A Webby Award is an award for excellence on the Internet presented annually by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, a judging body composed of over two thousand industry experts and technology innovators. Categories include websites. Two winners are selected in each category, one by members of The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, one by the public who cast their votes during Webby People’s Voice voting; each winner presents a trademark of the annual awards show. Hailed as the "Internet’s highest honor," the award is one of the oldest Internet-oriented awards, is associated with the phrase "The Oscars of the Internet." The Webby Awards began in 1996, sponsored by Cool Site of the Day. The first Webby Awards were produced by Kay Dangaard at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel as a nod to the first site of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; that first year, they were called "Webbie" Awards. The first "Site of the Year" winner was the pioneer webisodic serial The Spot.
Today's Webby Awards were founded by Tiffany Shlain when she was hired by The Web Magazine to re-establish them. The event was held in San Francisco from 1996 to 2004 and became known for their "5 word Acceptance Speeches". After the first year the awards became more successful than the magazine and IDG closed the publication. Shlain continued to run The Webby Awards with the help of Maya Draisin until 2004; the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, which selects the winners of The Webby Awards, was established in 1998 by co-founders Tiffany Shlain, Spencer Ante and Maya Draisin. Members of the Academy include Kevin Spacey, Questlove, Internet inventor Vint Cerf, Instagram’s Head of Fashion Partnerships Eva Chen, comedian Jimmy Kimmel, Twitter Founder Biz Stone, Vice Media Co-Founder and CEO Shane Smith, Tumblr’s David Karp, Director of Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society Susan P. Crawford, Refinery29’s Executive Creative Director Piera Gelardi, CEO and cofounder of Gimlet Media Alex Blumberg.
The Webby Awards is owned and operated by the Webby Media Group, a division of Recognition Media, which owns and produces the Lovie Awards in Europe and Netted by the Webbys, a daily email publication launched in 2009. David-Michel Davies, CEO of Webby Media Group, current Executive Director of the Webby Awards and co-founder of Internet Week New York, was named Executive Director of the Webby Awards in 2005. In 2009, the 13th Annual Webby Awards received nearly 10,000 entries from all 50 states and over 60 countries; that same year, more than 500,000 votes were cast in The Webby People's Voice Awards. In 2012, the 16th Annual Webby awards received 1.5 million votes from more than 200 countries for the People's Voice awards. In 2015, the 19th Annual Webby Awards received nearly 13,000 entries from all 50 U. S. over 60 countries worldwide. During the Call for Entries phase, each entry is rated by Associate Members of the International Academy of Digital Arts & Sciences. Entries that receive the highest marks during this first round of voting are included on category-specific shortlists and further evaluated by Executive Members of the Academy.
Executive Academy Members with category-specific expertise evaluate the shortlisted entries based on the appropriate Website, Advertising & Media, Online Film & Video, Mobile Sites & Apps, Social category criteria, cast ballots to determine Webby Honorees and Webby Winners. Deloitte provides vote tabulation consulting for the Webby Awards. In addition to the award given in each category by the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, another winner is selected in each category as determined by the general public during People’s Voice voting. Winners of both the Academy-selected and People’s Voice-selected awards are invited to the Webbys; the Webby Awards are presented in over a hundred categories among all four types of entries. A website can receive multiple awards. In each category, two awards are handed out: a Webby Award selected by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, a People's Voice Award selected by the general public. Past winners include Amazon.com, eBay, Travel + Leisure, Simply Hired, Kayak.com, Yahoo!, iTunes, FedEx, BBC News, CNN, MSNBC, The New York Times, Annie Lennox, NPR, Salon Magazine, Meetup, Deleted - The Game, Flickr, ESPN, Comedy Central, PBS, The Office webisodes, SwiftKey, My Damn Channel, NASA, George Takei, The Onion, Mashable, Zach Galifianakis, Justin Bieber and Link, Humans of New York.
