of the Indian month of Bhadrapada. Women pray to goddess Parvati seeking the wellness of their husband and their own self. Haryali Teej is celebrated on the third day of the bright half of the North Indian Lunar month of Shraavana; as Shraavana month falls during monsoon or rainy season when the surroundings become green, the Shraavana Teej is called Hariyali Teej. A fast is kept and the focus is the moon; the Hariyali Teej festival is celebrated to remember the reunion of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati, the day when Lord Shiva accepted Goddess Parvati as his wife. Goddess Parvati fasted and was austere for many years and was accepted by Lord Shiva as his wife in her 108 birth. Goddess Parvati is known as Teej Mata. Sindhara Teej: On Teej festival married daughters receive the gifts by her mother such clothes, bindi, mehandi etc.
"Ghewar" a special sweet is given to her on this day. These gifts are known as Sindhara The traditional areas of celebration are: Punjab region and Rajasthan; the festival is celebrated in Punjab and Chandigarh. Chandigarh administration makes special arrangements for Teej celebration in the Rock Garden in the city. School children present other cultural programs on this day; the female members of the family daughters, are given gifts and dresses. Haryali Teej is one of the famous festivals of Haryana, is celebrated as an official holiday. Many functions are organised by the Government of Haryana to celebrate this festival, which welcomes the rainy season. Boys traditionally flew kites from morning to evening, though this tradition is losing its charm in big cities due to high rise buildings and lack of terrace space. Swings are set up under trees for the season. Girls are excused from household chores on this day. On Teej, girls receive new clothes from their parents. On Teej, just as on Karva Chauth, the mother sends a gift.
The puja is performed in the morning. The baya, which consists of a variety of foodstuffs, is placed on a thaali at a place of worship where a chowk has been decorated, an idol or picture of Parvati has been installed; the evenings are set aside for folk singing and dancing, including the women's prayers for their husbands' longevity and their families. Teej is known as teeyan in Punjab and is seen as a seasonal festival, dedicated to the onset of the monsoon; the festival is celebrated by women of all faiths, lasts from the third day of the bright half of the lunar month of Sawan as per the Punjabi calendar to the full moon of Sawan. Teeyan involves women getting together and performing Gidda, married women visiting their families and receiving gifts, it is traditional for women to ride on swings. Fairs are organised in Colleges where dance competitions are held. Teej observed in the month of Shravan; the monsoon rains fall on the parched land and the pleasing scent of the wet soil rises into the air.
Swings are hung from trees and women dressed in green clothes sing songs in celebration of the advent of the monsoon. This festival is dedicated to the Goddess Parvati. Goddess Parvati is worshipped by seekers of conjugal bliss and happiness. An elaborate procession is taken out in Jaipur for two consecutive days on the festive occasion, watched by people in large numbers; the Teej idol is covered with a canopy. The traditional ghevar sweet is associated with the festival. During Teej, Goddess Parvati is worshipped; the day before Haryali Teej, is celebrated as Sinjara, wherein women put mehandi on their hands and eat. Kajarai teej is celebrated in the North Indian Lunar month of Bhadrapud: the third day of the dark fortnight of Bhadrapada. Kajari teej is called boorhi teej. In Rajasthan, kajarai teej is referred to badi teej which follows haryali teej, known as chhoti teej. Women in Uttar Pradesh pray to Lord Shiva on kajari teej, it is customary to sing folk songs known as kajris. The focus of the lyrics is on separation expressing the pining of a woman for her beloved in her parents' home, where she has been sent to celebrate teej, or waiting in anticipation to be collected by brothers to celebrate teej.
The kajri is a folk song composed and sung in the regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and in parts of M
Vasant Panchami spelled Basant Panchami, is a festival that marks the preliminary preparations for the arrival of spring, celebrated by people in various ways depending upon the region. The Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for Holika and Holi, which take place forty days later; the Vasant Utsava on Panchami is celebrated forty days before Spring, because any season's transition period is 40 days, after that the season comes in to full bloom. Vasant Panchami is celebrated every year on the fifth day of the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar calendar month of Magha, which falls in late January or February. Spring is known as the "King of all Seasons", so the festival commences forty days in advance.. The festival is observed by Hindus in India and Nepal, it's has been a historical tradition of Sikhs as well. In southern states, the same day is called Sri Panchami.. On the island of Bali and the Hindus of Indonesia, it is known as "Hari Raya Saraswati", it marks the beginning of the 210-day long Balinese Pawukon calendar.
Vasant Panchami is a festival that marks the beginning of preparations for the King of all Seasons, Spring. It is celebrated by people in various ways depending on the region. Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for holiday and holi which occurs forty days later. For many Hindus, Vasant Panchami is the festival dedicated to goddess Saraswati, their goddess of knowledge, language and all arts, she is the energy of Brahma, she symbolizes creative energy and power in all its form, including longing and love. The season and festival celebrates the agricultural fields' ripening with yellow flowers of mustard crop, which Hindus associate with Saraswati's favorite color. People dress in shirts or accessories, share yellow colored snacks and sweets; some add saffron to their rice and eat yellow cooked rice as a part of an elaborate feast. Many families mark this day by sitting with babies and young children, encouraging their children to write their first words with their fingers, some study or create music together.
