In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody, but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line, provide added interest and variety, give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill; the amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to little or none. The word agrément is used to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation. In the Baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody unornamented the first time and decorate it with additional flourishes and trills the second time. A harpsichord player performing a simple melodic line was expected to be able to improvise harmonically and stylistically appropriate trills and appoggiaturas.
Ornamentation may be indicated by the composer. A number of standard ornaments are indicated with standard symbols in music notation, while other ornamentations may be appended to the score in small notes, or written out as sized notes. A composer will have his or her own vocabulary of ornaments, which will be explained in a preface, much like a code. A grace note is a note written in smaller type, with or without a slash through it, to indicate that its note value does not count as part of the total time value of the bar. Alternatively, the term may refer more to any of the small notes used to mark some other ornament, or in association with some other ornament's indication, regardless of the timing used in the execution. In Spain, melodies ornamented upon repetition were called "diferencias", can be traced back to 1538, when Luis de Narváez published the first collection of such music for the vihuela. A trill known as a "shake", is a rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above it.
In simple music, trills may be diatonic. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, above the staff. At a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: In Baroque music, the trill is sometimes indicated with a + sign above or below the note. In the late 18th century, when performers play a trill, it always start from the upper note. However, " Koch expressed no preference and observed that it was scarcely a matter of much importance whether the trill began one way or the other, since there was no audible difference after the initial note had been sounded." Clive Brown writes that "Despite three different ways of showing the trills, it seems that a trill beginning with the upper note and ending with a turn was envisaged in each case."Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn, or some other variation. Such variations are marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. There is a single tone trill variously called trillo or tremolo in late Renaissance and early Baroque.
Trilling on a single note is idiomatic for the bowed strings. A mordent is a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above or below, the indicated note again; the upper mordent is indicated by a short thick tilde. As with the trill, the exact speed with which a mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but, at a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows: Confusion over the meaning of the unadorned word mordent has led to the modern terms upper and lower mordent being used, rather than mordent and inverted mordent. Practice and nomenclature vary for all of these ornaments. In the Baroque period, a mordant was what came to be called an inverted mordent and what is now called a lower mordent. In the 19th century, the name mordent was applied to what is now called the upper mordent. Although mordents are now thought of as a single alternation between notes, in the Baroque period a mordant may have sometimes been executed with more than one alternation between the indicated note and the note below, making it a sort of inverted trill.
Mordents of all sorts might in some periods, begin with an extra inessential note, rather than with the principal note as shown in the examples here. The same applies to trills, which in the Baroque and Classical periods would begin with the added, upper note. A lower inessential note may or may not be chromatically raised to ma
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Indian classical music
Indian classical music is the classical music of the Indian subcontinent. It has two major traditions: the North Indian classical music tradition is called Hindustani, while the South Indian expression is called Carnatic; these traditions were not distinct till about the 16th century. There on, during the turmoils of Islamic rule period of the Indian subcontinent, the traditions separated and evolved into distinct forms. Hindustani music emphasizes improvisation and exploring all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic performances tend to be short and composition-based. However, the two systems continue to have more common features than differences; the roots of the classical music of India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism and the ancient Natyashastra, the classic Sanskrit text on performance arts by Bharata Muni. The 13th century Sanskrit text Sangita-Ratnakara of Sarangadeva is regarded as the definitive text by both the Hindustani music and the Carnatic music traditions. Indian classical music has two foundational elements and tala.
The raga, based on swara, forms the fabric of a melodic structure, while the tala measures the time cycle. The raga gives an artist a palette to build the melody from sounds, while the tala provides them with a creative framework for rhythmic improvisation using time. In Indian classical the space between the notes is more important than the notes themselves, it does not have Western classical concepts such as harmony, chords, or modulation; the root of music in ancient India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism. The earliest Indian thought combined three arts, syllabic recital and dance; as these fields developed, sangeeta became a distinct genre of art, in a form equivalent to contemporary music. This occurred before the time of Yāska, since he includes these terms in his nirukta studies, one of the six Vedanga of ancient Indian tradition; some of the ancient texts of Hinduism such as the Samaveda are structured to melodic themes, it is sections of Rigveda set to music. The Samaveda is organized into two formats.
One part is based on another by the aim of the rituals. The text is written with embedded coding, where swaras are either shown above or within the text, or the verse is written into parvans in simple words this embedded code of swaras is like the skeleton of the song; the swaras have about 12 different forms and different combinations of these swaras are made to sit under the names of different ragas. The specific code of a song tells us what combination of swaras are present in a specific song; the lyrical part of the song is called "sahityam" and sahityam is just like singing the swaras altogether but using the lyrics of the song. The code in the form of swaras have the notation of which note to be sung high and which one low; the hymns of Samaveda contain melodic content, form and metric organization. This structure is, not unique or limited to Samaveda; the Rigveda embeds the musical meter too, without the kind of elaboration found in the Samaveda. For example, the Gayatri mantra contains three metric lines of eight syllables, with an embedded ternary rhythm.