Each year, the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences honors individuals with Webby Special Achievement Awards. Past Webby Special Achievement winners include Al Gore, David Bowie, Meg Whitman, Tim & Eric, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Lorne Michaels, Craig Newmark, Thomas Friedman, Stephen Colbert, Michel Gondry, the Beastie Boys, Kevin Spacey, Lawrence Lessig, Van Jones, Gillian Anderson, Tituss Burgess, Ellie Kemper and Jerry Seinfeld. Since 2005, The Webby Awards has been presented in New York City. Comedian Rob Corddry hosted the ceremony from 2005 to 2007. Seth Meyers of Saturday Night Live hosted in 2008 and 2009, B. J. Novak of NBC's The Office in 2010, Lisa Kudrow in 2011. Comedian and writer Patton Oswalt hosted from 2012 to 2014. Comedian Hannibal Buress will host the 19th Annual Webby Awards; the Webbys are famous for limiting recipients to five-word speeches, which are humorous, although some exceed the limit. In 2005 when accepting his Lifetime Achievement Award, former Vice President Al Gore's speech was "Please don't reco
Portal (video game)
Portal is a puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. It was released in a bundle package called The Orange Box for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 in 2007; the game has since been ported to other systems, including OS X, Android. Portal consists of a series of puzzles that must be solved by teleporting the player's character and simple objects using "the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device", a device that can create inter-spatial portals between two flat planes; the player-character, Chell, is challenged and taunted by an artificial intelligence named GLaDOS to complete each puzzle in the Aperture Science Enrichment Center using the portal gun with the promise of receiving cake when all the puzzles are completed. The game's unique physics allows kinetic energy to be retained through portals, requiring creative use of portals to maneuver through the test chambers; this gameplay element is based on a similar concept from the game Narbacular Drop.
Portal was acclaimed as one of the most original games of 2007, despite criticisms of its short duration and limited story. The game received praise for its originality, unique gameplay and dark story with a humorous series of dialogue. GLaDOS, voiced by Ellen McLain in the English-language version, received acclaim for her unique characterization, the end credits song "Still Alive", written by Jonathan Coulton for the game, was praised for its original composition and humorous twist. Portal is cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. Excluding Steam download sales, over four million copies of the game have been sold since its release, spawning official merchandise from Valve including plush Companion Cubes, as well as fan recreations of the cake and portal gun, a standalone version, titled Portal: Still Alive, on the Xbox Live Arcade service in October 2008, which added an additional 14 puzzles to the gameplay, a sequel, Portal 2, released in 2011, adding several new gameplay mechanics and a cooperative multiplayer mode.
In Portal, the player controls the protagonist, from a first-person perspective as she is challenged to navigate through a series of rooms using the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device, or portal gun, under the watchful supervision of the artificial intelligence GLaDOS. The portal gun can create two distinct portal ends and blue; the portals create a visual and physical connection between two different locations in three-dimensional space. Neither end is an entrance or exit. An important aspect of the game's physics is momentum redirection; as moving objects pass through portals, they come through the exit portal at the same direction that the exit portal is facing and with the same speed with which they passed through the entrance portal. For example, a common maneuver is to jump down to a portal on the floor and emerge through a wall, flying over a gap or another obstacle; this allows the player to launch objects or Chell over great distances, both vertically and horizontally, referred to as'flinging' by Valve.
As GLaDOS puts it, "In layman's terms: speedy thing goes in, speedy thing comes out." If portal ends are not on parallel planes, the character passing through is reoriented to be upright with respect to gravity after leaving a portal end. Chell and all other objects in the game that can fit into the portal ends will pass through the portal. However, a portal shot cannot pass through an open portal. Creating a portal end deactivates an existing portal end of the same color. Moving objects, special wall surfaces, liquids, or areas that are too small will not be able to anchor portals. Chell is sometimes provided with cubes that she can pick up and use to climb on or to hold down large buttons that open doors or activate mechanisms. Particle fields known as emancipation grills called "fizzlers" in the developer commentary, exist at the end of all and within some test chambers; the fields block attempts to fire portals through them. Although Chell is equipped with mechanized heel springs to prevent damage from falling, she can be killed by various other hazards in the test chambers, such as turret guns, bouncing balls of energy, toxic liquid.
She can be killed by objects falling through portals, by a series of crushers that appear in certain levels. Unlike most action games at the time, there is no health indicator; some obstacles, such as the energy balls and crushing pistons, deal fatal damage with a single blow. GameSpot noted, in its initial review of Portal, that many solutions exist for completing each puzzle, that the gameplay "gets crazier, the diagrams shown in the trailer showed some crazy things that you can attempt". Two additional modes are unlocked upon the completion of the game that challenge the player to work out alternative methods of solving each test chamber. Challenge maps are unlocked near the halfway point and Advanced Chambers are unlocked when the game is completed. In Challenge mode, levels are revisited with the added goal of completing the test chamber either with as little time, with the least number of portals, or with the fewest footsteps possible. In Advanced mode, certain levels are made m
The Path (video game)
The Path is a psychological horror art game developed by Tale of Tales released for the Microsoft Windows operating system on March 18, 2009 in English and Dutch, ported to Mac OS X by TransGaming Technologies. It is inspired by several versions of the fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood, by folklore tropes and conventions in general, but set in contemporary times; the player can choose to control one of six different sisters, who are sent one-by-one on errands by their mother to see their sick grandmother. The player can choose where wolves are lying in wait. According to the developer, the game is not meant to be played in the traditional sense, in that there is no winning strategy. In fact, much of the gameplay requires the player to choose the losing path for the sisters to run into encounters which they are meant to experience; the story narratives are not typical for a game, as explained by the developer, "We are not story-tellers in the traditional sense of the word. In the sense that we know a story and we want to share it with you.
Our work is more about exploring the narrative potential of a situation. We create only the situation, and the actual story emerges from playing in the game in the player’s mind." The game begins in an apartment. The player is shown six sisters to choose from and is given no information about them other than a name; when the player selects a girl, the journey begins. The player is given control of the girl, is instructed: "Go to Grandmother's house and stay on the path." As the player explores, they find various items scattered around. For a girl to pick up or examine an object, the player needs to either click on the interaction button or move her close enough for a superimposed image of the object to appear on the screen let go of the controls; the character will interact and an image will appear on the screen, indicating what has been unlocked. Small text will appear, a thought from the current character; some items do not appear in subsequent runs. However, each character will say something different about an object, so the player has the option to access a "basket" to see what they have collected.
The Wolf takes on a different form for each girl. The forms represent tribulations that are associated with the stages of adolescence, it is not required to find the Wolf. In this game, there are no requirements but the ending at Grandmother's house does change after the wolf encounter; the girl encounters the Wolf, there is a brief cut scene, the screen goes black. Afterward, the girl is lying on the path in front of Grandmother's house; when the player enters Grandmother's house, the style of gameplay changes. It is now in first person, the character moves forward along a pre-determined path. If the player got there without interacting with the Wolf, they arrive safely, cozy up next to Grandmother and are sent back to the apartment; the girl the player guided will still be there, can be played again. If the player did go to the Wolf everything in the house is darker, if the player remains still for too long, darkness clouds the screen, something growls. Depending on the girl, doors are scratched, or furniture tipped over and broken, or strange black threads are draped across everything.
Instead of ending with Grandmother, the music crescendos as the player enters a final surreal room before falling down, things black out again. Images flash on the screen, featuring the girl being attacked by her Wolf, before the player is relocated back in the apartment; the girl played is not there, will remain absent. When all of the girls have encountered their wolves, a girl in a white dress, who could be encountered by the sisters, becomes playable and visits Grandmother's house; the girl will travel through the house, now a combination of all of the end rooms of the previous girls ending with the no-wolf room. Upon reaching the grandmother, the girl appears in the apartment alive; the sisters all return through the door and the game starts over. The Path was announced on the Tale of Tales Game Design forum on March 16, 2006 under the working title 144, on the pattern of their first-started, on-hiatus Tale of Tales 8; this number referred to the six 24-hour periods of the six days in which the game was set, but in the released version refers to the 144 coin flowers.
The Path was released on March 19, 2009. It became available for Mac on May 7, 2009. Iain McCafferty of Videogamer.com called The Path "a hugely significant work in terms of what a video game can be beyond the realms of throwaway entertainment" and "potentially a seminal moment in video games." He claimed that "It will be years before a game made by the big budget software houses like Ubisoft or EA is brave enough to attempt anything remotely similar, but The Path shows promising signs that gaming is starting to grow up."Heather Chaplin of Filmmaker Magazine pointed out how uniquely feminine The Path is: "For me, The Path is about what a remarkably fine line it is that separates childhood from adulthood, innocence from cynicism, how utterly not black-and-white most things in life are."Tim Martin of The Daily Telegraph cited The Path as a recent example of a "vigorous experimentation with techniques of narrative." He likened it to "an Angela Carter novel, as siphoned through The Sims."Justin McElroy of Engadget commented on gameplay mechanics: "You get one instruction in the game and you have t
Independent Games Festival
The Independent Games Festival is an annual festival at the Game Developers Conference, the largest annual gathering of the indie video game industry. The IGF competition awards a total of $50,000 in prizes to independent developers in Main Competition and Student Competition categories, held around the same time as the Game Developers Choice Awards event. Founded in 1998 to promote independent video game developers, innovation in video game development, IGF wants to do for the independent game community the same benefit the Sundance Film Festival has brought to the independent film community, IGF is owned by the CMP Game Group, producers of the Game Developers Conference, Game Developer magazine, Gamasutra.com. The festival awards ceremony is split into two broad categories: the main IGF competition and the IGF Student Showcase; the main Independent Games Festival, held in March 2012 at San Francisco's GDC 2012, distributed nine major awards: Seumas McNally Grand Prize Nuovo Award Excellence In Visual Art Excellence In Audio Excellence in Design Technical Excellence Best Mobile Game Audience Award An additional award, "Excellent in Narrative", was added for the 2013 IGF.
In addition, the IGF's Student Showcase competition gives out the following awards each year: IGF Student Showcase Winner Best Student Game Prior to the Festival, developers have the opportunity to submit their game in a playable state to the IGF organization committee for a small fee. These titles are send to 300 game industry representatives on the Nominating Committee; each Committee member can nominate any of the provided games to one or more of the categories. For each award category, a pre-selected jury of between seven and fifteen members reviews the nominations and makes a final selection of six finalists and a number of honorable mentions; the selected finalists are expected to present their games at the IGF during the Games Developers Conference. During the convention, a separate jury selected by the IGF organization committee will review each game, just prior to the awards, vote for one game in each category; the only exception is the Audience Award, voted through online forms by anyone interested.
Years given below indicate the year when the award was given, with the games or developers being recognized from the previous year. 2019: Return of the Obra Dinn 2018: Night in the Woods 2017: Quadrilateral Cowboy 2016: Her Story 2015: Outer Wilds 2014: Papers, Please 2013: Cart Life 2012: Fez 2011: Minecraft 2010: Monaco 2009: Blueberry Garden 2008: Crayon Physics Deluxe 2007: Aquaria 2006: Darwinia 2005: Gish and Wik and the Fable of Souls 2004: Savage: The Battle for Newerth and Oasis 2003: Wild Earth 2002: Bad Milk 2001: Shattered Galaxy 2000: Tread Marks 1999: Fire and Darkness 2019: Black Room 2018: Getting Over It with Bennett Foddy 2017: Oiκοςpiel, Book I 2016: Cibele 2015: Tetrageddon Games 2014: Luxuria Superbia 2013: Cart Life 2012: Storyteller 2011: Nidhogg 2010: Tuning 2009: Between 2019: Mirror Drop 2018: Chuchel 2017: Hyper Light Drifter 2016: Oxenfree 2015: Metamorphabet 2014: Gorogoa 2013: Kentucky Route Zero 2012: Dear Esther 2011: BIT. TRIP RUNNER 2010: Limbo 2009: Machinarium 2008: Fez 2007: Castle Crashers 2006: Darwinia 2005: Alien Hominid and Wik and the Fable of Souls 2004: Spartan and Dr. Blob's Organism 2003: Wild Earth 2002: Banja Taiyo 2001: Hardwood Spades 2000: King of Dragon Pass 1999: Crime Cities 2019: Paratopic 2018: Uurnog Uurnlimited 2017: GoNNER 2016: Mini Metro 2015: Ephemerid: A Musical Adventure 2014: DEVICE 6 2013: 140 2012: Botanicula 2011: Amnesia: The Dark Descent 2010: Closure 2009: BrainPipe 2008: Audiosurf 2007: Everyday Shooter 2006: Weird Worlds: Return to Infinite Space 2005: Steer Madness and Global Defense Network 2004: Anito: Defend a Land Enraged and Dr. Blob's Organism 2003: Terraformers 2002: Bad Milk 2001: Chase Ace 2 2000: Blix 1999: Terminus 2019: Opus Magnum 2018: BaBa is You 2017: Quadrilateral Cowboy 2016: Keep Talking and Nobody Explodes 2015: Outer Wilds 2014: Papers, Please 2013: FTL: Faster Than Light 2012: Spelunky 2011: Desktop Dungeons 2010: Monaco 2009: Musaic Box 2008: World of Goo 2007: Everyday Shooter 2006: Braid 2005: Gish and Wik and the Fable of Souls 2004: Bontãgo and Oasis 2003: Wild Earth 2002: Insaniquarium 2001: Shattered Galaxy 2000: Tread Marks 1999: Resurrection This award was retired starting from the 2014 competition onward.
2013: Little Inferno 2012: Antichamber 2011: Amnesia: The Dark Descent 2010: Limbo 2009: Cortex Command 2008: World of Goo 2007: Bang! Howdy 2006: Darwinia 2005: Alien Hominid and RocketBowl 2004: Savage: The Battle for Newerth and Yohoho! Puzzle Pirates 2003: Reiner Knizia's Samurai 2002: Ace Of Angels 2001: Shattered Galaxy 2000: Tread Marks 1999: Terminus 2019: Return of the Obra Dinn 2018: Night in the Woods 2017: Ladykiller in a Bind 2016: Her Story 2015: 80 Days 2014: Papers, Please 2013: Cart Life 2012: Beat Sneak Bandit 2011: Hellsing's Fire 2008: Iron Dukes 2007: Samorost 2 2006: Dad'N Me This category replaced the separate prizes for Web/Downlo
Frank Cifaldi is a video game preservationist and developer. He is the director of the Video Game History Foundation and has assisted in projects including Digital Eclipse's Mega Man Legacy Collection and The Disney Afternoon Collection remasters, he is known for his extensive personal collection of video game periodicals. Cifaldi has researched early video game advertising, early Nintendo prototypes, the official Super Mario Bros. release date. He presented on games preservation at the 2016 Game Developers Conference. Cifaldi is additionally a former features editor of Gamasutra and a former host of the Retronauts podcast. Official website
The Kama Sutra is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text on sexuality and emotional fulfillment in life. Attributed to Vātsyāyana, the Kama Sutra is neither nor predominantly a sex manual on sex positions, but written as a guide to the "art-of-living" well, the nature of love, finding a life partner, maintaining one's love life, other aspects pertaining to pleasure-oriented faculties of human life. Kamasutra is the oldest surviving Hindu text on erotic love, it is a sutra-genre text with terse aphoristic verses that have survived into the modern era with different bhasya. The text is a mix of prose and anustubh-meter poetry verses; the text acknowledges the Hindu concept of Purusharthas, lists desire and emotional fulfillment as one of the proper goals of life. Its chapters discuss methods for courtship, training in the arts to be engaging, finding a partner, maintaining power in a married life and how to commit adultery, sexual positions, other topics; the majority of the book is about the philosophy and theory of love, what triggers desire, what sustains it, how and when it is good or bad.
The text is one of many Indian texts on Kama Shastra. It is a much-translated work in non-Indian languages; the Kamasutra has influenced many secondary texts that followed after the 4th-century CE, as well as the Indian arts as exemplified by the pervasive presence Kama-related reliefs and sculpture in old Hindu temples. Of these, the Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh is a UNESCO world heritage site. Among the surviving temples in north India, one in Rajasthan sculpts all the major chapters and sexual positions to illustrate the Kamasutra. According to Wendy Doniger, the Kamasutra became "one of the most pirated books in English language" soon after it was published in 1883 by Richard Burton; this first European edition by Burton does not faithfully reflect much in the Kamasutra because he revised the collaborative translation by Bhagavanlal Indrajit and Shivaram Parashuram Bhide with Forster Arbuthnot to suit 19th-century Victorian tastes. The original composition date or century for the Kamasutra is unknown.
Historians have variously placed it between 400 BCE and 300 CE. According to John Keay, the Kama Sutra is a compendium, collected into its present form in the 2nd century CE. In contrast, the Indologist Wendy Doniger who has co-translated Kama sutra and published many papers on related Hindu texts, the surviving version of the Kamasutra must have been revised or composed after 225 CE because it mentions the Abhiras and the Andhras dynasties that did not co-rule major regions of ancient India before that year; the text makes no mention of the Gupta Empire which ruled over major urban areas of ancient India, reshaping ancient Indian arts, Hindu culture and economy from the 4th-century through the 6th-century. For these reasons, she dates the Kama sutra to the second half of the 3rd-century CE; the place of its composition is unclear. The candidates are urban centers of north or northwest ancient India, alternatively in the eastern urban Pataliputra. Vatsyayana Mallanaga is its accepted author because his name is embedded in the colophon verse, but little is known about him.
Vatsyayana states. In the preface, Vatsyayana acknowledges that he is distilling many ancient texts, but these have not survived, he cites the work of others he calls "teachers" and "scholars", the longer texts by Auddalaki, Dattaka, Ghotakamukha, Gonikaputra and Kuchumara. Vatsyayana's Kamasutra is mentioned and some verses quoted in the Brihatsamhita of Varahamihira, as well as the poems of Kalidasa; this suggests he lived before the 5th-century CE. The Hindu tradition has the concept of the Purusharthas which outlines "four main goals of life", it holds that every human being has four proper goals that are necessary and sufficient for a fulfilling and happy life: Dharma – signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, conduct and right way of living. Hindu dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, those that are virtuous.
Dharma, according to Van Buitenen, is that which all existing beings must accept and respect to sustain harmony and order in the world. It is, states Van Buitenen, the pursuit and execution of one's nature and true calling, thus playing one's role in cosmic concert. Artha – signifies the "means of life", activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in. Artha incorporates wealth, activity to make a living, financial security and economic prosperity; the proper pursuit of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism. Kama – signifies desire, passion, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. Gavin Flood explains kāma as "love" without violating dharma and one's journey towards moksha. Moksha – signifies emancipation, liberation or release. In some schools of Hinduism, moksha connotes freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, in other schools moksha connotes freedom, self-knowledge, self-realization and liberation in this life.
Each of these pursuits became a subject of study and led to prolific Sanskrit and some Prakrit languages literature in ancient India. Along with Dharmasastras and Mokshasastras, the Kamasastras genre have been preserved in palm leaf manuscripts; the K
Video game development
Video game development is the process of creating a video game. The effort is undertaken by a developer, ranging from a single person to an international team dispersed across the globe. Development of traditional commercial PC and console games is funded by a publisher, can take several years to reach completion. Indie games take less time and money and can be produced by individuals and smaller developers; the independent game industry has been on the rise, facilitated by the growth of new online distribution systems such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market for Android and iOS devices. The first video games, developed in the 1960s, were noncommercial, they were not available to the general public. Commercial game development began in the'70s with the advent of first-generation video game consoles and early home computers like the Apple I. At that time, owing to low costs and low capabilities of computers, a lone programmer could develop a full and complete game. However, in the late'80s and'90s, ever-increasing computer processing power and heightened expectations from gamers made it difficult for a single person to produce a mainstream console or PC game.
The average cost of producing a triple-A video game rose, from US$1–4 million in 2000, to over $5 million in 2006 to over $20 million by 2010. Mainstream commercial PC and console games are developed in phases: first, in pre-production, pitches and game design documents are written; the development of a complete game involves a team of 20–100 individuals with various responsibilities, including designers, artists and testers. Games are produced through the software development process. Games are developed as a creative outlet. Development is funded by a publisher. Well-made games bring profit more readily. However, it is important to estimate a game's financial requirements, such as development costs of individual features. Failing to provide clear implications of game's expectations may result in exceeding allocated budget. In fact, the majority of commercial games do not produce profit. Most developers cannot afford changing development schedule and require estimating their capabilities with available resources before production.
The game industry requires innovations, as publishers cannot profit from constant release of repetitive sequels and imitations. Every year new independent development companies open and some manage to develop hit titles. Many developers close down because they cannot find a publishing contract or their production is not profitable, it is difficult to start a new company due to high initial investment required. Growth of casual and mobile game market has allowed developers with smaller teams to enter the market. Once the companies become financially stable, they may expand to develop larger games. Most developers start small and expand their business. A developer receiving profit from a successful title may store up capital to expand and re-factor their company, as well as tolerate more failed deadlines. An average development budget for a multiplatform game is US$18-28M, with high-profile games exceeding $40M. In the early era of home computers and video game consoles in the early 1980s, a single programmer could handle all the tasks of developing a game — programming, graphical design, sound effects, etc.
It could take as little as six weeks to develop a game. However, the high user expectations and requirements of modern commercial games far exceed the capabilities of a single developer and require the splitting of responsibilities. A team of over a hundred people can be employed full-time for a single project. Game development, production, or design is a process that starts from an concept; the idea is based on a modification of an existing game concept. The game idea may fall within one or several genres. Designers experiment with different combinations of genres. A game designer writes an initial game proposal document, that describes the basic concept, feature list and story, target audience and schedule, staff and budget estimates. Different companies have different formal procedures and philosophies regarding game design and development. There is no standardized development method. A game developer may range from a single individual to a large multinational company. There are both publisher-owned studios.
Independent developers rely on financial support from a game publisher. They have to develop a game from concept to prototype without external funding; the formal game proposal is submitted to publishers, who may finance the game development from several months to years. The publisher would retain exclusive rights to distribute and market the game and would own the intellectual property rights for the game franchise. Publisher's company may own the developer's company, or it may have internal development studio; the publisher is the one who owns the game's intellectual property rights. All but the smallest developer companies work on several titles at once; this is necessary because of the time taken between shipping a game and receiving royalty payments, which may be between 6 and 18 months. Small companies may structure contracts, ask for advances on royalties, use shareware distribution, employ part-time workers and use other methods to meet payroll demands. Console manufacturers, such as Microsoft, Nintendo, or Sony, have a standard set of technical requirements that a game must conform to in order to be approved.
Additionally, the gam