The day before Vasant Panchami, Saraswati's temples are filled with food so that she can join the celebrants in the traditional feasting the following morning. In temples and educational institutions, statues of Saraswati are dressed in worshiped. Many educational institutions arrange special prayers or pujas in the morning to seek blessing of the goddess. Poetic and musical gatherings are held in some communities in reverence for Saraswati. In Nepal and eastern states of India such as West Bengal including north-eastern states like Tripura and Assam, people visit her temples and worship her. Most of the schools arrange special Saraswati puja for their students in their premises. In Bangladesh, all major educational institutes and universities observe it with holiday and a special puja. In the state of Odisha,The festival is celebrated as Basanta Panchami/Sri Panchami /Saraswati Puja. Homas and Yagnas are done in Colleges across the state. Students celebrate Saraswati Puja with great fervor. Toddlers start learning from this day in a unique ceremony named'Khadi-Chuan'/Vidya-Arambha.
In southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, the same day is called Sri Panchami where "Sri" refers to her as another aspect of the one goddess Devi.. Another legend behind Vasant Panchami is based on the Hindu god of love called Kama. Pradyumna is Kamadev personified, thus Vasant Panchami is known as "Madana Panchami". Pradyumna is the son of Krsna, he awakens the passions of the earth and thus. It is remembered as the day when Parvati approached Kama to wake up Shiva in Yogic meditation since the Maha Shivaratri; the other gods support Parvati, seek Kama's help to bring Shiva back from his meditation to do his duties in the world. Kama agrees and shoots arrows, made of flowers and bees, at Shiva from his heavenly bow of sugarcane in order to arouse him to pay attention to Parvati; this initiative is celebrated by Hindus as Vasant Panchami. Vasant Panchami is associated with the emotions of love and emotional anticipation in Kutch, celebrated by preparing bouquet and garlands of flowers set with mango leaves, as a gift.
People visit each other. Songs about Krishna's pranks with Radha, considered to mirror Kama-Rati, are sung; this is symbolized with the Hindu deity Kamadeva with his wife Rati. Traditionally, in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, after bathing in the morning, people worship Shiva and Parvati. Offerings of mango flowers and the ears of wheat are traditionally made; the shrine of the Sun-God in Aurangabad district, Bihar known as the Deo-Sun Shrine, was established on Basant Panchami. The day is celebrated to commemorate the founding of the shrine by King Aila of Allahabad and the birthday of the Sun-Deo God; the statues are washed and old red clothes on them are replaced with new ones on Basant Panchami. Devotees sing and play musical instruments. People celebrate the day by eating sweet dishes and display yellow flowers in homes. In Rajasthan, it is customary for people to wear jasmine garlands. In Maharashtra, newly married couples visit a temple and offer prayers on the first Basant Panchami after the wedding.
Wearing yellow dresses. In the Punjab region and Hindus wear yellow turban or head dress. In Uttarakhan
The Balinese people are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million live on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population. There are significant populations on the island of Lombok and in the easternmost regions of Java; the Balinese originated from three periods of migration. The first waves of immigrants came from Java and Kalimantan in prehistoric times and were of proto-Malay stock; the second wave of Balinese came over the years from Java during the Hindu period. The third and final wave came from Java, between the 15th and 16th centuries, about the same time as the conversion to Islam in Java, causing aristocrats and peasants to flee to Bali after the collapse of the Javanese Hindu Majapahit Empire in order to escape Mataram's Islamic conversion; this in turn reshaped the Balinese culture into a syncretic form of classical Javanese culture mixed with many Balinese elements. A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of Indian origin, while 84% are of Austronesian origin, 2% of Melanesian origin.
Balinese culture is a mix of Balinese Hindu-Buddhist Balinese customs. It is most known for its dance and sculpture; the island is known for its Wayang kulit or Shadow play theatre. In rural and neglected villages, beautiful temples are a common sight. Layered pieces of palm leaf and neat fruit arrangements made as offerings by Balinese women have an artistic side to them. According to Mexican art historian José Miguel Covarrubias, works of art made by amateur Balinese artists are regarded as a form of spiritual offering, therefore these artists do not care about recognition of their works. Balinese artists are skilled in duplicating art works such as carvings that resemble Chinese deities or decorating vehicles based on what is seen in foreign magazines; the culture is noted for its use of the gamelan in music and in various traditional events of Balinese society. Each type of music is designated for a specific type of event. For example, music for a piodalan is different from music used for a metatah ceremony, just as it is for weddings, Melasti and so forth.
The diverse types of gamelan are specified according to the different types of dance in Bali. According to Walter Spies, the art of dancing is an integral part of Balinese life as well as an endless critical element in a series of ceremonies or for personal interests. Traditionally, displaying of female breasts is not regarded as immodest. Balinese women can be seen with bared chests. In modern Bali these customs are not observed, but visitors visiting Balinese temples are advised to cover their legs. In the Balinese naming system, a person's rank of birth or caste is reflected in the name. A puputan is an act of mass suicide through frontal assaults in battle, was first noted by the Dutch during the colonization of Bali; the latest act of puputan was during the Indonesian war of Independence, with Lt. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai as the leader in the battle of Margarana; the airport in Bali is named after him in commemoration. The vast majority of the Balinese believe in Agama Tirta, "holy-water religion".
It is a Shivaite sect of Hinduism. Traveling Indian priests are said to have introduced the people to the sacred literature of Hinduism and Buddhism centuries ago; the people combined it with their own pre-Hindu mythologies. The Balinese from before the third wave of immigration, known as the Bali Aga, are not followers of Agama Tirta, but retain their own animist traditions. Balinese people celebrate multiple festivals, including the Kuta Carnival, the Sanur Village Festival, the Bali Kite Festival, where participants fly fish-, bird-, leaf-shaped kites while an orchestra plays traditional music. Balinese Hinduism Balinese architecture Balinese caste system Bali Kingdom Balinese Kshatriya Galungan Nyepi Saraswati Ngaben Legong Sanghyang Kecak Canang sari