In the ancient traditions of Hinduism, two musical genre appeared, namely Gana. The Gandharva music implied celestial, divine associations, while the Gana implied singing; the Vedic Sanskrit musical tradition had spread in the Indian subcontinent, according to Rowell, the ancient Tamil classics make it "abundantly clear that a cultivated musical tradition existed in South India as early as the last few pre-Christian centuries". The classic Sanskrit text Natya Shastra is at the foundation of the numerous classical music and dance traditions of India. Before Natyashastra was finalized, the ancient Indian traditions had classified musical instruments into four groups based on their acoustic principle for example flute which works with gracious in and out flow of air; these four categories are accepted as given and are four separate chapters in the Natyashastra, one each on stringed instruments, hollow instruments, solid instruments, covered instruments. Of these, states Rowell, the idiophone in the form of "small bronze cymbals" were used for tala.
The entire chapter of Natyashastra on idiophones, by Bharata, is a theoretical treatise on the system of tala. Time keeping with idiophones was considered a separate function than that of percussion, in the early Indian thought on music theory; the early 13th century Sanskrit text Sangitaratnakara, by Sarngadeva patronized by King Sighana of the Yadava dynasty in Maharashtra and discusses ragas and talas. He identifies seven tala families subdivides them into rhythmic ratios, presenting a methodology for improvization and composition that continues to inspire modern era Indian musicians. Sangitaratnakara is one of the most complete historic medieval era Hindu treatises on this subject that has survived into the modern era, that relates to the structure and reasoning behind ragas and talas; the centrality and significance of music in ancient and early medieval India is expressed in numerous temple and shrine reliefs, in Buddhism and Jainism, such as through the carving of musicians with cymbals at the fifth century Pavaya temple sculpture near Gwalior, the Ellora Caves.
The post-Vedic era historical literature relating to Indian classical music has been extensive. The ancient
Harikatha " Story of Lord" known as Harikatha Kaalakshepam in Telugu, is a form of Hindu traditional discourse in which the storyteller explores a traditional theme the life of a saint or a story from an Indian epic. The person telling the story through songs and naration is called a Haridasa. Harikatha is a composite art form composed of storytelling, music, drama and philosophy most prevalent in Andhrapradesh and Karnataka. Any Hindu religious theme may be the subject for the Harikatha. At its peak Harikatha was a popular medium of entertainment, which helped transmit cultural and religious values to the masses; the main aim of Hari Katha is to imbue truth and righteousness in the minds of people and sow the seeds of devotion in them. Another of the aims is to educate them about knowledge of self through stories and show them the path of liberation. In Hindu mythology, the first Harikatha singer was sage Narada who sang for Vishnu, other prominent singers were Lava and Kusha twin sons of Rama, who sang the Ramayana in his court at Ayodhya.
This is an ancient form. Many famous Haridasa are Kanakadasa. Telugu form of Harikatha originated in Coastal Andhra during the 19th century. Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu was the originator of the Telugu Harikatha tradition, with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made it a special art form. Harikatha involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story; the narration involves numerous sub-plots and anecdotes, which are used to emphasize various aspects of the main story. The main storyteller is assisted by one or more co-signers, who elaborate the songs and a Mridangam accompanist; the storyteller uses a pair of cymbals to keep the beat. Following Krishna Bhagavatar, other great exponents of this art form such as Pandit Lakshmanachar, Tirupazhanam Panchapakesa Bhagavatar, Mangudi Chidambara Bhagavatar, Muthiah Bhagavatar, Tiruvaiyyar Annasami Bhagavatar, Embar Srirangachariyar, Konnoor Sitarama Shastry, Sulamangalam Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar, Sulamangalam Soundararaja Bhagavatar, Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu, Embar Vijayaraghavachariar, Saraswati Bai and Padmasini Bai popularized the Harikatha tradition.
Saraswati Bai was a pioneering woman Harikatha exponent. She broke the monopoly of Brahmin men over this art form; this was attested by F. G. Natesa Iyer who said: “Saraswati Bai is a pioneer, today, as a result of her sacrifices…. Brahmins and non-Brahmins walk over the once forbidden ground. C. Saraswati Bai has achieved this miracle.”Paruthiyur Krishna Sastri started out as a Harikatha exponent and changed to Pravachan style. Recent practitioners of Harikatha include Veeragandham Venkata Subbarao, Kota Sachchidananda Sastri, Mannargudi Sambasiva Bhagavatar, Banni Bai, Mysore Sreekantha Shastry, Kamala Murthy, Embar Vijayaraghavachariar, Kalyanapuram Aravamudachariar,Smt Vishaka hari, Gururajulu Naidu, T S Balakrishna Sastry. One of the best harikatha renderings is on the life of saint Tyagaraja by Sri Mullukutla Sadasiva Sastry from Tenali. Carnatic music Kirtan Burra katha Oggu Katha Pravachan Katha - The Art Of Story Telling In India Singh, N. K.. Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Volume 3. Anmol Publications.
ISBN 81-7488-168-9. Arnold, Alison. "Kassebaum, Gayathri Rajapur.'Karnatak raga'". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia: the Indian subcontinent. New York & London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8240-4946-2. Harikatha: its origins and development, by Kalaimamani B. M. Sundaram. Publisher Vidwan R. K. Srikantan Trust, 2001. Datta, Amaresh; the Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature, Volume 2. Sahitya Akademi. Pp. 1551–1553. ISBN 81-260-1194-7. Harikatha: Samarth Ramdas' Contribution to the Art of Spiritual Story-Telling by Meera Grimes. Indica Books, 2008. ISBN 81-86569-76-6. Article on Harikatha Art of rendering Harikatha at The Hindu
Yakshagana is a traditional theatre form, developed in Udupi,in the state of Karnataka, that combines dance, dialogue, make-up, stage techniques with a unique style and form. It is believed to have evolved from pre-classical music and theater during the period of the Bhakti movement, it is sometimes called "the play" in Tulu Language. Yakshagana is influenced by the Vaishnava Bhakti movement; this theatre style is found in most parts of Karnataka in various forms. Yakshagana is traditionally presented from dusk to dawn, its stories are drawn from Ramayana, Mahabharata and other epics from both Hindu and Jain and other ancient Indic traditions. Yakshagana means the song of the yaksha. Yakshagana is the scholastic name for art forms known as kēḷike, āṭa, bayalāṭa, daśāvatāra; the word Yakshagana referred to a form of literature in Kannada and now in Telugu. Performance of this Yakshagana literature or the play is called āṭa, it is now no longer believed. Yakshagana has a separate tradition of music, separate from Karnataka Sangeetha and the Hindustani music of India.
Yakshagan and Karnatak Sangeetha may have a common ancestor. A typical Yakshagana performance consists of background music played by a group of musicians; the himmela is made up of a lead singer —who directs the production—and is referred to as the "first actor". Additional himmela members are players of traditional musical instruments, such as the maddale, the pungi, the harmonium, the chande; the music is based on ragas, which are characterized by rhythmic patterns called tala. A Yakshagana performance begins in the twilight hours, with an initial beating of the drums of several fixed compositions, called abbara or peetike; this may last for up to an hour before the actors arrive on the stage. The actors wear resplendent costumes, head-dresses, face paints. A performance depicts a story from the "Kavya" and the "Puranas", it consists of a story teller who narrates the story by singing as the actors dance to the music, portraying elements of the story as it is being narrated. All components of Yakshagana—including the music, the dance, the dialog—are improvised.
Depending on the ability and scholarship of the actors, there will be variations in dances as well as the amount of dialog. It is not uncommon for actors to get into philosophical debates or arguments without falling out of character; the acting in Yakshagana can be best categorized as method acting. The performances have drawn comparison to the Western tradition of opera. Traditionally, Yakshagana will run all night. Yakshagana is popular in the districts of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada and Shimoga. Yakshagana has become popular in Bengaluru in recent years in the rainy season, when there are few other forms of entertainment possible in the coastal districts. Yakshagana can refer to a style of writing, as well as the written material itself, it was used for poems enacted in bayalaata, such as the ballads of Koti and Chennayya. Yakshagana in its present form is believed to have been influenced by the Vaishnava Bhakti movement. Yakshagana was first introduced in Udupi by Madhvacharya's disciple Naraharitirtha.
Naraharitirtha was the minister in the Kalinga Kingdom. He was the founder of Kuchipudi; the first written evidence regarding Yakshagana is found on an inscription at the Lakshminarayana Temple in Kurugodu, Bellary District, is dated 1556 CE. A copy is available at the University of Madras; the inscription mentions land donated to the performers of the art, so as to enable people to enjoy tala maddale programs at the temple. Another important piece of evidence is available in the form of a poem authored by Ajapura Vishnu, the Virata Parva, inscribed on a palm-leaf found at Ajapura. Another historic palm-leaf manuscript, dated 1621 CE, describes Sabhalakshana. Yakshagana bears some resemblance to other members of the'traditional theater family:' Ankhia Nata. However, some researchers have argued. Experts have placed the origin of Yakshagana somewhere in the period of the 11th to 16th centuries CE. Yakshagana was an established performance art form by the time of the noted Yakshagana poet, Parthi Subba.
His father, Venkata, is attributed by some to be the author of the great Hindu epic, although historian Shivaram Karanth counters these claims and argues that it is Subba, in fact its author. Venkata is the probable founder of the tenkuthittu style of the art. Troupe centers, such as Koodlu and Kumbala in the Kasaragod District, Amritheshwari, Kota near Kundapura, claim to have had troupes three to four centuries ago, indicating that the art form certainly had begun to take shape by circa 1500; the Yakshagana form of today is the result of a slow evolution, drawing its elements from ritual theater, temple arts, secular arts (such as Bahurupi
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle